click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Georges Brassens

Georges Charles Brassens was a French singer-songwriter and poet. He wrote and sang, with his guitar, more than a hundred of his poems, as well as texts from many others such as Victor Hugo, Paul Verlaine, or Louis Aragon. In 1967, he received the Grand Prix de Poésie of the Académie française. Between 1952 and 1976, he recorded fourteen albums that include several popular French songs such as Les copains d'abord, Chanson pour l'Auvergnat, La mauvaise réputation, Mourir pour des idées. Most of his texts are tinged with black humour and are anarchist-minded. Brassens was born in Sète, a commune in the Hérault department of the Occitanie region, to a French father and an Italian mother from the town of Marsico Nuovo. Now an iconic figure in France, he achieved fame through his elegant songs with their harmonically complex music for voice and guitar and articulate, diverse lyrics, he is considered one of France's most accomplished postwar poets. He has set to music poems by both well-known and obscure poets, including Louis Aragon, Victor Hugo, Jean Richepin, François Villon, Antoine Pol.

During World War II, he was forced by the Germans to work in a labor camp at a BMW aircraft engine plant in Basdorf near Berlin in Germany. Here Brassens met some of his future friends, such as Pierre Onténiente, whom he called Gibraltar because he was "steady as a rock." They would become close friends. After being given ten days' leave in France, he decided not to return to the labor camp. Brassens took refuge in a small cul-de-sac called "Impasse Florimont," in the 14th arrondissement of Paris, a popular and working-class district, where he lived for several years with its owner, Jeanne Planche, a friend of his aunt. Planche lived with her husband Marcel in relative poverty: without gas, running water, or electricity. Brassens remained hidden there until the end of the war five months but ended up staying for 22 years. Planche was the inspiration for Brassens's song Jeanne. Apart from Paris and Sète, he lived in Lezardrieux. Brassens grew up in the family home in Sète with his mother, Elvira Dagrosa, Jean-Louis, half-sister and paternal grandfather, Jules.

His mother, whom Brassens labeled a "missionary for songs", came from southern Italy, was a devout Roman Catholic, while his father was an easy-going, openminded, anticlerical man. Brassens grew up between these two starkly contrasting personalities, who nonetheless shared a love for music, his mother and Jules, were always singing. This environment imparted to Brassens a passion for singing. At the time he listened to his early idols: Charles Trenet, Tino Rossi, Ray Ventura, he was said to love music above all else: it was his first passion and the path that led him to his career. He told his friend André Sève, " a kind of internal vibration, something intense, a pleasure that has something of the sensual to it." He hoped to enroll at a music conservatory, but his mother insisted that he could only do so if his grades improved. He never learned to read music. A poor student, Brassens performed badly in school. Alphonse Bonnafé, Brassens's ninth-grade teacher encouraged his apparent gift for poetry and creativity.

Brassens had been experimenting with songwriting and poetry. Bonnafé aided his attempts at poetry and pushed him to spend more time on his schoolwork, suggesting he begin to study classical poetry. Brassens developed an interest in rhyme. By Brassens's admission, Bonnafé's influence on his work was enormous: "We were thugs, at fourteen, we started to like poets; that is quite a transformation. Thanks to this teacher, I opened my mind to something bigger. On, every time I wrote a song, I asked myself the question: would Bonnafé like it?" By this point, music had taken a slight backstage to poetry for Brassens, who now dreamed of being a writer. Nonetheless, personal friendships and adolescence still defined Brassens in his teens. At age seventeen, he was implicated in crimes. To get money and his gang started to steal from their families and others. Georges stole a bracelet from his sister; the police caught him, which caused a scandal. The young men were publicly characterized as "high school mobsters" or "scum" - voyous.

Some of the perpetrators, unsupported by their families, spent time in prison. While Brassens's father was more forgiving and picked up his son, Brassens was expelled from school, he decided to move to Paris in February 1940, following a short trial as an apprentice mason in his father's business after World War II had broken out. Brassens lived with his aunt Antoinette in the 14th arrondissement of Paris, where he taught himself to play piano, he began working at a Renault car factory. In May 1940 the factory was bombed, France invaded by Germany. Brassens returned to the family home in Sète, he spent the summer in his home town, but soon returned to Paris, feeling that this was where his future lay. He did not work. Saddened by the lack of poetic culture, Brassens spent most of his days in the library, it was that he set a pattern of rising at five in the morning, going to bed at sunset – a pattern he maintained the greater part of h

Naturalism (theatre)

Naturalism is a movement in European drama and theatre that developed in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. It refers to theatre that attempts to create an illusion of reality through a range of dramatic and theatrical strategies. Interest in naturalism flourished with the French playwrights of the time, but the most successful example is Strindberg's play Miss Julie, written with the intention to abide by both his own particular version of naturalism, the version described by the French novelist and literary theoretician, Émile Zola. Zola's term for naturalism is la nouvelle formule; the three primary principles of naturalism are first, that the play should be realistic, the result of a careful study of human behaviour and psychology. The characters should be blood; the presentation of a naturalistic play, in terms of the setting and performances, should be realistic and not flamboyant or theatrical. The single setting of Miss Julie, for example, is a kitchen. Second, the conflicts in the play should be issues of meaningful, life-altering significance — not small or petty.

And third, the play should be simple — not cluttered with complicated sub-plots or lengthy expositions. Darwinian understandings pervade naturalistic plays in the determining role of the environment on character, as motivation for behavior. Naturalism emphasizes everyday speech forms, plausibility in the writing, a choice of subjects that are contemporary and reasonable. Naturalism was first advocated explicitly by Émile Zola in his 1880 essay entitled Naturalism on the Stage. Naturalistic writers were influenced by the theory of evolution of Charles Darwin, they believed that social environment determine one's character. Whereas realism seeks only to describe subjects as they are, naturalism attempts to determine "scientifically" the underlying forces influencing the actions of its subjects. Naturalistic works are opposed to romanticism, in which subjects may receive symbolic, idealistic, or supernatural treatment, they include uncouth or sordid subject matter. Naturalistic works exposed the dark harshness of life, including poverty, sex, disease and filth.

As a result, Naturalistic writers were criticized for being too blunt. Woyzeck by Georg Büchner A Bitter Fate by Aleksey Pisemsky A Doll's House by Henrik Ibsen The Power of Darkness by Leo Tolstoy The Father by August Strindberg Miss Julie by August Strindberg Creditors by August Strindberg The Weavers by Gerhart Hauptmann Drayman Henschel by Gerhart Hauptmann Uncle Vanya by Anton Chekhov The Cherry Orchard by Anton Chekhov Naturalism Naturalism Philosophical naturalism Sociological naturalism Realism in the arts Realism in theatre

Hammarö Municipality

Hammarö Municipality is a municipality in Värmland County in west central Sweden. Its seat is located in the town of Skoghall; the municipality was created from Hammarö parish in 1863, its territory has not been affected by the great municipal reforms of 1952 and 1971. With a land area of only 56.9 km2 it is Sweden's 12th smallest, as well as the smallest in Värmland County. The municipality consists of the adjacent archipelago; the name Hammarö, or Hammarön means "Hammer Island", has given the municipality its name. The island itself is 47 km2 large, the third largest island of Lake Vänern, located off the shore of Värmland, separated by the Klarälven river delta. From Skoghall it is only 7 km to the city of Karlstad. Karlstad Municipality is the only municipality with bridge connections to Hammarö. 100 years ago the largest employers were all in the fishing sectors. Today, the company manufacturing cardboard boxes, has 950 employees. Second is Akzo Nobel Base Chemicals with manufacturing chemical products.

Skoghall VidöåsenWhile the vast majority of Hammarö's inhabitants live in a single urban area going by the Statistics Sweden designation of Skoghall, this urban area is split in two postal areas: Skoghall and Hammarö. The name Skoghall is used for the urban area in its entirety; these are the local results of the Riksdag elections since the 1972 municipality reform. The results of the Sweden Democrats were not published by SCB between 1988 and 1998 at a municipal level to the party's small nationwide size at the time. "Votes" denotes valid votes, whereas "Turnout" denotes blank and invalid votes. Blocs This lists the relative strength of the socialist and centre-right blocs since 1973, but parties not elected to the Riksdag are inserted as "other", including the Sweden Democrats results from 1988 to 2006, but the Christian Democrats pre-1991 and the Greens in 1982, 1985 and 1991; the sources are identical to the table above. The coalition or government mandate marked in bold formed the government after the election.

New Democracy got elected in 1991 but are still listed as "other" due to the short lifespan of the party. "Elected" is the total number of percentage points from the municipality that went to parties who were elected to the Riksdag. Enebakk, Norway Poel, Germany Małkinia Górna, Poland Hammarö Municipality - Official site

Hamilton–Rosberg rivalry

The Hamilton–Rosberg rivalry was a Formula One rivalry between British racing driver Lewis Hamilton and German racing driver Nico Rosberg. The rivalry was most prevalent during their four years as team-mates at Mercedes from 2013–2016, a period in which the two drivers dominated the sport; the pair's relationship became strained and, at times, led to volatile confrontations on and off the track. It has been compared to the Ayrton Senna–Alain Prost rivalry; as teammates and Rosberg won 54 of 78 races over four seasons. Hamilton had 32 victories, 55 podium finishes and qualified ahead of Rosberg 42 times. Rosberg had 22 victories, 50 podium finishes and qualified ahead of Hamilton 36 times. During this period, Hamilton won the Formula One World Championship title twice, Rosberg won the title once; some journalists have contrasted the drivers' upbringings. Rosberg, an only child, was born in Germany but brought up in Monaco and was the son of the wealthy former Formula One world champion, Keke Rosberg, whereas Hamilton was born on a council estate in Stevenage, his father had to work multiple jobs to fund his son's junior racing.

Formula One pundit and commentator Will Buxton compared the character and driving styles of the pair, labelling Hamilton as the faster driver with more natural ability while labelling Rosberg, while not as quick, as the more intelligent driver. Hamilton began karting in 1993, when he was eight, at the Rye House Kart Circuit and began winning races and Cadet class championships. Rosberg started out in 1991 at the age of six; the pair were first teammates in 2000, still in karting. They raced for Mercedes Benz McLaren in Formula A, where Hamilton became European champion, with Rosberg not far behind. Robert Kubica, who raced with them before Formula One, recalled how they were competitive both on and off the track, saying "they would have races to eat pizza, always eating two at a time", their old karting boss, Dino Chiesa, admitted Hamilton was the faster driver whereas Rosberg was always more analytical. This led some to believe that Rosberg would achieve greater success in Formula One, the highest level of open wheel racing, due to the intellectual capacity required to manage brakes, energy harvesting, tyre management and moderate fuel usage.

However, Hamilton's tyre management has allowed him to push on for longer enabling optimum race strategies, his fuel usage has been better than anyone on the grid. The two drivers had differing careers prior to racing in Formula One. Hamilton was signed to McLaren's young driver support programme in 1998, after he approached McLaren team principal Ron Dennis at an awards ceremony three years earlier and said "one day I want to be racing your cars". After winning the British Formula Renault, Formula 3 Euro Series, GP2 championships, he made his debut in Formula One driving for McLaren in 2007. Rosberg won the 2002 German Formula BMW title, drove a Formula One car for the first time in testing for Williams in 2004. After winning the 2005 GP2 championship, Rosberg was confirmed as a Williams driver for 2006. In September 2012, it was announced after much speculation that Hamilton would be leaving McLaren to join the Mercedes for the 2013 season, partnering Nico Rosberg after signing a three-year contract with the team.

The move was met with surprise by pundits and the public, with some describing the move to Mercedes, a team with no recent history of success, as a gamble. Mercedes finished as runners-up to Red Bull in the Constructors' Championship with 360 points. Hamilton, who scored a win in Hungary, four third places and five pole positions finished fourth in the drivers' standings with 189 points. Rosberg, despite winning two races in Monaco and Britain, finished sixth with 171 points, he achieved four podium finishes in total and three pole positions. The first sign of tensions between the pair was at the 2013 Malaysian Grand Prix, where Mercedes implemented team orders, telling Rosberg to hold station behind Hamilton in fourth place. Hamilton questioned the radio call and after the race admitted Rosberg had deserved the final spot on the podium; the incident passed without controversy, drowned out in the subsequent days by the "Multi-21" saga at Red Bull. After pre-season testing in Jerez, Mercedes were considered favourites for 2014, appearing to have reacted well to changes to regulations mandating the use of turbo-hybrid engines.

Mercedes' anticipated pace was realised at the season opener in Australia and Malaysia where Rosberg and Hamilton took dominant victories finishing far ahead of any other teams. Their first intense battle for victory happened at the 2014 Bahrain Grand Prix as both drivers engaged in a close duel for the win. A late safety car swung the favour to second-place Rosberg, who had the benefit of being on a faster tyre, but after the restart Hamilton held firm in a close wheel-to-wheel encounter which passed without the pair making contact. In parc ferme after the race the pair engaged in a mock fight, it emerged that Rosberg had used engine modes banned by Mercedes to give himself a power advantage over Hamilton in the closing laps. Hamilton arrived at the 2014 Spanish Grand Prix with the opportunity to move ahead of Rosberg in the championship should he take victory, he held off a charging Rosberg late in the race, who afterwards said an extra lap would have been enough to pass his team-mate. It was revealed that Hamilton defended using the same engine mode that Rosberg used in Bahrain.

Two weeks at the 2014 Monaco G

John R. Lausch Jr.

John R. Lausch Jr. is an American attorney, serving as the United States Attorney for the Northern District of Illinois. He served as an Assistant United States Attorney in the Northern District of Illinois from 1999 to 2010. During his time in the U. S. Attorney's Office, he served as a Deputy Chief in the Narcotics and Gangs Section for several years, where he helped lead the District's Anti-Gang and Project Safe Neighborhoods programs. Lausch received his Bachelor of Arts, cum laude, from Harvard University and his Juris Doctor, cum laude, from Northwestern University School of Law, he clerked for Michael Stephen Kanne of the United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit. On August 3, 2017, he was nominated to be the United States Attorney for the Northern District of Illinois. On October 19, 2017, his nomination was reported out of committee by voice vote. On November 9, 2017, his nomination was approved by the United States Senate by voice vote, he was sworn into office on November 22, 2017.

Biography at U. S. Department of Justice

European Library

The European Library is an Internet service that allows access to the resources of 49 European national libraries and an increasing number of research libraries. Searching is free and delivers metadata records as well as digital objects free of charge; the objects come from institutions located in countries which are members of the Council of Europe and range from catalogue records to full-text books, magazines and audio recordings. Over 200 million records are searchable, including 24 million pages of full-text content and more than 7 million digital objects. Thirty five different languages are represented among the searchable objects; the content of the European Library was frozen on 31 December 2016, with no new updates after that date. The European Library of today has evolved from a number of earlier projects, its starting point was in 1997 when the GABRIEL project set out to establish a joint web portal of European national libraries. At a basic level, the portal provided information about each library's collections and access to their online public access catalogues.

GABRIEL was followed by the TEL project, which ran from 2001–2004 and created a framework for access to key national and deposit collections within Europe. The project was part-funded under the Fifth Framework Programme of the European Commission; the national libraries involved in the TEL project were those of Finland, Italy, Netherlands, Slovenia and United Kingdom. This led to the launch of TheEuropeanLibrary.org portal on 17 March 2005. Between 2005–2007, the TEL-ME-MOR project helped to incorporate 10 more national libraries from new European Union member states as full partners of The European Library. By the beginning of 2008, a further nine national libraries within the European Union and the European Free Trade Association had joined the service; the European Library took a further step towards its enlargement with the EDLproject, during which national libraries continued to join The European Library. The project focused on multilingualism, undertook the first steps towards a European Metadata Registry and created a roadmap for potential digitization efforts in the national libraries.

The European Library provided much of the organization and support required to launch Europeana – a European Commission initiative that makes millions of digital objects from libraries and archives accessible to the public via the Europeana website. When the European Parliament called for Europeana to be established, the Conference of European National Librarians, under the auspices of the National Library of the Netherlands and CENL's service The European Library, were asked to submit for a project under the eContentplus programme. Work began on a prototype in 2007 and Europeana was launched in November 2008. Europeana now operates independently but The European Library continues to work with Europeana; the European Library is the aggregator of digital content from national libraries for Europeana and delivers digital content from national libraries on a monthly basis to Europeana. As of July 2012, The European Library was the second biggest content provider to Europeana, with 3.45 million items added to the Europeana database.

Some human and technical resources are shared between Europeana and The European Library. In addition to its search engine, The European Library pulls together themes from the collections of Europe's national libraries and displays them in virtual exhibitions; these exhibitions unite geographically disparate objects in a single online space, offering Pan-European sources on the topic. Manuscripts and Princes in Medieval and Renaissance Europe: 34 manuscripts from the royal collections of the Carolingian Emperors, French King Charles V and his family, the Aragonese kings of Naples. Travelling Through History: Centuries worth of travel memorabilia from 13 European libraries, including photographs, sounds and books. Reading Europe: Almost 1,000 books selected by national libraries, with curatorial information and full-text versions in most cases. A Roma Journey: Texts, photographs and recordings of traditional songs showing the heritage of the Romani people in Europe. Napoleonic Wars: A selection of portraits, military maps, city plans, letters and other material from the Napoleonic Wars.

Treasures of Europe's National Libraries: A collection of objects selected by Europe's national libraries as some of the most outstanding items in their collections. National Library Buildings: Images of the National Libraries that are partners of The European Library; the European Library is financed by the Conference of European National Librarians. The portal is maintained by The European Library Office located in the premises of the Dutch Royal Library in The Hague, its programme director is Jill Cousins. The 48 National Libraries who participate in The European Library project are: Research Libraries who have contributed content to The European Library as a result of the Europeana Libraries project include: Europeana Virtual Centre for Knowledge on Europe The European Library Conference of European National Librarians Europeana Libraries