A lieutenant is a junior commissioned officer in many nations armed forces, fire service or police. The meaning of lieutenant differs in different military formations, but is often subdivided into senior and junior ranks, in navies it is often equivalent to the army rank of captain, it may indicate a particular post rather than a rank. The rank is used in fire services, emergency medical services, security services. Lieutenant may appear as part of a used in various other organisations with a codified command structure. It often designates someone who is second-in-command, and as such, for example, a lieutenant master is likely to be second-in-command to the master in an organisation using both ranks. Political uses include lieutenant governor in various governments, and Quebec lieutenant in Canadian politics, in the United Kingdom, a lord lieutenant is the sovereigns representative in a county or lieutenancy area, while a deputy lieutenant is one of the lord lieutenants deputies. However, their efforts failed, and the French word is used, along with its many variations.
The early history of the pronunciation is unclear, Middle English spellings suggest that the /luː-/ and /lɛf-/ pronunciations may have existed even then. The rare Old French variant spelling luef for Modern French lieu supports the suggestion that a final of the Old French word was in certain environments perceived as an, in Royal Naval tradition—and other English-speaking navies outside the United States—a reduced pronunciation /ləˈtɛnənt/ is used. This is not recognised as current by recent editions of the OED, conventionally and other services or branches which use army-style rank titles have two grades of lieutenant, but a few use a third, more junior, rank. Where more junior officers were employed as deputies to the lieutenant, they went by names, including second lieutenant, sub-lieutenant, ensign. The senior grade of lieutenant is known as first lieutenant in the United States, and as lieutenant in the United Kingdom, in countries which do not speak English, the rank title usually translates as lieutenant, but may translate as first lieutenant or senior lieutenant.
The Israel Defense Forces rank segen literally translates as deputy, which is equivalent to a lieutenant, there is great variation in the insignia used worldwide. In most English-speaking and Arabic-speaking countries, as well as a number of European and South American nations, an example of an exception is the United States, whose armed forces distinguish their lieutenant ranks with one silver bar for first lieutenant and one gold bar for second lieutenant. Second lieutenant is usually the most junior grade of commissioned officer, in non-English-speaking countries, the equivalent rank title may translate as second lieutenant, sub-lieutenant or junior lieutenant. Non-English terms include alferes, alférez, fänrik, Leutnant, poručík, a few non-English-speaking militaries maintain a lower rank, frequently translated as third lieutenant OF1c. The rank title may translate as second lieutenant, junior lieutenant, sub-lieutenant or ensign. Warsaw Pact countries standardised their ranking systems on the Soviet system, some of the former Soviet and Warsaw Pact nations have now discarded the third rank while many retain it like Bulgaria
LFG Roland D.II
The LFG Roland D. II was a German single-seat fighter of World War I. The type was manufactured by Luftfahrzeug Gesellschaft, and by Pfalz Flugzeugwerke under license, the D. II used a plywood monocoque fuselage. Two layers of strips were spirally wrapped in opposing directions over a mold to form one half of a fuselage shell. The fuselage halves were glued together, covered with a layer of fabric. This design was known as the Wickelrumpf and allowed to create a smooth, the upper wing was attached to the fuselage by means of a large central pylon, greatly impairing the pilots forward vision. Armament consisted of twin Spandau LMG 08/15 machine guns buried in the fuselage decking, the D. II was initially powered by a 160 hp Mercedes D. III engine, giving a top speed of 105 mph at sea level. Later aircraft, designated D. IIa, were powered by a 180 hp Argus As. III, the As. III offered poor performance above 3,000 m and the D. IIa was mostly relegated to operations on the Eastern Front. Nicknamed Haifisch for its appearance, the D. II and D.
IIa proved generally unpopular in service due to poor fields of view. It was quite fast and strong, but had mediocre manoeuvrability, however, it is reported that the aircraft had particularly sensitive controls, particularly in the yawing plane. The type is known to have used by Jasta 25 at their Canatlarzi base in Macedonia in 1917. D. II, Single-seat fighter-scout biplane, powered by a 160 hp Mercedes D. III piston engine, D. IIa, Single-seat fighter-scout biplane, powered by a 180 hp Argus As. III piston engine. C. V, One-off two seat derivative with a 160 hp Mercedes D. III engine, Pfalz D. II/D. IIa, aircraft licence-built by Pfalz Flugzeugwerke, from February 1917 renamed Roland D. II/D. IIa. There were built 100 D. II and 100 D. IIa
The Albatros D. III was a biplane fighter aircraft used by the Imperial German Army Air Service during World War I. A modified licence model was built by Oeffag for the Austro-Hungarian Air Service and it was the preeminent fighter during the period of German aerial dominance known as Bloody April 1917. Development of the prototype D. III started in late July or early August 1916, the date of the maiden flight is unknown, but is believed to have occurred in late August or early September. Following the successful Albatros D. I and D. II series, however, at the request of the Idflieg, the D. III adopted a sesquiplane wing arrangement broadly similar to the French Nieuport 11. The upper wingspan was extended, while the wing was redesigned with reduced chord. V shaped interplane struts replaced the previous parallel struts, for this reason, British aircrews commonly referred to the D. III as the V-strutter. After a Typenprüfung on 26 September 1916, Albatros received an order for 400 D. III aircraft, Idflieg placed additional orders for 50 aircraft in February and March 1917.
The D. III entered squadron service in December 1916, and was acclaimed by German aircrews for its maneuverability. Two faults with the new aircraft were soon identified, like the D. II, early D. IIIs featured a Teves und Braun airfoil-shaped radiator in the center of the upper wing, where it tended to scald the pilot if punctured. From the 290th D. III onward, the radiator was offset to the right on production machines while others were moved to the right as a field modification. Aircraft deployed in Palestine used two wing radiators, to cope with the warmer climate, more seriously, the new aircraft immediately began experiencing failures of the lower wing ribs and leading edge, a defect shared with the Nieuport 17. On 23 January 1917, a Jasta 6 pilot suffered a failure of the right wing spar. On the following day, Manfred von Richthofen suffered a crack in the wing of his new D. III. On 27 January, the Kogenluft issued an order grounding all D. IIIs pending resolution of the wing failure problem, on 19 February, after Albatros introduced a reinforced lower wing, the Kogenluft rescinded the grounding order.
At the time, the wing failures were attributed to poor workmanship. In fact, the cause of the failures lay in the sesquiplane arrangement taken from the Nieuport. While the lower wing had sufficient strength in static tests, it was determined that the main spar was located too far aft. Pilots were therefore advised not to perform steep or prolonged dives in the D. III and this design flaw persisted despite attempts to rectify the problem in the D. III and succeeding D. V
French Air Force
The French Air Force is the air force of the French Armed Forces. It was formed in 1909 as the Service Aéronautique, an arm of the French Army. The number of aircraft in service with the French Air Force varies depending on source, the French Air Force has 233 combat aircraft in service, with the majority being 125 Dassault Mirage 2000 and 108 Dassault Rafale. As of early 2016, the French Air Force employs a total of 42,607 regular personnel, the reserve element of the air force consisted of 5,187 personnel of the Operational Reserve. The Minister of Defence is responsible for execution of military policy and he is advised by the Chief of Staff of the Armies in regard to the use of forces and the control of military operations. The Chief of Staff of the French Air Force determines the air force doctrines and advises the CEMA how to deploy French air assets and he is responsible for the preparation and logistic support of the air force. The French took active interest in developing the air force from 1909 and had the first World War I fighter pilots, in the post–World War II era, the French made a successful effort to develop a domestic aircraft industry.
Dassault Aviation led the way mainly with delta-wing designs, which formed the basis for the Mirage series of jet fighters. The Mirage demonstrated its abilities in the Six-Day War, Yom Kippur War, the Falklands War, the French Air Force participated in several protracted colonial wars in Africa and French Indochina after the Second World War, and continues to employ its air power in Africa. The Military Air Transport Command had previously formed in February 1962 from the Groupement dUnités Aériennes Spécialisées. The Dassault Mirage IV, the principal French strategic bomber, was designed to strike Soviet positions as part of the French nuclear triad, created in 1964 was the Escadron des Fusiliers Commandos de lAir, seemingly grouping all FCA units. CFAS had two squadrons of S-3 IRBMs at the Plateau dAlbion, six squadrons of Mirage IVAs, coTAM counted 28 squadrons, of which ten were fixed-wing transport squadrons, and the remainder helicopter and liaison squadrons, at least five of which were overseas.
CAFDA numbered 14 squadrons mostly flying the Mirage F. 1C, two other commands had flying units, the Air Force Schools Command, and the Air Force Transmissions Command, with four squadrons and three trials units. In 1994 the Commandement des Fusiliers Commandos de lAir was established, the French Air Force is expanding and replacing aircraft inventory. After an absence lasting several decades, the French President Nicolas Sarkozy confirmed that France will rejoin the NATO integrated command, from 2008-2010 the Air Force underwent an organisational streamlining process. This project was called Air 2010, which was the year of the deadline for all transitions, the main targets of this project were to simplify the command structure, to regroup all military and civil air force functions and to rationalise and optimise all air force units. Five major commands, were formed, instead of the former 13, CDAOA CFA CSFA DRHAA SAGF The last remaining squadron of Dassault Mirage F1s were retired in July 2014 and replaced by the Rafale.
The Chief of Staff of the French Air Force determines air force doctrine and he is responsible for the preparation and logistic support of the air force
A monoplane is a fixed-wing aircraft with a single main wing plane, in contrast to a biplane or other multiplane, each of which has multiple planes. A monoplane has inherently the highest efficiency and lowest drag of any wing configuration and is the simplest to build, during the early years of flight, these advantages were offset by its greater weight and lower manoeuvrability, making it relatively rare until the 1930s. Since then, the monoplane has been the most common form for a fixed-wing aircraft, although the first successful aircraft were biplanes, the first attempts at heavier-than-air flying machines were monoplanes, and many pioneers continued to develop monoplane designs. For example, the first aeroplane to be put into production was the 1907 Santos-Dumont Demoiselle, while the Blériot XI flew across the English Channel in 1909, throughout 1909–1910, Hubert Latham set multiple altitude records in his Antoinette IV monoplane, eventually reaching 1,384 m. The equivalent German language term is Eindecker, as in the mid-wing Fokker Eindecker fighter of 1915 which for a time dominated the skies in what known as the Fokker scourge.
The German military Idflieg aircraft designation system prior to 1918 prefixed monoplane type designations with an E, the success of the Fokker was short-lived, and World War I was dominated by biplanes. Towards the end of the war, the parasol monoplane became popular, relatively few monoplane types were built between 1914 and the late 1920s, compared with the number of biplanes. The reasons for this were primarily practical, towards the end of the First World War, the inherent high drag of the biplane was beginning to restrict performance. Engines were not yet enough to make the heavy cantilever-wing monoplane viable. It remained popular throughout the 1920s, on flying boats with a shallow hull, a parasol wing allows the engines to be mounted above the spray from the water when taking off and landing. It was popular on flying boats during the 1930s, an example being the Consolidated PBY Catalina. It died out when taller hulls became the norm during World War II, most military aircraft of WW II were monoplanes, as have been virtually all aircraft since.
Jet and rocket engines have more power, and all modern high-speed aircraft. The inherent efficiency of the monoplane can best be realised in the cantilever wing which carries all structural forces internally. By contrast, a wing has additional drag from the exposed bracing struts and/or wires. On the other hand, the wing has greater structural efficiency. This in turn means that for a wing of a size, bracing allows it to fly slower with a lower-powered engine, while a heavy cantilever wing needs a more powerful engine. A cantilever wing can be lighter by making it thicker
The SPAD S. XIII was a French biplane fighter aircraft of World War I, developed by Société Pour LAviation et ses Dérivés from the earlier highly successful SPAD S. VII. It was one of the most capable fighters of the war, the SPAD S. VII was a single-seat fighter aircraft powered by a 150 horsepower Hispano-Suiza 8A water cooled V-8 engine and armed with a single synchronised Vickers machine gun. It demonstrated excellent performance for the time, and entered service with the French Aéronautique Militaire in August 1916, First to fly was the S. XII, armed with a 37 mm cannon firing through the propeller shaft. This saw limited use, but was followed into production by the conventionally armed S. XIII. The S. XIII was of similar layout to the S. VII, i. e. a single engined biplane of wooden construction with fabric covering. It was armed with two Vickers machine guns with 400 rounds per gun, replacing the gun of the earlier aircraft. The powerplant was a geared Hispano-Suiza engine, at first a 8Ba providing 200 hp, the sum of these improvements was a notable improvement in flight and combat performance.
While giving the Spad XIII outstanding performance, the engines proved to be unreliable. This significantly and severely affected serviceability, with it being stated in November 1917, even in April 1918, an official report stated that two-thirds of the 200 hp SPADs were out of use at any one time due to engine problems. By the end of the war about one half of the aircraft in US service had been converted, the SPAD S. XIII first flew on 4 April 1917, with deliveries to the French Air Service starting in the next month. The new fighter played an important part in the French plans for its force, being expected to replace the SPAD S. VII. Deliveries were much slower than expected, with 764 delivered by the end of March 1918 compared with a planned 2,230, the S. XIII eventually equipped virtually every French fighter squadron,74 Escadrilles using the SPAD during the First World War. Other Allied forces were quick to adopt the new fighter as well, nearly half of the 893 purchased for the United States Army Air Service were still in service in 1920.
After the war, it was exported to Japan, Poland. In the United States, some SPAD XIIIs were re-engined with 180 hp Wright-Hispano engines to improve reliability, the S. XIII was flown by famous French fighter pilots such as Georges Guynemer and Rene Fonck, and by Italian ace Francesco Baracca. Aces of the United States Army Air Service who flew the Spad XIII include Eddie Rickenbacker, argentina Argentine Air Force - Two aircraft. Belgium Groupe de Chasse 10me Escadrille de Chasse Brazil Brazilian Air Force Czechoslovakia Czech Air Force - Postwar, finland Finnish Air Force - One aircraft. Siam Royal Siamese Air Force Kingdom of Spain Spanish Air Force Turkey Turkish Air Force United Kingdom Royal Flying CorpsNo,19 Squadron RFC - One aircraft No.23 Squadron RFC - December 1917—May 1918
The Albatros C. VII was a German military reconnaissance aircraft which saw service during World War I. It was a revised and re-engined development of the Albatros C. V, which had proved disappointing in service. The C. VII dispensed with the earlier C. Vs unreliable Mercedes D. IV and with the modifications that had made to accommodate that powerplant. Refinements were made to the surfaces, the overall effect was an aircraft with excellent handling qualities. The C. VII soon made up the bulk of German reconnaissance aircraft, with some 350 in service at one time
A flying ace or fighter ace is a military aviator credited with shooting down several enemy aircraft during aerial combat. The actual number of aerial victories required to qualify as an ace has varied. The few aces among combat aviators have historically accounted for the majority of victories in military history. Aerial combat became a prominent feature with the Fokker Scourge, in the last half of 1915 and this was the beginning of a long-standing trend in warfare, showing statistically that approximately five percent of combat pilots account for the majority of air-to-air victories. Use of the ace to describe these pilots began in World War I. The British initially used the term star-turns, while the Germans described their elite fighter pilots as Überkanonen, in the Luftstreitkräfte the Pour le Mérite was nicknamed Der blaue Max/The Blue Max, after Max Immelmann, who was the first fighter pilot to receive this award. Initially, German aviators had to destroy eight Allied aircraft to receive this medal, as the war progressed, the qualifications for Pour le Mérite were raised, but successful German fighter pilots continued to be hailed as national heroes for the remainder of the war.
Victories were counted for aircraft forced down within German lines and these victories were usually included in a pilots totals and in citations for decorations. Nonetheless some pilots did become famous through press coverage, making the British system for the recognition of successful fighter pilots much more informal and somewhat inconsistent. One pilot, Arthur Gould Lee, described his own score in a letter to his wife as Eleven, five by me solo — the rest shared, adding that he was miles from being an ace. This shows that his No.46 Squadron RAF counted shared kills, evident is that Lee considered a higher figure than five kills to be necessary for ace status. Aviation historians credit him as an ace with two aircraft destroyed and five driven down out of control, for a total of seven victories. Other Allied countries, such as France and Italy, fell somewhere in between the very strict German approach and the relatively casual British one and they usually demanded independent witnessing of the destruction of an aircraft, making confirmation of victories scored in enemy territory very difficult.
The Belgian crediting system sometimes included out of control to be counted as a victory, American newsmen, in their correspondence to their papers, decided that five victories were the minimum needed to become an ace. While ace status was generally won only by pilots, bomber. The most notable example of an ace in World War I is Charles George Gass with 39 accredited aerial victories. There were two theaters of war that produced flying aces between the two world wars and they were the Spanish Civil War and the Second Sino-Japanese War. The Spanish ace Joaquín García Morato scored 40 victories for the Nationalists during the Spanish Civil War, part of the outside intervention in the war was the supply of volunteer foreign pilots to both sides
The French are an ethnic group and nation who are identified with the country of France. This connection may be legal, historical, or cultural, modern French society can be considered a melting pot. To be French, according to the first article of the French Constitution, is to be a citizen of France, regardless of origin, race. The debate concerning the integration of this view with the underlying the European Community remains open. A large number of foreigners have traditionally been permitted to live in France, the country has long valued its openness and the quality of services available. Application for French citizenship is often interpreted as a renunciation of previous state allegiance unless a dual citizenship agreement exists between the two countries, the European treaties have formally permitted movement and European citizens enjoy formal rights to employment in the state sector. Seeing itself as a nation with universal values, France has always valued. However, the success of such assimilation has recently called into question.
There is increasing dissatisfaction with, and within, growing ethno-cultural enclaves, the 2005 French riots in some troubled and impoverished suburbs were an example of such tensions. However they should not be interpreted as ethnic conflicts but as social conflicts born out of socioeconomic problems endangering proper integration, the name France etymologically derives from the word Francia, the territory of the Franks. The Franks were a Germanic tribe that overran Roman Gaul at the end of the Roman Empire, in the pre-Roman era, all of Gaul was inhabited by a variety of peoples who were known collectively as the Gaulish tribes. Gaul was militarily conquered in 58-51 BCE by the Roman legions under the command of General Julius Caesar, the area became part of the Roman Empire. Over the next five centuries the two cultures intermingled, creating a hybridized Gallo-Roman culture, the Gaulish vernacular language disappeared step by step to be replaced everywhere by Vulgar Latin, which would develop under Frankish influence into the French language in the North of France.
With the decline of the Roman Empire in Western Europe, a federation of Germanic peoples entered the picture, the Franks were Germanic pagans who began to settle in northern Gaul as laeti, already during the Roman era. They continued to filter across the Rhine River from present-day Netherlands, at the beginning, they served in the Roman army and reached high commands. Their language is spoken as a kind of Dutch in northern France. Another Germanic people immigrated massively to Alsace, the Alamans, which explains the Alemannic German spoken there and they were competitors of the Franks, thats why it became at the Renaissance time the word for German in French, Allemand. By the early 6th century the Franks, led by the Merovingian king Clovis I and his sons, had consolidated their hold on much of modern-day France, the Vikings eventually intermarried with the local people, converting to Christianity in the process