Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, commerce, fashion and the arts; the City of Paris is the centre and seat of government of the Île-de-France, or Paris Region, which has an estimated official 2019 population of 12,213,364, or about 18 percent of the population of France. The Paris Region had a GDP of €681 billion in 2016, accounting for 31 percent of the GDP of France, was the 5th largest region by GDP in the world. According to the Economist Intelligence Unit Worldwide Cost of Living Survey in 2018, Paris was the second most expensive city in the world, after Singapore, ahead of Zurich, Hong Kong and Geneva. Another source ranked Paris as most expensive, on a par with Singapore and Hong-Kong, in 2018; the city is a major rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports: Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the city's subway system, the Paris Métro, serves 5.23 million passengers daily, is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro. Gare du Nord is the 24th busiest railway station in the world, the first located outside Japan, with 262 million passengers in 2015. Paris is known for its museums and architectural landmarks: the Louvre was the most visited art museum in the world in 2018, with 10.2 million visitors. The Musée d'Orsay and Musée de l'Orangerie are noted for their collections of French Impressionist art, the Pompidou Centre Musée National d'Art Moderne has the largest collection of modern and contemporary art in Europe; the historical district along the Seine in the city centre is classified as a UNESCO Heritage Site. Popular landmarks in the centre of the city include the Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris and the Gothic royal chapel of Sainte-Chapelle, both on the Île de la Cité. Paris received 23 million visitors in 2017, measured by hotel stays, with the largest numbers of foreign visitors coming from the United States, the UK, Germany and China.
It was ranked as the third most visited travel destination in the world in 2017, after Bangkok and London. The football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris; the 80,000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros. Paris will host the 2024 Summer Olympics; the 1938 and 1998 FIFA World Cups, the 2007 Rugby World Cup, the 1960, 1984, 2016 UEFA European Championships were held in the city and, every July, the Tour de France bicycle race finishes there. The name "Paris" is derived from the Celtic Parisii tribe; the city's name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. Paris is referred to as the City of Light, both because of its leading role during the Age of Enlightenment and more because Paris was one of the first large European cities to use gas street lighting on a grand scale on its boulevards and monuments.
Gas lights were installed on the Place du Carousel, Rue de Rivoli and Place Vendome in 1829. By 1857, the Grand boulevards were lit. By the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps. Since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang. Inhabitants are known in French as Parisiens, they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the area's major north–south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité; the Parisii minted their own coins for that purpose. The Romans began their settlement on Paris' Left Bank; the Roman town was called Lutetia. It became a prosperous city with a forum, temples, an amphitheatre. By the end of the Western Roman Empire, the town was known as Parisius, a Latin name that would become Paris in French. Christianity was introduced in the middle of the 3rd century AD by Saint Denis, the first Bishop of Paris: according to legend, when he refused to renounce his faith before the Roman occupiers, he was beheaded on the hill which became known as Mons Martyrum "Montmartre", from where he walked headless to the north of the city.
Clovis the Frank, the first king of the Merovingian dynasty, made the city his capital from 508. As the Frankish domination of Gaul began, there was a gradual immigration by the Franks to Paris and the Parisian Francien dialects were born. Fortification of the Île-de-la-Citie failed to avert sacking by Vikings in 845, but Paris' strategic importance—with its bridges prevent
The Mâconnais district is located in the south of the Burgundy wine region in France, west of the Saône river. It takes its name from the town of Mâcon, it is best known as a source of good value white wines made from the Chardonnay grape. All the wine made in the Mâconnais is white wine. Chardonnay is the main grape grown in the district—in fact, there is a village of that name in the far north of the region; some plantations of Gamay and Pinot noir are made into red and rosé Mâcon, making up no more than 30% of the total wine production. Gamay is grown in the Beaujolais cru of Moulin-à-Vent, which extends into the Mâconnais, but has little in common with the wines north of the border; the geology is similar to that of the Côte d'Or, but the gentle relief means that vines are mixed with other forms of farming in most of the area. In the south the land rises up to form Mont de Pouilly and other limestone hills, covered in the alkaline clay that best suits Chardonnay; the villages of Vergisson, Solutré-Pouilly, Fuissé and Chaintré shelter at their feet, are home to the best wines of the region.
Mâcon was a major crossroads in Roman times, grapes would have been brought by the Romans if they were not cultivated by the Celts. Viticulture was further encouraged by local religious foundations; the region formed the border between the Kingdom of France and the Holy Roman Empire from 843-1600 and grew rich on customs duties in that time. A secular Count of Mâcon is not recorded until after 850; the last Count of Mâcon and of Vienne died in 1224 and the lands passed to his daughter, Alix de Bourgogne. The 1435 Treaty of Arras saw Charles VII of France cede it to Philip, Duke of Burgundy, but in 1477 it reverted to France, upon the death of duke Charles the Bold. Emperor Charles V definitively recognized the Mâconnais as French at the Treaty of Cambrai in 1529. After the fall of the Bastille in 1789, the mountain peasants of Mâconnais revolted. Many were executed by the urban militias of Mâcon and Tournus after much brigandage. Mâconnais consists of the following appellations; the regional Burgundy appellations - Bourgogne, Bourgogne Aligoté, Coteaux Bourguignons, Bourgogne Passe-tout-grains, Crémant de Bourgogne, Bourgogne mousseux - may be used for wine from this area.
Mâcon is the basic appellation, that can be used for rosé and red wines. Mâcon-Villages, only for white wines. Mâcon + village name, such as Mâcon-Prissé and Mâcon-Milly-Lamartine. For white Mâcon, all the names of the following villages/communes are allowed to be appended, with those marked "" allowed to produce red and rosé Mâcon under their name: Azé, Burgy, Bussières, Chaintré, Charnay-lès-Mâcon, Davayé, Fuissé, Igé, La Roche-Vineuse, Loché, Mancey, Milly-Lamartine, Montbellet, Péronne, Prissé, Saint-Gengoux-le-National, Solutré-Pouilly, Vergisson, Verzé, Vinzelles; the following village/commune is allowed to be appended for red and rosé Mâcon only: Serrières. Pouilly-Fuissé, a white wine appellation with the two junior partners Pouilly-Loché and Pouilly-Vinzelles. Saint-Véran, a white wine appellation which covers most of the Chardonnay vineyards that used to make white Beaujolais, in the commune of Saint-Vérand. Saint-Véran and white Beaujolais may be regarded as southern extensions of the Mâconnais.
Viré-Clessé, an appellation for white wine, created from the former Mâcon-Viré and Mâcon-Clessé The following rules apply to the different wines from the Mâcon appellation: White Mâcon: Chardonnay only, allowed base yield is 60 hectoliter per hectare and the grapes must reach a maturity of at least 10.0 per cent potential alcohol. Red and rosé Mâcon: Pinot noir and Gamay in any proportion, allowed base yield is 55 hectoliter per hectare and the grapes must reach a maturity of at least 10.0 per cent potential alcohol. Mâcon-Villages: Chardonnay only, allowed base yield is 58 hectoliter per hectare and the grapes must reach a maturity of at least 10.5 per cent potential alcohol. White Mâcon + village name: Chardonnay only, allowed base yield is 57 hectoliter per hectare and the grapes must reach a maturity of at least 11.0 per cent potential alcohol. Red and rosé Mâcon + village name: Gamay only, allowed base yield is 50 hectoliter per hectare and the grapes must reach a maturity of at least 10.5 per cent potential alcohol.
In 2010, the total Mâconnais vineyards covered 6,991 hectares. Of this, 5,779.7 hectares of vineyard surface was in production for the specific appellations of the Mâconnais, some 1,211 hectares for regional Burgundy appellations. In the Mâconnais appellations, 342 648 hectoliters of wine were produced, of which 316 725 hl of white wine and 25 933 of rosé and red wine; this corresponds to 45.7 million bottles of wine, of which 42.2 million bottles of white and 3.5 million bottles of red. The production was distributed as follows: Mâcon appellations: 3,833.07 hectares, 236 880 hl wine, of which 210 947 hl white and 25 933 hl rosé/red, corresponding to 31.6 million bottles, of which 28.1 million bottles of white wine and 3.5 million bottles of rosé and red wine. Mâcon AOC: 384.86 hectares, 21 578 hl wine, of which 16 735 hl rosé/red and 4 843 hl white. Mâcon-Villages: 1,876.31 hectares, 119 998 hl wine. Mâcon + village/commune name: 1,571.9 hectares, 95 304 hl wine, of which 86 106 hl white and 9 198 hl rosé/red.
Pouilly-Fuissé: 760.62 hectares (
Ancient Diocese of Mâcon
The former bishopric of Mâcon was located in Burgundy. The bishopric of Macon was established as a suffragan of Lyon; the existence of Mâcon as a separate diocese ended at the French Revolution. The city of Mâcon the capital of the Mâconnais, now of the Department of Saône-et-Loire, became a civitas in the 5th century, when it was separated from the Æduan territory. Christianity appears to have been introduced from Lugdunum into this city at an early period, Hugh, Archbishop of Lyon, in the eleventh century, would call Mâcon "the eldest daughter of the Church of Lyon"; the bishopric, came into existence somewhat than might have been expected: in the latter part of the 5th century it was still a Bishop of Lyon who brought relief to the famine-stricken people of Mâcon. At the end of that same century Merovingian king Clovis's occupation of the city both foreshadowed the gradual establishment of Frankish supremacy, accompanied by a decline in Arianism in the see. Duchesne thinks that the bishopric of Mâcon, suffragan of Lyon, may have originated in an understanding between the Merovingian princes after the suppression of the Burgundian kingdom.
The first bishop known is Placidus. The authentic list of his successors, as reconstructed by Duchesne, comprises several bishops venerated as saints: St. Florentinus. Tradition adds to this list the names of St. Salvinius, St. Nicetius, St. Justus, as bishops of Mâcon in the course of the sixth century. Among other bishops of date may be mentioned St. Gerard, who died in a hermitage at Brou near Bourg-en-Bresse, Cardinal Philibert Hugonet. For many centuries the bishops seem to have been the only rulers of Mâcon. From 926 the countship became hereditary; the Mâconnais was sold to king St. Louis in 1239 by Alice of Vienne, daughter of the last count, her husband, Jean de Braine. In 1435 Charles VII of France, by the Treaty of Arras, ceded it to Philip, Duke of Burgundy, but in 1477 it reverted to France, upon the death of duke Charles the Bold. Emperor Charles V definitively recognized the Mâconnais as French at the Treaty of Cambrai in 1529; the wars of religion filled Mâcon with blood. But the Protestants of Mâcon were saved from the Massacre of St. Bartholomew by the passive resistance with which the bailiff, Philibert de Laguiche, met the orders of king Charles IX of France.
Odet de Coligny, known as Cardinal de Châtillon, who became a Protestant and went to London to marry under the name of Comte de Beauvais, was from 1554 to 1560 prior, after 1560 provost, of St-Pierre de Mâcon. The Benedictine Abbey of Cluny, situated within the territory of this diocese, was exempted from its jurisdiction in the eleventh century, in spite of the opposition of Bishop Drogo. There is stilt preserved in the archives of the city a copy of the cartulary of the cathedral church of St-Vincent, rebuilt in the 13th century, but destroyed in 1793; the existence of Mâcon as a separate diocese ended at the French Revolution, the title of Mâcon is since borne by the Bishop of Autun. Of the six councils held at Mâcon, the second and third, convoked by command of King Gontran, are worthy of special mention; the second council, in 581 or 582, which assembled six metropolitans and fifteen bishops, enacted penalties against luxury among the clergy, against clerics who summoned other clerics before lay tribunals, against religious who married.
The third council, in 585, at which 43 bishops and the representatives of 20 other bishops assisted, tried the bishops accused of having taken part in the revolt of Gondebaud, fixed the penalties for violating the Sunday rest, insisted on the obligation of paying tithes, established the right of the bishop to interfere in the courts when widows and orphans were concerned, determined the relative precedence of clerics and laymen, decreed that every three years a national synod should be convoked by the Bishop of Lyon and the king. Catholic Church in France List of Catholic dioceses in Pius Bonifatius. Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae: quotquot innotuerunt a beato Petro apostolo. Ratisbon: Typis et Sumptibus Georgii Josephi Manz. Eubel, Conradus. Hierarchia catholica, Tomus 1. Münster: Libreria Regensbergiana. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list Eubel, Conradus. Hierarchia catholica, Tomus 2. Münster: Libreria Regensbergiana. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list Eubel, Conradus. Hierarchia catholica, Tomus 3.
Münster: Libreria Regensbergiana. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list Gauchat, Patritius. Hierarchia catholica IV. Münster: Libraria Regensbergiana. Retrieved 2016-07-06. Ritzler, Remigius. Hierarchia catholica medii et recentis aevi V. Patavii: Messagero di S. Antonio. Retrieved 2016-07-06. Ritzler, Remigius. Hierarchia catholica medii et recentis aevi VI. Patavii: Messagero di S. Antonio. Retrieved 2016-07-06. Duchesne, Louis. Fastes épiscopaux de l'ancienne Gaule: II. L'Aquitaine et les Lyonnaises. Paris: Fontemoing. Du Tems, Hugues. Le clerg
Edme Mongin was a French preacher and bishop of Bazas. He was died, aged about 78, in Paris, he was the son of Anne Bailly. Preceptor of the Duke of Bourbon and the Count of Charolais, he pronounced the funeral oration of Louis XIV in 1715 and the panegyric of Saint Vincent de Paul in 1737 on the occasion of his canonization, he was appointed Bishop of Bazas in 1724, confirmed on 29 January 1725, was consecrated in March by Henri de Nesmond, Archbishop of Toulouse. He was the commendatory abbot of St. Martin, from 1708, his collected works were published in 1745
Ordre des Arts et des Lettres
The Ordre des Arts et des Lettres is an Order of France, established on 2 May 1957 by the Minister of Culture, its supplementary status to the Ordre national du Mérite was confirmed by President Charles de Gaulle in 1963. Its purpose is the recognition of significant contributions to the arts, literature, or the propagation of these fields, its origin is attributed to the Order of Saint-Michel. French government guidelines stipulate that citizens of France must be at least thirty years old, respect French civil law, must have, "significantly contributed to the enrichment of the French cultural inheritance" to be considered for award. Membership is not, limited to French nationals. Foreign recipients are admitted into the Order, "without condition of age"; the Order has three grades: Commandeur — medallion worn on necklet. Officier — medallion worn on ribbon with rosette on left breast. Chevalier — medallion worn on ribbon on left breast; the médaille of the Order is an eight-point, green-enameled asterisk, in gilt for Commanders and Officers and in silver for Knights.
The reverse central disc features the head of Marianne on a golden background, surrounded by a golden ring bearing the words "Ordre des Arts et des Lettres". The Commander's badge is topped by a gilt twisted ring; the ribbon of the Order is green with four white stripes. According to the statutes of the Order, French citizens must wait a minimum of 5 years before they are eligible to be upgraded from Chevalier to Officier, or Officier to Commandeur, must have displayed additional meritorious deeds than just those which made them a Chevalier. However, in the statutes there is a clause saying "Les Officiers et les Commandeurs de la Légion d'honneur peuvent être directement promus à un grade équivalent dans l'Ordre des Arts et des Lettres"; this means that were someone to be made Officier of the Legion of Honour the next year that person can be made directly Officier of the Order of Arts and Letters and by pass a nomination as knight and the five-year rule. Ribbons of the French military and civil awards Ordre des arts et des lettres du Québec, a Quebec order based in part on the Ordre des Arts et des Lettres "Nominations dans l'Ordre des Arts et Lettres".
Ministère de la culture, France. 2007. Retrieved 6 February 2009
Marc Léopold Benjamin Bloch was a French historian. A founding member of the Annales School of French social history, he specialised in the field of medieval history and published on Medieval France over the course of his career; as an academic, he worked at the University of Strasbourg, the University of Paris, the University of Montpellier. Born in Lyon to an Alsatian Jewish family, Bloch was raised in Paris, where his father—the classical historian Gustave Bloch—worked at Sorbonne University. Bloch was educated at various Parisian lycees and the École Normale Supérieure, from an early age was affected by the anti-semitism of the Dreyfus affair. During the First World War, he served in the French Army and fought at the First Battle of the Marne and the Somme. After the war, he was awarded his doctorate in 1918 and gained employment as a lecturer at the University of Strasbourg. There, he formed an intellectual partnership with modern historian Lucien Febvre. Together they founded the Annales School and began publishing the journal Annales d'histoire économique et sociale in 1929.
Bloch was a modernist in his historiographical approach, emphasised the importance of a multidisciplinary engagement towards history blending his research with that on geography and economics, his subject when he was offered a post at the University of Paris in 1936. During the Second World War Bloch volunteered for service, becoming responsible for the French Army's fuel supplies during the Phoney War. Involved in the Battle of Dunkirk and spending a brief time in Britain, he unsuccessfully attempted to secure passage to the United States. Back in France, where his ability to work was curtailed by new anti-Semitic regulations, he applied for and received one of the few permits available allowing Jews to continue working in the French university system, he had to leave Paris, complained that the Nazis looted his apartment and stole his books. Bloch worked in Montpellier until November 1942, he joined the French Resistance, acting predominantly as a courier and translator. In 1944, he was executed by firing squad.
Several works—including influential studies like The Historian's Craft and Strange Defeat—were published posthumously. Both as a result of his historical studies and his death as a member of the Resistance, Bloch was regarded by generations of post-war French historians and came to be called "the greatest historian of all-time". By the end of the 20th century, historians were making a more sober assessment of Bloch's abilities and legacy, arguing that there were flaws to his approach. Marc Bloch was born in Lyon on 6 July 1886, one of two children to Gustave and Sarah Bloch, née Ebstein. Bloch's family were Alsatian Jews: secular and loyal to the French Republic, they "struck a balance", says the historian Carole Fink, between both "fierce Jacobin patriotism and the antinationalism of the left". His family had lived in Alsace for five generations under French rule. In 1871, France was forced to cede the region to Germany following its defeat in the Franco-Prussian War; the year after Bloch's birth, his father was appointed professor of Roman History at the Sorbonne, the family moved to Paris—"the glittering capital of the Third Republic".
Marc had Louis Constant Alexandre, seven years his senior. The two were close, although Bloch described Louis as being somewhat intimidating; the Bloch family lived at Rue d'Alésia, in the 14th arrondissement of Paris. Gustave began teaching Marc history while he was still a boy, with a secular, rather than Jewish education intended to prepare him for a career in professional French society. Bloch's close collaborator, Lucien Febvre, visited the Bloch family at home in 1902. Bloch's biographer Karen Stirling ascribed significance to the era in which Bloch was born: the middle of the French Third Republic, so "after those who had founded it and before the generation that would aggressively challenge it"; when Bloch was nine-years-old, the Dreyfus affair broke out in France. As the first major display of political antisemitism in Europe, it was a formative event of Bloch's youth, along with, more the atmosphere of fin de siècle Paris. Bloch was 11 when Émile Zola published J'Accuse…!, his indictment of the French establishment's antisemitism and corruption.
Bloch was affected by the Dreyfus affair, but more affected was nineteenth-century France and the ENS where existing divides in French society were reinforced in every debate. Gustave Bloch was involved in the Dreyfusard movement and his son agreed with the cause. Bloch was educated at the prestigious Lycée Louis-le-Grand for three years, where he was head of his class and won prizes in French, history and natural history, he passed his baccalauréat, in July 1903, being graded trés bien. The following year, he received a scholarship and undertook postgraduate study there for the École normale supérieure, his father had been nicknamed le Méga by his students at the ENS and the moniker Microméga was bestowed upon Bloch. Here he was taught history by Christian Pfister and Charles Seignobos, who led a new school of historical thought which saw history as broad themes punctuated by tumultuous events. Another important influence on Bloch from this period was his father's contemporary, the sociologist Émile Durkheim, who pre-empted Bloch's own
Ordre des Palmes Académiques
The Ordre des Palmes académiques is a national order bestowed by the French Republic to distinguished academics and figures in the world of culture and education. Established in 1808 by Emperor Napoleon as a decoration to honour eminent members of the University of Paris, it was changed into its current form as an order of merit on 4 October 1955 by President René Coty; the early Palmes académiques was instituted on 17 March 1808 and was bestowed only upon teachers or professors. In 1850, the decoration was divided into two known classes: Officier de l'Instruction Publique. In 1866, the scope of the award was widened to include major contributions to French national education and culture made by anyone, including foreigners, it was made available to any French expatriates making major contributions to the expansion of French culture throughout the rest of the world. Since 1955, the Ordre des Palmes académiques has comprised three grades, each grade having a fixed number of recipients: Commander — gold cross of 60 mm with a coronet worn on necklet.
Officer — gold cross of 55 mm worn on ribbon with rosette on left breast. Knight — silver cross of 50 mm worn on ribbon on left breast. Decisions on nominations and promotions are decided by the Minister of National Education. For those not connected to state-sponsored public education, or the Ministry of National Education, these honours are announced on 1 January, New Year's Day. For all others, they are made on 14 July, French National Day. Bruno Bernard, Belgian author dictionary French foreign languages Louis Dewis, born Isidore Louis Dewachter in Belgium. Successful merchant and a Post-Impressionist painter, he was honored for his civic endeavors in the early 1900s. Allan L. Goldstein, American biochemist and co-discoverer of the Thymosins John Kneller, English-American professor and fifth President of Brooklyn College Francis L. Lawrence, classical drama and baroque poetry scholar, President of Rutgers University Alice Lemieux-Lévesque, Canadian-American writer Ahmad Kamyabi Mask, Iranian littérateur Léopold Sédar Senghor Ali-Akbar Siassi, Iranian intellectual and politician during the 1930s and 1960s, serving as the country's Foreign Minister, Minister of Education, Chancellor of University of Tehran, Minister of State without portfolio.
Javad Tabatabai, Iranian thinker Buddy Wentworth, Namibian politician, for his contributions to the Namibian independence struggle Andrea Zitolo, Italian physical-chemist and material scientist Mirabel-Sérodes, Françoise. Les palmes académiques. Paris: NANEditions. ISBN 9782843680724. OCLC 377991989. Association des Membres de l'Ordre des Palmes Académiques France: Order of the Academic Palms Medals of the World