Georges Cuvier

Jean Léopold Nicolas Frédéric, Baron Cuvier, known as Georges Cuvier, was a French naturalist and zoologist, sometimes referred to as the "founding father of paleontology". Cuvier was a major figure in natural sciences research in the early 19th century and was instrumental in establishing the fields of comparative anatomy and paleontology through his work in comparing living animals with fossils. Cuvier's work is considered the foundation of vertebrate paleontology, he expanded Linnaean taxonomy by grouping classes into phyla and incorporating both fossils and living species into the classification. Cuvier is known for establishing extinction as a fact—at the time, extinction was considered by many of Cuvier's contemporaries to be controversial speculation. In his Essay on the Theory of the Earth Cuvier proposed that now-extinct species had been wiped out by periodic catastrophic flooding events. In this way, Cuvier became the most influential proponent of catastrophism in geology in the early 19th century.

His study of the strata of the Paris basin with Alexandre Brongniart established the basic principles of biostratigraphy. Among his other accomplishments, Cuvier established that elephant-like bones found in the USA belonged to an extinct animal he would name as a mastodon, that a large skeleton dug up in Paraguay was of Megatherium, a giant, prehistoric ground sloth, he named the pterosaur Pterodactylus, described the aquatic reptile Mosasaurus, was one of the first people to suggest the earth had been dominated by reptiles, rather than mammals, in prehistoric times. Cuvier is remembered for opposing theories of evolution, which at the time were proposed by Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck and Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire. Cuvier believed there was no evidence for evolution, but rather evidence for cyclical creations and destructions of life forms by global extinction events such as deluges. In 1830, Cuvier and Geoffroy engaged in a famous debate, said to exemplify the two major deviations in biological thinking at the time – whether animal structure was due to function or morphology.

Cuvier rejected Lamarck's thinking. His most famous work is Le Règne Animal. In 1819, he was created a peer for life in honor of his scientific contributions. Thereafter, he was known as Baron Cuvier, he died in Paris during an epidemic of cholera. Some of Cuvier's most influential followers were Louis Agassiz on the continent and in the United States, Richard Owen in Britain, his name is one of the 72 names inscribed on the Eiffel Tower. Cuvier was born in Montbéliard, where his Protestant ancestors had lived since the time of the Reformation, his mother was Anne Clémence Chatel. At the time, the town, annexed to France on 10 October 1793, belonged to the Duchy of Württemberg, his mother, much younger than his father, tutored him diligently throughout his early years, so he surpassed the other children at school. During his gymnasium years, he had little trouble acquiring Latin and Greek, was always at the head of his class in mathematics and geography. According to Lee, "The history of mankind was, from the earliest period of his life, a subject of the most indefatigable application.

At the age of 10, soon after entering the gymnasium, he encountered a copy of Conrad Gessner's Historiae Animalium, the work that first sparked his interest in natural history. He began frequent visits to the home of a relative, where he could borrow volumes of the Comte de Buffon's massive Histoire Naturelle. All of these he read and reread, retaining so much of the information, that by the age of 12, "he was as familiar with quadrupeds and birds as a first-rate naturalist." He remained at the gymnasium for four years. Cuvier spent an additional four years at the Caroline Academy in Stuttgart, where he excelled in all of his coursework. Although he knew no German on his arrival, after only nine months of study, he managed to win the school prize for that language. Cuvier's German education exposed him to the work of the geologist Abraham Gottlob Werner, whose Neptunism and emphasis on the importance of rigorous, direct observation of three-dimensional, structural relationships of rock formations to geological understanding provided models for Cuvier's scientific theories and methods.

Upon graduation, he had no money on. So in July 1788, he took a job at Fiquainville chateau in Normandy as tutor to the only son of the Comte d'Héricy, a Protestant noble. There, during the early 1790s, he began his comparisons of fossils with extant forms. Cuvier attended meetings held at the nearby town of Valmont for the discussion of agricultural topics. There, he became acquainted with Henri Alexandre Tessier, he had been a physician and well-known agronomist, who had fled the Terror in Paris. After hearing Tessier speak on agricultural matters, Cuvier recognized him as the author of certain articles on agriculture in the Encyclopédie Méthodique and addressed him as M. Tessier. Tessier replied in dismay, "I am known and lost."—"Lost!" Replied M. Cuvier, "no, they soon became intimate and Tessier introduced Cuvier to his colleagues in Paris—"I have just found a pearl in the dungh

Heartbreaker (G-Dragon song)

"Heartbreaker" is the lead single from Big Bang leader G-Dragon's first solo album, Heartbreaker. Released on August 19, 2009, it topped many charts upon release, went to sell over 3 million digital downloads in 2009 alone. Including reaching the number-one spot on the Mnet, KBS Music Chart, his first solo album, Heartbreaker was the best-selling album in Korea in 2009. The official remix features American rapper Flo Rida. By the end of 2011, "Heartbreaker" was downloaded 4,407,355 times. "Heartbreaker" – 3:23 The music video opens with G-Dragon in a lit up room a wearing black outfit and shades. It transitions to him wearing a silver and black outfit with a heart around his eye, he is in a futuristic styled room, sitting on a couch underneath an apple tree surrounded by many women. As he sings, he drinks a beverage from a can, is seen with a holographic girl whispering in his ear; when the chorus begins, he is seen dancing against a white backdrop, accompanied by male backup dancers in masks. When the second verse begins, G-Dragon is seen underneath a sheet eating an apple, where the bite marks are in the shape of a heart.

He is seen dancing against a black backdrop wearing a tuxedo, accompanied by female backup dancers. When the chorus begins again, he dances in front of the same backdrop wearing a silver vest, accompanied by the same masked male dancers, he is seen in the same lit up room from the beginning, wearing a red, telephone design printed jacket. As he sings the bridge, he walks down a hall; as he touches one, he tries to reach for her. A brick wall appears and blocks him from her. While he sings the final lines of the song, he begins punching the wall; when he breaks it, he falls to the ground and looks up, only to find himself in the arms of his loved one. The video ends with a teaser of G-Dragon's music video for Breathe; the music video was a hit on GomTV, where it gained 5 million views in just 18 days. With the success of his video, G-Dragon was awarded the "Artist of the Month" from GomTV; the music video has drawn over 68 million views on YouTube G-Dragon was accused of plagiarism by Sony Music that "Heartbreaker" contained similarities to Flo Rida's "Right Round".

EMI, who had rights to "Right Round" stated they saw no similarities between the two songs. Sony Korea denied G-Dragon the ability to promote the track any further without paying reparations. On September 21, 2009, Sisa Magazine, a news program on MBC, stated that officials from Sony sent YG Entertainment warning letters about plagiarism. Sony's legal representative stated, "It was a hard decision for the music critics", they decided that there were similarities and accordingly issued a warning letter to the production company and its composers. However, YG Entertainment claimed that nothing was decided or determined and that the "letter" which YG received from Sony was not considered legal action. On March 6, 2010, YG Entertainment announced that they had contacted Flo Rida's representatives and that Flo Rida will appear as a featured artist in a new version of "Heartbreaker", to be released as a bonus track on G-Dragon's live album Shine a Light; the remix peaked at No. 8 on the Gaon Digital Chart.

Official Website


Dwarkin formally known as Dwarkin & Son, founded in 1875, was a pioneering Indian enterprise for the sale of Western and Indian musical instruments, which attained a legendary status in the music world at Kolkata with the development of the hand-held harmonium. Dwarkin & Son was founded in 1875 by Dwarkanath Ghose as D. Ghosh and Sons at Lower Chitpur Road in Kolkata dealing piano tuning and repairing of musical instruments. Subsequently, it was renamed was "Dawrkin" was coined by composer and writer, Upendrakishore Ray, combining the names of the founder and that of Thomas Dawkins, London, an instrument manufacturer from where the company imported musical instruments early on. Dwarkanath Ghose, hailing from Sukdebpur in neighbouring South 24 Parganas, founded the organisation; as a devoted and skilled worker of Harold & Co. he attracted attention of his superiors, who were Englishmen. On their advice, he opened his own shop on Bowbazar Street under the name'Ghosh & Co. for selling musical instruments imported from England.

Subsequently, he built his own workshop for manufacturing musical instruments and established a printing press. Desh-Binodon Number, Ghose was adept in modifying musical instruments as per individual needs of users and is remembered for modifying the imported harmony flute and producing the hand held harmonium, which has subsequently become an integral part of the Indian music scenario. Dwijendranath Tagore is credited with having used the imported instrument in 1860 in his private theatre, but it was a pedalled instrument, cumbersome, or it was some variation of the reed organ, it aroused curiosity but people started playing it and Ghose took the initiative to modify it. It was in response to the Indian needs. All Indian musical instruments are played with the musician sitting on the floor or on a stage, behind the instrument or holding it in his hands. In that era, Indian homes did not use chairs. Ghose altered the design of the reed-board, key-board and the bellows and made the construction simpler, easier to manipulate and repair.

Ghose was close to people in the Tagore family and took care of their demands for musical instruments. He was friendly with Upendrakishore Ray Chaudhuri, an innovative and creative person; as a personal friend of Upendrakishore Ray Chaudhuri, he visited the Brahmo Samaj but did not join the organisation formally. When Jyotirindranath Tagore compiled a book with songs and swaralipi of several composers, Dwarkin published it as Swaralipigitimala. In 1879, the organisation published a magazine on musical matters, edited by Jyotirindranath Tagore, it is claimed to be one of the first such magazines in Bengali. In the initial years Dwarkin sold western musical instruments such as American organ, they sold books and notations on western music. That was the mainstay of their shop in Dalhousie Square, they started manufacturing Indian musical instruments such as sitar, esraj etc. Ghose's daughter, Kumudini Biswas and his nephew Jnanendramohan were well known in the music world, his grandson, Pandit Jnan Prakash Ghosh, Padma Bhushan, was a great tabla player, who had played with most of the high ranking musicians in India.

Dwarkin & Son, website