A silent film is a film with no synchronized recorded sound, especially with no spoken dialogue. The silent film era lasted from 1895 to 1936, in silent films for entertainment, the dialogue is transmitted through muted gestures and title cards which contain a written indication of the plot or key dialogue. During silent films, a pianist, theatre organist, or, in large cities and organists would either play from sheet music or improvise, an orchestra would play from sheet music. The term silent film is therefore a retronym—that is, a term created to distinguish something retroactively, the early films with sound, starting with The Jazz Singer in 1927, were referred to as talkies, sound films, or talking pictures. A September 2013 report by the United States Library of Congress announced that a total of 70% of American silent feature films are believed to be completely lost, the earliest precursors of film began with image projection through the use of a device known as the magic lantern. This utilized a glass lens, a shutter and a persistent light source, such as a powerful lantern and these slides were originally hand-painted, but still photographs were used on after the technological advent of photography in the nineteenth century.
The invention of a practical photography apparatus preceded cinema by only fifty years, the next significant step towards film creation was the development of an understanding of image movement. Simulations of movement date as far back as to 1828 and only four years after Paul Roget discovered the phenomenon he called Persistence of Vision. This experience was further demonstrated through Rogets introduction of the thaumatrope, the first projected primary proto-movie was made by Eadweard Muybridge between 1877 and 1880. Muybridge set up a row of cameras along a racetrack and timed image exposures to capture the many stages of a horses gallop, the oldest surviving film was created by Louis Le Prince in 1888. It was a film of people walking in Oakwood streets garden. Edison made a business of selling Kinetograph and Kinetoscope equipment, due to Edisons lack of securing an international patent on his film inventions, similar devices were invented around the world. The Lumière brothers, for example, created the Cinématographe in France, the Cinématographe proved to be a more portable and practical device than both of Edisons as it combined a camera, film processor and projector in one unit.
In contrast to Edisons peepshow-style kinetoscope, which one person could watch through a viewer. Their first film, Sortie de lusine Lumière de Lyon, shot in 1894, is considered the first true motion picture, the invention of celluloid film, which was strong and flexible, greatly facilitated the making of motion pictures. This film was 35 mm wide and pulled using four sprocket holes and this doomed the cinematograph, which could only use film with just one sprocket hole. From the very beginnings of film production, the art of motion pictures grew into maturity in the silent era. Silent filmmakers pioneered the art form to the extent that virtually every style, the silent era was pioneering era from a technical point of view
Friedrich Christian Anton Fritz Lang was an Austrian-German filmmaker and occasional film producer and actor. One of the best-known émigrés from Germanys school of Expressionism, he was dubbed the Master of Darkness by the British Film Institute. His most famous include the groundbreaking futuristic Metropolis and the influential M. Lang was born in Vienna as the son of Anton Lang, an architect and construction company manager. He was baptized on December 28,1890, at the Schottenkirche in Vienna, Langs parents were of Moravian descent and practicing Roman Catholics. His parents took their religion seriously and were dedicated to raising Fritz as a Catholic, Lang frequently had Catholic-influenced themes in his films. Late in life, he described himself as born Catholic, after finishing school, Lang briefly attended the Technical University of Vienna, where he studied civil engineering and eventually switched to art. In 1910 he left Vienna to see the world, traveling throughout Europe and Africa and Asia, in 1913, he studied painting in Paris, France.
At the outbreak of World War I, Lang returned to Vienna and volunteered for service in the Austrian army and fought in Russia and Romania. While recovering from his injuries and shell shock in 1916, he wrote some scenarios, Langs writing stint was brief, as he soon started to work as a director at the German film studio Ufa, and Nero-Film, just as the Expressionist movement was building. In 1920, he met his wife, the writer. Considered by many scholars to be his masterpiece, M is a disturbing story of a child murderer who is hunted down. M remains a work, it was remade in 1951 by Joseph Losey, but this version had little impact on audiences. During the climactic scene in M, Lang allegedly threw Peter Lorre down a flight of stairs in order to give more authenticity to Lorres battered look. Lang, who was known for being hard to work with, epitomized the stereotype of the tyrannical German film director and his wearing a monocle added to the stereotype. At the end of 1932, Lang started filming The Testament of Dr.
Mabuse, adolf Hitler came to power in January 1933, and by March 30, the new regime banned it as an incitement to public disorder. Testament is sometimes deemed an anti-Nazi film as Lang had put phrases used by the Nazis into the mouth of the title character. Lang had stated that it was during this meeting that he had decided to leave for Paris –, Lang has stated that he fled that very evening
Scenic design is the creation of theatrical, as well as film or television scenery. Scenic designers come from a variety of backgrounds, but in recent years, are mostly trained professionals. Scenic designers design sets and scenery that aim to fully immerse the viewer in the production, a designer looks at the details searching for evidence through research to produce conceptual ideas that’s best toward supporting the content and values with visual elements. The subject of, “How do we generate creative ideas. ”The most consuming part of expanding our horizons toward scenic concepts is more than witnessing creativity. It starts with us opening our mind to the possibilities, to have an attitude toward learning and engaging in creativity and to be willing to be adventurous and curious. Whether outside or inside, colorful trees or concerts, star lit skies or the architecture of a great building, discovering what will best clarify and support the story being told. The scenic designer works with the director and other designers to establish a visual concept for the production.
All of these required drawing elements can be created from one accurate 3-D CAD model of the set design. Scenic designers are responsible for creating models of the scenery, paint elevations. Prague, CZ What is Scenography Article illustrating the differences between US and European theatre design practices Special, WhatLinksHere/Julia Anastasopoulos
Manchester University Press
Manchester University Press is the university press of the University of Manchester, England and a publisher of academic books and journals. Manchester University Press has developed into an international publisher and it maintains its links with the University. Manchester University Press publishes monographs and textbooks for teaching in higher education. It produces around 140 new books annually, areas of expertise are history and international law and theatre studies, and visual culture. MUP has been involved in open access publishing for several years. It is one of thirteen publishers to participate in the Knowledge Unlatched pilot, MUP was founded in 1904, initially to publish academic research being undertaken at the Victoria University of Manchester. The office was accommodated in a house in Lime Grove, distribution was in the hands of Sherratt & Hughes of Manchester, from 1913 the distributors were Longmans, Green & Co. though this arrangement came to an end in the 1930s. MUP was founded by James Tait and his successor was Thomas Tout and between them they were in charge for the first 20 years of the Presss existence. H. M.
McKechnie was secretary to the press from 1912 to 1949, the MUP offices moved several times to make way for other developments within the university. Since 1951 these have been Grove House, Oxford Road, the former Dental Hospital and thirdly the Old Medical School
A film director is a person who directs the making of a film. Generally, a film director controls a films artistic and dramatic aspects, the director has a key role in choosing the cast members, production design, and the creative aspects of filmmaking. Under European Union law, the director is viewed as the author of the film, the film director gives direction to the cast and crew and creates an overall vision through which a film eventually becomes realized, or noticed. Directors need to be able to mediate differences in creative visions, there are many pathways to becoming a film director. Some film directors started as screenwriters, film editors or actors, other film directors have attended a film school. Some outline a general plotline and let the actors dialogue, while others control every aspect. Some directors write their own screenplays or collaborate on screenplays with long-standing writing partners, some directors edit or appear in their films, or compose the music score for their films.
Film directors create a vision through which a film eventually becomes realized/noticed. Realizing this vision includes overseeing the artistic and technical elements of production, as well as directing the shooting timetable. This entails organizing the crew in such a way as to achieve their vision of the film. This requires skills of leadership, as well as the ability to maintain a singular focus even in the stressful. Moreover, it is necessary to have an eye to frame shots and to give precise feedback to cast and crew, thus. Thus the director ensures that all involved in the film production are working towards an identical vision for the completed film. The set of varying challenges he or she has to tackle has been described as a jigsaw puzzle with egos. It adds to the pressure that the success of a film can influence when, omnipresent are the boundaries of the films budget. Additionally, the director may have to ensure an intended age rating, the position of film director is widely considered to be a highly stressful and demanding one.
It has been said that 20-hour days are not unusual, under European Union law, the film director is considered the author or one of the authors of a film, largely as a result of the influence of auteur theory. Auteur theory is a film criticism concept that holds that a directors film reflects the directors personal creative vision
Head Against the Wall
Head Against the Wall is a 1959 French drama film directed by Georges Franju and starring Pierre Brasseur, Paul Meurisse, and Jean-Pierre Mocky. The story follows François who is institutionalized by Marbeau for daring to defy his wealthy father, François verges on insanity during his involuntary internment. The film was released as The Keepers on its English release, François is committed to a mental hospital by his father Maître Gérane, a wealthy man who does not tolerate objection. The institution is owned by Dr. Varmont whose traditional treatment methods conflict with the beliefs of Dr. Emery, François becomes friends with an epileptic and together they try to escape, but they fail and the sweet Heurtevent commits suicide. Afterwards François manages to flee and hides at the home of his friend and this includes soundtracks from other Franju films including Eyes Without a Face and Thérèse Desqueyroux. All music composed by Maurice Jarre, La Tête contre les murs at AllMovie La Tête contre les murs at the Internet Movie Database The Keepers at the TCM Movie Database
Nuits Rouges is a 1974 French-Italian crime and thriller film directed by Georges Franju. The film was released in the U. S. in an English-dubbed version by New Line Cinema under the title Shadowman in 1975, nuits Rouges was filmed in 1973. The film is a 100-minute theatrical version of a film commissioned for television. The budget for the film was so modest that Franju had to film all interiors of the film on a studio set, nuits Rouges was released on November 20,1974 in France. Nuits Rouges features mixed and even mocking reviews from French critics on its release, nuits Rouges was released on DVD in the United Kingdom as part of Eurekas Masters of Cinema series along with another film by Georges Franju, Judex. Nuits Rouges at the Internet Movie Database
Each chapter was screened at a movie theater for one week, and ended with a cliffhanger, in which characters found themselves in perilous situations with little apparent chance of escape. Viewers had to each week to see the cliffhangers resolved. Many serials were Westerns, since those were the least expensive to film, besides Westerns, there were films covering many genres, including crime fiction, comic book or comic strip characters, science fiction, and jungle adventures. Although most serials were filmed economically, some were made at significant expense, the Flash Gordon serial and its sequels, for instance, were major productions in their times. Serials were a form of movie entertainment dating back to Edisons What Happened to Mary of 1912. Usually filmed with low budgets, serials were action-packed stories that involved a hero battling an evil villain. The hero and heroine would face one trap after another, battling countless thugs and lackeys, many famous clichés of action-adventure movies had their origins in the serials.
The popular Indiana Jones movies are a well-known, romantic pastiche of the serials clichéd plot elements, ruth Roland, Marin Sais, Ann Little, and Helen Holmes were early leading serial queens. Most of these serials put beautiful young women in jeopardy week after week, the serials starring women were the most popular during the silent period but in the sound era few serials had a female character in the major role. Years after their first release, serials gained new life at Saturday Matinees, for that reason, serials are sometimes called Saturday Matinee Serials, even though they were originally shown with feature films. Many have been released in home video formats, besides the hero or heroine, some terms are used to define villains and supporting players, The saddle pal or sidekick was the helper or assistant of the hero or heroine. That person was often a comic or a more serious. The brains heavy was the man who issued the orders to his henchmen and he often wears a suit, and pretends to be an upright, lawful member of the community.
He usually had little to do until the last chapter except talk, the action heavy is the assistant or second-in-command to the brains heavy who usually wore workmanlike duds, did the physical labor, and often had more brawn than brains. He went from one chapter to the next trying desperately to kill the hero with fists, guns, bombs, or whatever else was handy at the time. The oldtimer was the man who owned the ranch, the father of the hero and often had a short lifespan, as well those that wore a badge of a sheriff, marshall. The middle-aged and older performers who were judges, storeowners, owners of the newspaper, executives. Famous American serials of the silent era include The Perils of Pauline and The Exploits of Elaine made by Pathé Frères, another popular serial was the 119-episode The Hazards of Helen made by Kalem Studios and starring Helen Holmes for the first forty-eight episodes Helen Gibson for the remainder
Expressionism was a modernist movement, initially in poetry and painting, originating in Germany at the beginning of the 20th century. Its typical trait is to present the world solely from a subjective perspective, Expressionist artists sought to express the meaning of emotional experience rather than physical reality. Expressionism was developed as an avant-garde style before the First World War and it remained popular during the Weimar Republic, particularly in Berlin. The style extended to a range of the arts, including expressionist architecture, literature, dance, film. The term is sometimes suggestive of angst, in a general sense, painters such as Matthias Grünewald and El Greco are sometimes termed expressionist, though in practice the term is applied mainly to 20th-century works. The Expressionist emphasis on individual perspective has been characterized as a reaction to positivism, though an alternate view is that the term was coined by the Czech art historian Antonin Matějček in 1910, as the opposite of impressionism, An Expressionist wishes, above all, to express himself.
Immediate perception and builds on more complex psychic structures, in 1905, a group of four German artists, led by Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, formed Die Brücke in the city of Dresden. This was arguably the founding organization for the German Expressionist movement, a few years later, in 1911, a like-minded group of young artists formed Der Blaue Reiter in Munich. The name came from Wassily Kandinskys Der Blaue Reiter painting of 1903, among their members were Kandinsky, Franz Marc, Paul Klee, and Auguste Macke. However, the term Expressionism did not firmly establish itself until 1913, though mainly a German artistic movement initially and most predominant in painting and the theatre between 1910–30, most precursors of the movement were not German. Expressionism is notoriously difficult to define, in part because it overlapped with other major isms of the modernist period, with Futurism, Cubism, more explicitly, that the expressionists rejected the ideology of realism. The term refers to a style in which the artist seeks to depict not objective reality but rather the subjective emotions.
It is arguable that all artists are expressive but there are examples of art production in Europe from the 15th century onward which emphasize extreme emotion. Expressionism has been likened to Baroque by critics such as art historian Michel Ragon, according to Alberto Arbasino, a difference between the two is that Expressionism doesnt shun the violently unpleasant effect, while Baroque does. Expressionism throws some terrific fuck yous, Baroque doesnt, Anita Malfatti, Cândido Portinari, Di Cavalcanti, Iberê Camargo and Lasar Segall. Estonia, Konrad Mägi, Eduard Wiiralt Finland, Tyko Sallinen, Alvar Cawén, Juho Mäkelä, there were a number of groups of expressionist painters, including Der Blaue Reiter and Die Brücke. Der Blaue Reiter was based in Munich and Die Brücke was based originally in Dresden, Die Brücke was active for a longer period than Der Blaue Reiter, which was only together for a year. The Expressionists had many influences, among them Edvard Munch, Vincent van Gogh and they were aware of the work being done by the Fauves in Paris, who influenced Expressionisms tendency toward arbitrary colours and jarring compositions