The Hôpital universitaire Pitié-Salpêtrière is a celebrated teaching hospital in the 13th arrondissement of Paris. Part of the Assistance publique – Hôpitaux de Paris and a teaching hospital of Sorbonne University, it is one of Europe's largest hospitals; the Salpêtrière was a gunpowder factory, but in 1656 at the direction of Louis XIV, it was converted into a hospice for the poor women of Paris. It served as a prison for prostitutes, a holding place for women who were learning disabled, mentally ill or epileptic, as well as poor. Although the Pitié-Salpêtrière was much admired for the architectural ambitions of Libéral Bruant, it provided wretched living conditions for its inmates; the building was enlarged in 1684. On the eve of the Revolution, it had become the world's largest hospital, with a capacity of 10,000 patients plus 300 prisoners prostitutes swept from the streets of Paris. From La Salpêtrière they were forcibly expatriated to New France. During the September massacres of 1792, the Salpêtrière was stormed on the night of 3/4 September by a mob from the impoverished working-class district of the Faubourg Saint-Marcel, with the avowed intention of releasing the detained street-girls: 134 of the prostitutes were released.
At the end of the 18th century, the early humanitarian reforms in the treatment of the mentally ill were initiated here by Philippe Pinel, friend of the Encyclopédistes. The iconic image of Pinel as the liberator of the insane was created in 1876 by Tony Robert-Fleury and Pinel's sculptural monument stands before the main entrance in Place Marie-Curie, Boulevard de L'Hôpital. Pinel was the chief physician of the Salpêtrière by 1794, in charge of a 200-bed infirmary which housed a tiny proportion of the huge indigent female population, he was succeeded by his assistant Jean-Étienne Dominique Esquirol who, from 1817, delivered the first systematic lectures on psychiatry in France and was the chief architect of the lunacy legislation of 30 June 1838. Esquirol was followed by Étienne Pariset. A regular visitor to the Salpêtrière from 1842 till his death more than thirty years was Guillaume-Benjamin Duchenne de Boulogne. From humble provincial origins, a long line of seafarers from Boulogne, Duchenne became one of the outstanding medical scientists of the nineteenth century.
Though he never held a senior appointment in the hospital, Duchenne made meticulous observations on neurological patients, employing a wide range of innovative diagnostic techniques. Duchenne's clinical science stood at the junction of electricity and psychology, as recorded in his much admired De l'électrisation localisée with its associated atlas Album de photographies pathologiques, his name is commemorated in the myopathies which he described, as well as in his 1862 masterpiece, the Mécanisme de la physionomie humaine, much consulted by Charles Darwin in the preparation of his Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals. Duchenne's last major work was a study of the physiology of movement, he was never elected to the Academy of Sciences. When Jean-Martin Charcot took over the department, the Salpêtrière became celebrated as a neuropsychiatric teaching centre, represented on canvas in 1887 by André Brouillet. In his lectures and demonstrations, Charcot did much to map out the territory of modern clinical neurology and, in a personal enthusiasm, explored its interface with psychological distress as represented in hysteria.
Although Charcot insisted that hysteria could be a male disorder, he is popularly remembered for his demonstrations with Louise Augustine Gleizes and Marie "Blanche" Wittmann, known as the Queen of Hysterics. Charcot had absorbed much from Duchenne and his teaching activities on the Salpêtrière's wards helped to elucidate the natural history of many diseases including neurosyphilis and stroke. In his discussion of paralysis agitans, Charcot drew attention to the 1817 description by James Parkinson, suggested it be renamed Parkinson's disease. In 1882, with Charcot's encouragement, Albert Londe created a photographic department in the Salpêtriėre, producing, in collaboration with Georges Gilles de la Tourette, the Nouvelle Iconographie de la Salpêtrière of 1888. Students came from across the world to witness Charcot's clinical demonstrations: among them – in 1885 – was the 29-year old Sigmund Freud who translated Charcot's lectures into German and whose deconstruction of the lectures on hysteria formed the foundations of psychoanalysis.
The first English translations of Charcot's Clinical Lectures were published by the Irish physician and statesman George Sigerson. Public health physician and advocate of breastfeeding Truby King travelled from New Zealand to witness Charcot, reported his clinical demonstrations to be a life-changing experience. A rather negative portrait of Charcot's clinical style emerges in the 1929 autobiographical memoir – The Story of San Michele – by the Swedish physician Axel Munthe, whose early idolatry of Charcot gave way to a kind of obsessive antagonism; the Hôpital de la Pitié, founded about 1612, was moved next to the Salpêtrière in 1911 and fused with it in 1964 to form the Groupe Hospitalier Pitié-Salpêtrière. The Pitié-Sal
Jean-Martin Charcot was a French neurologist and professor of anatomical pathology. He is best known today for his work on hypnosis and hysteria, in particular his work with his hysteria patient Louise Augustine Gleizes. Known as "the founder of modern neurology", his name has been associated with at least 15 medical eponyms, including Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease and Charcot disease. Charcot has been referred to as "the father of French neurology and one of the world's pioneers of neurology", his work influenced the developing fields of neurology and psychology. He was the "foremost neurologist of late nineteenth-century France" and has been called "the Napoleon of the neuroses". Born in Paris, Charcot taught at the famous Salpêtrière Hospital for 33 years, his reputation as an instructor drew students from all over Europe. In 1882, he established a neurology clinic at Salpêtrière, the first of its kind in Europe. Charcot was a part of the French neurological tradition and studied under, revered, Duchenne de Boulogne."He married a rich widow, Madame Durvis, in 1862 and had two children and Jean-Baptiste, who became a doctor and a famous polar explorer".
He was accused of being an atheist. Charcot's primary focus was neurology, he was the first to describe multiple sclerosis. Summarizing previous reports and adding his own clinical and pathological observations, Charcot called the disease sclérose en plaques; the three signs of multiple sclerosis now known as Charcot's triad 1 are nystagmus, intention tremor, telegraphic speech, though these are not unique to MS. Charcot observed cognition changes, describing his patients as having a "marked enfeeblement of the memory" and "conceptions that formed slowly", he was the first to describe a disorder known as Charcot joint or Charcot arthropathy, a degeneration of joint surfaces resulting from loss of proprioception. He researched the functions of different parts of the brain and the role of arteries in cerebral hemorrhage. Charcot was among the first to describe Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease; the announcement was made with Pierre Marie of France and Howard Henry Tooth of England. The disease is sometimes called peroneal muscular atrophy.
Charcot's studies between 1868 and 1881 were a landmark in the understanding of Parkinson's disease. Among other advances he made the distinction between rigidity and bradykinesia, he led the disease named paralysis agitans to be renamed after James Parkinson. He noted apparent variations on PD, such as Parkinson's disease with hyperextension. Charcot received the first European professional chair of clinical diseases for the nervous system in 1882. Charcot is best known today for his work on hypnosis and hysteria. In particular, he is best remembered for his work with his hysteria patient Louise Augustine Gleizes, who somewhat increased his fame during his lifetime, he believed that hysteria was a neurological disorder for which patients were pre-disposed by hereditary features of their nervous system, but near the end of his life he concluded that hysteria was a psychological disease. Charcot first began studying hysteria after creating a special ward for non-insane females with "hystero-epilepsy".
He discovered two distinct forms of hysteria among these women: major hysteria. His interest in hysteria and hypnotism "developed at a time when the general public was fascinated in'animal magnetism' and'mesmerization'", revealed to be a method of inducing hypnosis, his study of hysteria "attract both scientific and social notoriety". Bogousslavsky and Veyrunes write:Charcot and his school considered the ability to be hypnotized as a clinical feature of hysteria... For the members of the Salpêtrière School, susceptibility to hypnotism was synonymous with disease, i.e. hysteria, although they recognized... that grand hypnotisme should be differentiated from petit hypnotisme, which corresponded to the hypnosis of ordinary people. Charcot argued vehemently against the widespread medical and popular prejudice that hysteria was found in men, presenting several cases of traumatic male hysteria, he taught that due to this prejudice these "cases went unrecognised by distinguished doctors" and could occur in such models of masculinity as railway engineers or soldiers.
Charcot's analysis, in particular his view of hysteria as an organic condition which could be caused by trauma, paved the way for understanding neurological symptoms arising from industrial-accident or war-related traumas. The Salpêtrière School's position on hypnosis was criticized by Hippolyte Bernheim, another leading neurologist of the time. Bernheim argued that the hypnosis and hysteria phenomena that Charcot had famously demonstrated were in fact due to suggestion. However, Charcot himself had had longstanding concerns about the use of hypnosis in treatment and about its effect on patients, he was concerned that the sensationalism hypnosis attracted had robbed it of its scientific interest, that the quarrel with Bernheim, amplified by Charcot's pupil Georges Gilles de la Tourette, had "damaged" hypnotism. Charcot thought of art as a crucial tool of the clinicoanatomic method, he used photos and drawings, many made in his classes and conferences. He drew outside the neurology domain, as a personal hobby.
Like Duchenne, he is considered a key figure in the incorporation of photography to the study
Urbain Grandier was a French Catholic priest, burned at the stake after being convicted of witchcraft, following the events of the so-called "Loudun Possessions". The circumstances of Father Grandier's trial and execution have attracted the attention of writers Alexandre Dumas père, Aldous Huxley and the playwright John Whiting, composers like Krzysztof Penderecki and Peter Maxwell Davies, as well as historian Jules Michelet and various scholars of European witchcraft. Most modern commentators have concluded that Grandier was the victim of a politically motivated persecution led by the powerful Cardinal Richelieu. Grandier served as priest in the Diocese of Poitiers. Ignoring his vow of celibacy, he is known to have had sexual relationships with a number of women and to have acquired a reputation as a philanderer, he wrote a book attacking the discipline of clerical celibacy. In 1632, a group of nuns from the local Ursuline convent accused him of having bewitched them, sending the demon Asmodai, among others, to commit evil and impudent acts with them.
Modern commentators on the case, such as the author Aldous Huxley, have argued that the accusations began after Grandier refused to become the spiritual director of the convent, unaware that the Mother Superior, Sister Jeanne of the Angels, had become obsessed with him, having seen him from afar and heard of his sexual exploits. According to Huxley, Sister Jeanne, enraged by his rejection, instead invited Canon Jean Mignon, an enemy of Grandier, to become the director. Jeanne accused Grandier of using black magic to seduce her; the other nuns began to make similar accusations. Grandier was arrested and tried by an ecclesiastical tribunal, which acquitted him. However, Grandier had gained the enmity of the powerful Cardinal Richelieu, the chief minister of France, after a public verbal attack against him. Grandier had written and published scathing criticisms of Richelieu. Richelieu ordered a new trial, conducted by his special envoy Jean de Laubardemont, a relative of the Mother Superior of the convent of Loudun.
Grandier was rearrested at Angers and the possibility of appealing to the Parlement of Paris was denied to him. Interrogated for a second time, the nuns did not renew their accusations, but this did not affect the predetermined outcome of the trial. After torturing Father Grandier, the judges introduced documents purportedly signed by Grandier and several demons as evidence that he had made a diabolical pact, it is unknown whether Grandier wrote or signed the pacts under duress, or whether they were forged. Grandier was sentenced to death; the judges who condemned Grandier ordered that he be put to the "extraordinary question", a form of torture, but not fatal, was therefore administered to only those victims who were to be executed afterwards. In addition, Grandier was subjected to a form of the Spanish boot, an iron vise, filled with spikes, brought to red heat and applied to Grandier's calf and ankle to shatter the bones. Despite torture, Grandier never confessed to witchcraft, he was burned alive at the stake.
Many theories exist as to the cause of the Loudun "possessions". One of the most explanations is that the whole affair was a hoax orchestrated by Richelieu. Huxley in his book The Devils of Loudun and in the Ken Russell film version of the Huxley book alleged that the initial accusations against Grandier by the nuns of the convent of Loudun were part of a case of collective hysteria. Augustin Calmet among others have compared this case to the pretended possession of Martha Broissier, which received a great deal of circulation at the time; this criticism was in part due to the fact that the circumstances revolving the incidents and the examinations of possession in question show more indications of pretended possessions than that of more dominantly legitimate cases, such as the possession of Mademoiselle Elizabeth de Ranfaing. In his Treatise, it is stated that the causes of the injustice committed at Loudun were a mixture of political ambition, the need for attention, a basic desire to dispose of political opponents.
The affair of Loudun took place in the reign of Louis XIII. One of the documents introduced as evidence during Grandier's second trial is a diabolical pact written in Latin and signed by Grandier. Another, which looks illegible, is written backwards, in Latin with scribal abbreviation, has since been published and translated in a number of books on witchcraft; this document carries many strange symbols, was "signed" by several demons with their seals, as well as by Satan himself. Deciphered and translated to English, it reads: We, the influential Lucifer, the young Satan, Leviathan and Astaroth, together with others, have today accepted the covenant pact of Urbain Grandier, ours, and him do we promise the love of women, the flower of virgins, the respect of monarchs, honors and powers. He will go whoring three days long, he offers us once in the year a seal of blood, under the feet he will trample the holy things of the church and he will ask us many questions. Bound in hell, in the council of demons.
Lucifer Beelzebub Satan Astaroth Leviathan Elimi The seals placed
Hypnosis is a human condition involving focused attention, reduced peripheral awareness, an enhanced capacity to respond to suggestion. The term may refer to an art, skill, or act of inducing hypnosis. There are competing related phenomena. Altered state theories see hypnosis as an altered state of mind or trance, marked by a level of awareness different from the ordinary state of consciousness. In contrast, nonstate theories see hypnosis as, variously, a type of placebo effect, a redefinition of an interaction with a therapist or form of imaginative role enactment. During hypnosis, a person is said to have heightened concentration. Hypnotised subjects are said to show an increased response to suggestions. Hypnosis begins with a hypnotic induction involving a series of preliminary instructions and suggestion; the use of hypnotism for therapeutic purposes is referred to as "hypnotherapy", while its use as a form of entertainment for an audience is known as "stage hypnosis". Stage hypnosis is performed by mentalists practicing the art form of mentalism.
The use of hypnosis as a form of therapy to retrieve and integrate early trauma is controversial. Research indicates that hypnotizing an individual may aid the formation of false-memories; the term "hypnosis" comes from the ancient Greek word ύπνος hypnos, "sleep", the suffix -ωσις -osis, or from ὑπνόω hypnoō, "put to sleep" and the suffix -is. The words "hypnosis" and "hypnotism" both derive from the term "neuro-hypnotism", all of which were coined by Étienne Félix d'Henin de Cuvillers in 1820; these words were popularized in English by the Scottish surgeon James Braid around 1841. Braid based his practice on that developed by Franz Mesmer and his followers, but differed in his theory as to how the procedure worked. A person in a state of hypnosis has focused attention, has increased suggestibility; the hypnotized individual appears to heed only the communications of the hypnotist and responds in an uncritical, automatic fashion while ignoring all aspects of the environment other than those pointed out by the hypnotist.
In a hypnotic state an individual tends to see, feel and otherwise perceive in accordance with the hypnotist's suggestions though these suggestions may be in apparent contradiction to the actual stimuli present in the environment. The effects of hypnosis are not limited to sensory change, it could be said. For example, in 1994, Irving Kirsch characterised hypnosis as a "nondeceptive placebo", i.e. a method that makes use of suggestion and employs methods to amplify its effects. In Trance on Trial, a 1989 text directed at the legal profession, legal scholar Alan W. Scheflin and psychologist Jerrold Lee Shapiro observed that the "deeper" the hypnotism, the more a particular characteristic is to appear, the greater extent to which it is manifested. Scheflin and Shapiro identified 20 separate characteristics that hypnotized subjects might display: "dissociation"; the earliest definition of hypnosis was given by Braid, who coined the term "hypnotism" as an abbreviation for "neuro-hypnotism", or nervous sleep, which he contrasted with normal sleep, defined as: "a peculiar condition of the nervous system, induced by a fixed and abstracted attention of the mental and visual eye, on one object, not of an exciting nature."Braid elaborated upon this brief definition in a work, Hypnotic Therapeutics: The real origin and essence of the hypnotic condition, is the induction of a habit of abstraction or mental concentration, in which, as in reverie or spontaneous abstraction, the powers of the mind are so much engrossed with a single idea or train of thought, as, for the nonce, to render the individual unconscious of, or indifferently conscious to, all other ideas, impressions, or trains of thought.
The hypnotic sleep, therefore, is the antithesis or opposite mental and physical condition to that which precedes and accompanies common sleep Therefore, Braid defined hypnotism as a state of mental concentration that leads to a form of progressive relaxation, termed "nervous sleep". In his The Physiology of Fascination, Braid conceded that his original terminology was misleading, argued that the term "hypnotism" or "nervous sleep" should be reserved for the minority of subjects who exhibit amnesia, substituting the term "monoideism", meaning concentration upon a single idea, as a description for the more alert state experienced by the others. A new definition of hypnosis, derived from academic psychology, was provided in 2005, when the Society for Psychological Hypnosis, Division 30 of the American Psychological Association, published the following formal definition: Hypnosis involves an introduction to the procedure during which the subject is told that suggestions for imaginative experiences will be presented.
The hypnotic induction is an extended initial suggestion for using one's imagination, may contain further
Lausanne is a city in the French-speaking part of Switzerland, the capital and biggest city of the canton of Vaud. The city is situated on the shores of Lake Geneva, it faces the French town of Évian-les-Bains, with the Jura Mountains to its north-west. Lausanne is located 62 kilometres northeast of Geneva. Lausanne has a population of 146,372, making it the fourth largest city in Switzerland, with the entire agglomeration area having 420,000 inhabitants; the metropolitan area of Lausanne-Geneva was over 1.2 million inhabitants in 2000. Lausanne is a focus of international sport, hosting the International Olympic Committee, the Court of Arbitration for Sport and some 55 international sport associations, it lies in a noted wine-growing region. The city has a 28-station metro system, making it the smallest city in the world to have a rapid transit system. Lausanne will host the 2020 Winter Youth Olympics; the Romans built a military camp, which they called Lousanna, at the site of a Celtic settlement, near the lake where Vidy and Ouchy are situated.
By the 2nd century AD, it was known in 280 as lacu Lausonio. By 400, it was civitas Lausanna, in 990 it was mentioned as Losanna. After the fall of the Roman Empire, insecurity forced the residents of Lausanne to move to its current centre, a hilly site, easier to defend; the city which emerged from the camp was ruled by the Bishop of Lausanne. It came under Bern from 1536 to 1798, a number of its cultural treasures, including the hanging tapestries in the Cathedral, were permanently removed. Lausanne has made repeated requests to recover them. After the revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685, Lausanne became a place of refuge for French Huguenots. In 1729, a seminary was opened by Benjamin Duplan. By 1750, 90 pastors had been sent back to France to work clandestinely. Official persecution ended in 1787. During the Napoleonic Wars, the city's status changed. In 1803, it became the capital of a newly formed Swiss canton, under which it joined the Swiss Federation. In 1964, the city played host to the Swiss National Exhibition, displaying its newly found confidence to play host to major international events.
From the 1950s to 1970s, a large number of Italians and Portuguese immigrated to Lausanne, settling in the industrial district of Renens and transforming the local diet. The city has served as a refuge for European artists. While under the care of a psychiatrist at Lausanne, T. S. Eliot composed most of his 1922 poem The Waste Land. Ernest Hemingway visited from Paris with his wife during the 1920s, to holiday. In fact, many creative people — such as historian Edward Gibbon and Romantic era poets Shelley and Byron — have "sojourned and worked in Lausanne or nearby"; the city has been traditionally quiet, but in the late 1960s and early 1970s, a series of demonstrations took place that exposed tensions between young people and the police. Demonstrations took place to protest against the high cinema prices, followed by protest against the G8 meetings in 2003; the most important geographical feature of the area surrounding Lausanne is Lake Geneva. Lausanne is built on the southern slope of the Swiss plateau, with a difference in elevation of about 500 metres between the lakeshore at Ouchy and its northern edge bordering Le Mont-sur-Lausanne and Épalinges.
Lausanne boasts a dramatic panorama over the Alps. In addition to its southward-sloping layout, the centre of the city is the site of an ancient river, the Flon, covered since the 19th century; the former river forms a gorge running through the middle of the city south of the old city centre following the course of the present Rue Centrale, with several bridges crossing the depression to connect the adjacent neighbourhoods. Due to the considerable differences in elevation, visitors should make a note as to which plane of elevation they are on and where they want to go, otherwise they will find themselves tens of metres below or above the street which they are trying to negotiate; the name Flon is used for the metro station located in the gorge. The municipality includes the villages of Vidy, Ouchy, Chailly, La Sallaz, Montblesson, Vers-chez-les-Blanc and Chalet-à-Gobet as well as the exclave of Vernand. Lausanne is located at the limit between the extensive wine-growing regions of la Côte. Lausanne has an area, as of 2009, of 41.38–41.33 square kilometers.
Of this area, 6.64 km2 or 16.0% is used for agricultural purposes, while 16.18 km2 or 39.1% is forested. Of the rest of the land, 18.45 km2 or 44.6% is settled, 0.05 km2 or 0.1% is either rivers or lakes and 0.01 km2 or 0.0% is unproductive land. Of the built-up area, industrial buildings made up 1.6% of the total area while housing and buildings made up 21.6% and transportation i
I Have Tourette's but Tourette's Doesn't Have Me
I Have Tourette's but Tourette's Doesn't Have Me is a 2005 documentary film featuring children between the ages of six and thirteen with Tourette syndrome. The film examines the lives of more than a dozen children who have Tourette's, explores the challenges they face; the 27-minute television documentary was produced by HBO in conjunction with the Tourette Syndrome Association, first aired on HBO on November 12, 2005. Ellen Goosenberg Kent is the director and producer, Sheila Nevins is the executive producer. Children with Tourette's Syndrome discuss the challenges of living with Tourette's, a misunderstood and stigmatizing condition, they demonstrate some of their tics, talk about their lives with tics including embarrassing and isolating situations at school and among friends. Professionals and experts offer further information about Tourette's on the DVD. Amanda, Colin, David, Jasper, Kim, Matthew, Michael, Seth and William—children ages six to thirteen whose last names have been withheld—play themselves.
Described by the Cincinnati Enquirer as "the best simple overview yet of Tourette's", it portrays "thoughtful and eloquent observations" of children coping with the condition. The documentary received the Emmy Award for Outstanding Children's Program, tying with the Disney Channel movie High School Musical, it was nominated for 2006 Emmy Awards in two categories: Outstanding Children's Program, Outstanding Cinematography For Nonfiction Programming—Single-Camera Productions. The documentary won a Clarion award from The Association for Women in Communications in the category "TV Children's Educational Program—Target Audiences ages 11 and up." It won a Parents' Choice Award, a Voice Award from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, a Media Access Award, recognizing those who use their medium to increase public awareness and understanding. It was nominated for a Directors Guild of America award for Outstanding Directorial Achievement in Children's Programs. HBO Family website I Have Tourette's but Tourette's Doesn't Have Me on IMDb
Otto von Bismarck
Otto Eduard Leopold, Prince of Bismarck, Duke of Lauenburg, known as Otto von Bismarck, was a conservative Prussian statesman who dominated German and European affairs from the 1860s until 1890 and was the first Chancellor of the German Empire between 1871 and 1890. In 1862, King Wilhelm I appointed Bismarck as Minister President of Prussia, a position he would hold until 1890, with the exception of a short break in 1873, he provoked three short, decisive wars against Denmark and France. Following the victory against Austria, he abolished the supranational German Confederation and instead formed the North German Confederation as the first German national state in 1867, leading it as Federal Chancellor; this aligned the smaller North German states behind Prussia. Receiving the support of the independent South German states in the Confederation's defeat of France, he formed the German Empire in 1871, unifying Germany with himself as Imperial Chancellor, while retaining control of Prussia at the same time.
The new German nation excluded Austria, Prussia's main opponent for predominance among the German states. With that accomplished by 1871, he skillfully used balance of power diplomacy to maintain Germany's position in a Europe which, despite many disputes and war scares, remained at peace. For historian Eric Hobsbawm, it was Bismarck who "remained undisputed world champion at the game of multilateral diplomatic chess for twenty years after 1871, devoted himself and to maintaining peace between the powers". However, his annexation of Alsace-Lorraine gave new fuel to French nationalism and promoted Germanophobia in France; this helped set the stage for the First World War. Bismarck's diplomacy of realpolitik and powerful rule at home gained him the nickname the "Iron Chancellor". German unification and its rapid economic growth was the foundation to his foreign policy, he disliked colonialism but reluctantly built an overseas empire when it was demanded by both elite and mass opinion. Juggling a complex interlocking series of conferences and alliances, he used his diplomatic skills to maintain Germany's position and used the balance of power to keep Europe at peace in the 1870s and 1880s.
A master of complex politics at home, Bismarck created the first welfare state in the modern world, with the goal of gaining working class support that might otherwise go to his Socialist enemies. In the 1870s, he allied himself with the Liberals and fought the Catholic Church in what was called the Kulturkampf, he lost that battle as the Catholics responded by forming a powerful Centre party and using universal male suffrage to gain a bloc of seats. Bismarck reversed himself, ended the Kulturkampf, broke with the Liberals, imposed protective tariffs, formed a political alliance with the Centre Party to fight the Socialists. A devout Lutheran, he was loyal to his king, who argued with Bismarck but in the end supported him against the advice of his wife and his heir. While the Reichstag, Germany's parliament, was elected by universal male suffrage, it did not have much control of government policy. Bismarck distrusted democracy and ruled through a strong, well-trained bureaucracy with power in the hands of a traditional Junker elite that consisted of the landed nobility in eastern Prussia.
Under Wilhelm I, Bismarck controlled domestic and foreign affairs, until he was removed by the young Kaiser Wilhelm II in 1890, at the age of seventy-five. Bismarck – a Junker himself – was strong-willed and overbearing, but he could be polite and witty, he displayed a violent temper, he kept his power by melodramatically threatening resignation time and again, which cowed Wilhelm I. He possessed not only a long-term national and international vision but the short-term ability to juggle complex developments; as the leader of what historians call "revolutionary conservatism", Bismarck became a hero to German nationalists. Many historians praise him as a visionary, instrumental in uniting Germany and, once, accomplished, kept the peace in Europe through adroit diplomacy. Bismarck was born in Schönhausen, a wealthy family estate situated west of Berlin in the Prussian province of Saxony, his father, Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand von Bismarck, was a Junker estate owner and a former Prussian military officer.
He had two siblings: his younger sister Malwine. The world saw Bismarck as a typical Prussian Junker, an image that he encouraged by wearing military uniforms. Bismarck was well cosmopolitan with a gift for conversation. In addition to his native German, he was fluent in English, Italian and Russian. Bismarck was educated at Johann Ernst Plamann's elementary school, the Friedrich-Wilhelm and Graues Kloster secondary schools. From 1832 to 1833, he studied law at the University of Göttingen, where he was a member of the Corps Hannovera, enrolled at the University of Berlin. In 1838, while stationed as an army reservist in Greifswald, he studied agriculture at the University of Greifswald. At Göttingen, Bismarck befriended the American student John Lothrop Motley. Motley, who became an eminent historian and diplomat while remaining close to Bismarck, wrote a novel in 1839, Morton's Hope, or the Memoirs of a Provincial, about l