Peter Greenaway, is a British film director and artist. His films are noted for the distinct influence of Renaissance and Baroque painting, Flemish painting in particular. Common traits in his film are the scenic composition and illumination and the contrasts of costume and nudity and architecture, furniture and people, sexual pleasure and painful death. Greenaway was born in Newport, Wales, to a teacher mother and a builder's merchant father. Greenaway's family left South Wales when he was three years old and settled in Essex, he attended Forest School in northeast London. At an early age Greenaway decided on becoming a painter, he became interested in European cinema, focusing first on the films of Ingmar Bergman, on the French nouvelle vague filmmakers such as Jean-Luc Godard and, most Alain Resnais. He now lives in Amsterdam. In 1962, Greenaway began studies at Walthamstow College of Art, where a fellow student was musician Ian Dury. Greenaway trained as a muralist for three years. In 1965, he joined the Central Office of Information, working there fifteen years as a film editor and director.
In that time he created a filmography of experimental films, starting with Train, footage of the last steam trains at Waterloo station, edited to a musique concrète composition. Tree, is a homage to the embattled tree growing in concrete outside the Royal Festival Hall on the South Bank in London. By the 1970s he was confident and ambitious and made Vertical Features Remake and A Walk Through H; the former is an examination of various arithmetical editing structures, the latter is a journey through the maps of a fictitious country. In 1980, Greenaway delivered The Falls – a mammoth, absurdist encyclopaedia of flight-associated material all relating to ninety-two victims of what is referred to as the Violent Unknown Event. In the 1980s, Greenaway's cinema flowered in his best-known films, The Draughtsman's Contract, A Zed & Two Noughts, The Belly of an Architect, Drowning by Numbers, his most successful film, The Cook, the Thief, His Wife & Her Lover. Greenaway's most familiar musical collaborator during this period is composer Michael Nyman, who has scored several films.
In 1989, he collaborated with artist Tom Phillips on a television serial A TV Dante, dramatising the first few cantos of Dante's Inferno. In the 1990s, he presented Prospero's Books, the controversial The Baby of Mâcon, The Pillow Book, 8½ Women. In the early 1990s, Greenaway wrote ten opera libretti known as the Death of a Composer series, dealing with the commonalities of the deaths of ten composers from Anton Webern to John Lennon, the other composers are fictitious, one is a character from The Falls. In 1995, Louis Andriessen completed Rosa -- A Horse Drama, he is professor of cinema studies at the European Graduate School in Saas-Fee, Switzerland. Greenaway presented the ambitious The Tulse Luper Suitcases, a multimedia project that resulted in three films, a website, two books, a touring exhibition, a shorter feature which reworked the material of the first three films, he contributed to Visions of Europe, a short film collection by different European Union directors. Nightwatching and Rembrandt's J'Accuse two films on Rembrandt which were released in 2007 and 2008 respectively.
Nightwatching is the first feature in the series "Dutch Masters", with the next project titled as Goltzius and the Pelican Company. On 17 June 2005, Greenaway appeared for his first VJ performance during an art club evening in Amsterdam, with music by DJ Serge Dodwell, as a backdrop,'VJ' Greenaway used for his set a special system consisting of a large plasma screen with laser controlled touchscreen to project the ninety-two Tulse Luper stories on the twelve screens of "Club 11", mixing the images live; this was reprised at the Optronica festival, London. On 12 October 2007, he created the multimedia installation Peopling the Palaces at Venaria Reale at the Royal Palace of Venaria that animates the Palace with 100 videoprojectors. Greenaway was interviewed for Clive Meyer's Critical Cinema: Beyond the Theory of Practice, voiced strong criticisms of film theory as distinct from discussions of other media: "Are you sufficiently happy with cinema as a thinking medium if you are only talking to one person?"On 3 May 2016, he received a Honoris Causa doctorate from the University of San Martín, Argentina.
In 2006, Greenaway began a series of digital video installations, Nine Classical Paintings Revisited, with his exploration of Rembrandt's Night Watch in the Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam. On 30 June 2008, after much negotiation, Greenaway staged a one-night performance'remixing' da Vinci's The Last Supper in the refectory of Santa Maria delle Grazie in Milan to a select audience of dignitaries; the performance consisted of superimposing digital imagery and projections onto the painting with music from the composer Marco Robino. Greenaway exhibited his digital exploration of The Wedding at Cana by Paolo Veronese as part of the 2009 Venice Biennial. An arts writer for The New York Times called it "possibly the best unmanned art history lecture you'll experience," while acknowledging that some viewers might respond to it as "mediocre art, Disneyfied kitsch o
The Louvre, or the Louvre Museum, is the world's largest art museum and a historic monument in Paris, France. A central landmark of the city, it is located on the Right Bank of the Seine in the city's 1st arrondissement. 38,000 objects from prehistory to the 21st century are exhibited over an area of 72,735 square metres. In 2018, the Louvre was the world's most visited art museum; the museum is housed in the Louvre Palace built as the Louvre castle in the late 12th to 13th century under Philip II. Remnants of the fortress are visible in the basement of the museum. Due to the urban expansion of the city, the fortress lost its defensive function and, in 1546, was converted by Francis I into the main residence of the French Kings; the building was extended many times to form the present Louvre Palace. In 1682, Louis XIV chose the Palace of Versailles for his household, leaving the Louvre as a place to display the royal collection, from 1692, a collection of ancient Greek and Roman sculpture. In 1692, the building was occupied by the Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres and the Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture, which in 1699 held the first of a series of salons.
The Académie remained at the Louvre for 100 years. During the French Revolution, the National Assembly decreed that the Louvre should be used as a museum to display the nation's masterpieces; the museum opened on 10 August 1793 with an exhibition of 537 paintings, the majority of the works being royal and confiscated church property. Because of structural problems with the building, the museum was closed in 1796 until 1801; the collection was increased under Napoleon and the museum was renamed Musée Napoléon, but after Napoleon's abdication many works seized by his armies were returned to their original owners. The collection was further increased during the reigns of Louis XVIII and Charles X, during the Second French Empire the museum gained 20,000 pieces. Holdings have grown through donations and bequests since the Third Republic; the collection is divided among eight curatorial departments: Egyptian Antiquities. The Louvre Palace, which houses the museum, was begun as a fortress by Philip II in the 12th century to protect the city from English soldiers which were in Normandy.
Remnants of this castle are still visible in the crypt. Whether this was the first building on that spot is not known. According to the authoritative Grand Larousse encyclopédique, the name derives from an association with wolf hunting den. In the 7th century, St. Fare, an abbess in Meaux, left part of her "Villa called Luvra situated in the region of Paris" to a monastery.. The Louvre Palace was altered throughout the Middle Ages. In the 14th century, Charles V converted the building into a residence and in 1546, Francis I renovated the site in French Renaissance style. Francis acquired what would become the nucleus of the Louvre's holdings, his acquisitions including Leonardo da Vinci's Mona Lisa. After Louis XIV chose Versailles as his residence in 1682, constructions slowed. Four generations of Boulle were granted Royal patronage and resided in the Louvre in the following order: Pierre Boulle, Jean Boulle, Andre-Charles Boulle and his four sons, after him. André-Charles Boulle is the most famous French cabinetmaker and the preeminent artist in the field of marquetry known as "Inlay".
Boulle was "the most remarkable of all French cabinetmakers". He was commended to Louis XIV of France, the "Sun King", by Jean-Baptiste Colbert as being "the most skilled craftsman in his profession". Before the fire of 1720 destroyed them, André-Charles Boulle held priceless works of art in the Louvre, including forty-eight drawings by Raphael'. By the mid-18th century there were an increasing number of proposals to create a public gallery, with the art critic La Font de Saint-Yenne publishing, in 1747, a call for a display of the royal collection. On 14 October 1750, Louis XV agreed and sanctioned a display of 96 pieces from the royal collection, mounted in the Galerie royale de peinture of the Luxembourg Palace. A hall was opened by Le Normant de Tournehem and the Marquis de Marigny for public viewing of the Tableaux du Roy on Wednesdays and Saturdays, contained Andrea del Sarto's Charity and works by Raphael. Under Louis XVI, the royal museum idea became policy; the comte d'Angiviller broadened the collection and in 1776 proposed conversion of the Grande Galerie of the Louvre – which contained maps – into the "French Museum".
Many proposals were offered for the Louvre's renovation into a museum. Hence the museum remained incomplete until the French Revolution. During the French Revolution the Louvre was transformed into a public museum. In May 1791, the Assembly declared that the Louvre would be "a place for bringing together monuments of all the sciences and arts". On 10 August 1792, Louis XVI was imprisoned and the royal collection i
Anthony Frederick Blunt, known as Sir Anthony Blunt, KCVO, from 1956 to 1979, was a leading British art historian who in 1964, after being offered immunity from prosecution, confessed to having been a Soviet spy. Blunt had been a member of the Cambridge Five, a group of spies working for the Soviet Union from some time in the 1930s to at least the early 1950s, his confession, a held secret for many years, was revealed publicly by Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher in November 1979. He was stripped of his knighthood thereafter. Blunt was Professor of the History of Art at the University of London, director of the Courtauld Institute of Art, Surveyor of the Queen's Pictures, his 1967 monograph on the French Baroque painter Nicolas Poussin is still regarded as a watershed book in art history. His teaching text and reference work Art and Architecture in France 1500–1700, first published in 1953, reached its fifth edition in a revised version by Richard Beresford in 1999, when it was still considered the best account of the subject.
Blunt was born in Bournemouth, the third and youngest son of a vicar, the Revd Stanley Vaughan Blunt, his wife, Hilda Violet, daughter of Henry Master of the Madras civil service. He was the brother of writer Wilfrid Jasper Walter Blunt and of numismatist Christopher Evelyn Blunt, the grandnephew of poet Wilfrid Scawen Blunt, he was a third cousin of Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon, the late Queen Mother: his mother was the second cousin of Elizabeth's father Claude Bowes-Lyon, 14th Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne. On occasions and his two brothers and Wilfrid, took afternoon tea at the Bowes-Lyons' London home at 17 Bruton Street, the birthplace of Queen Elizabeth II, he was fourth cousin once removed of Sir Oswald Ernald Mosley 6th Baronet, leader of the British Union of Fascists, both being descended from John Parker Mosley. Blunt's father, a vicar, was assigned to Paris with the British embassy chapel, moved his family to the French capital for several years during Anthony's childhood; the young Anthony became fluent in French and experienced intensely the artistic culture available to him, stimulating an interest which lasted a lifetime and formed the basis for his career.
He was educated at Marlborough College, where he joined the college's secret'Society of Amici', in which he was a contemporary of Louis MacNeice, John Betjeman and Graham Shepard. He was remembered by historian John Edward Bowle, a year ahead of Blunt at Marlborough, as "an intellectual prig, too preoccupied with the realm of ideas". Bowle thought Blunt had "too much ink in his veins and belonged to a world of rather prissy, cold-blooded, academic puritanism", he won a scholarship in mathematics to Cambridge. At that time, scholars in Cambridge University were allowed to skip Part I of the Tripos and complete Part II in two years. However, they could not earn a degree in less than three years, hence Blunt spent four years at Trinity and switched to Modern Languages graduating in 1930 with a first class degree, he taught French at Cambridge and became a Fellow of Trinity College in 1932. His graduate research was in French art history and he travelled to continental Europe in connection with his studies.
Like Guy Burgess, Blunt was known to be homosexual, a criminal offence at the time in Britain. Both were members of the Cambridge Apostles, a clandestine Cambridge discussion group of 12 undergraduates from Trinity and King's Colleges who considered themselves to be the brightest minds in the university. Many were Marxist at that time. Amongst other members later accused of being part of the Cambridge spy ring were the American Michael Whitney Straight and Victor Rothschild, who worked for MI5. Rothschild gave Blunt £ 100 to purchase Rebecca by Nicolas Poussin; the painting was sold by Blunt's executors in 1985 for £100,000 and is now in the Fitzwilliam Museum. There are numerous versions of how Blunt was recruited to the NKVD; as a Cambridge don, Blunt visited the Soviet Union in 1933, was recruited in 1934. In a press conference, Blunt claimed. Many sources suggest that Blunt served as a talent-spotter, he may have identified Burgess, Kim Philby, Donald Maclean, John Cairncross and Michael Straight – all undergraduates at Trinity College, a few years younger than he – as potential spies for the Soviets.
Blunt said in his public confession that it was Burgess who converted him to the Soviet cause, after both had left Cambridge. Both were members of the Cambridge Apostles, Burgess could have recruited Blunt or vice versa either at Cambridge University or when both worked for British intelligence. With the invasion of Poland by German and Soviet forces, Blunt joined the British Army in 1939. During the phoney war he served in France in the intelligence corps; when the Wehrmacht drove British forces back to Dunkirk in May 1940, he was evacuated by the Royal Navy. During that same year he was recruited to the Security Service. Before the war MI5 employed former Indian policemen, for it was in India that the British Empire faced security threats. MI5 may have known Blunt's views, for an officer claimed that it had been running the Communist Party of Great Britain and complained about the cost of pension payments to its retired infiltrators. Blunt passed the results of Ultra intelligence fro
The Musicians' Brawl
The Musicians' Brawl is an oil on canvas painting by the French artist Georges de La Tour, produced at an unknown date between 1620 and 1630. Attributed to Caravaggio, the work was in Lord Trevor's collection by 1928, it was reattributed to de la Tour in 1958 by Charles Sterling and Francois-Georges Pariset and sold in 1972. Its present owner the J. Paul Getty Museum acquired it in 1973
Saint Sebastian was an early Christian saint and martyr. According to traditional belief, he was killed during the Roman emperor Diocletian's persecution of Christians being tied to a post or tree and shot with arrows, though this did not kill him, he was, according to his legend and healed by Saint Irene of Rome, which became a popular subject in 17th-century painting. In all versions of the story, shortly after his recovery he went to Diocletian to warn him about his sins, as a result was clubbed to death, he is venerated in the Orthodox Church. The details of Saint Sebastian's martyrdom were first spoken of by 4th-century bishop Ambrose of Milan, in his sermon on Psalm 118. Ambrose stated that Sebastian came from Milan and that he was venerated there at that time. Saint Sebastian is a popular male saint today among athletes. In historical times he was regarded as a saint with a special ability to intercede to protect from plague, devotion to him increased when plague was active; the first surviving account giving details of Sebastian's life and death is the Passio Sancti Sebastiani, long thought to have been written by Ambrose of Milan in the 4th century, but now regarded as a 5th-century account by an unknown author.
This includes the "two martyrdoms", the care by Irene in between, other details that remained part of the story. According to Sebastian's 18th-century entry in Acta Sanctorum, still attributed to Ambrose by the 17th-century hagiographer Jean Bolland, the briefer account in the 14th-century Legenda Aurea, he was a man of Gallia Narbonensis, taught in Mediolanum. In 283, Sebastian entered the army in Rome under Emperor Carinus to assist the martyrs; because of his courage he became one of the captains of the Praetorian Guards under Diocletian and Maximian, who were unaware that he was a Christian. According to tradition and Marcellian were twin brothers from a distinguished family and were deacons. Both brothers married, they resided in Rome with their wives and children; the brothers were arrested. They were visited by their parents Tranquillinus and Martia in prison, who attempted to persuade them to renounce Christianity. Sebastian succeeded in converting Tranquillinus and Martia, as well as Saint Tiburtius, the son of Chromatius, the local prefect.
Another official and his wife Zoe were converted. It has been said; as soon as she had, her speech returned to her. Nicostratus brought the rest of the prisoners. Chromatius and Tiburtius converted. Marcus and Marcellian, after being concealed by a Christian named Castulus, were martyred, as were Nicostratus and Tiburtius. Sebastian had prudently concealed his faith. Diocletian reproached him for his supposed betrayal, he commanded him to be led to a field and there to be bound to a stake so that certain archers from Mauritania would shoot arrows at him. "And the archers shot at him till he was as full of arrows as an urchin is full of pricks, thus left him there for dead." Miraculously, the arrows did not kill him. The widow of Castulus, Irene of Rome, went to retrieve his body to bury it, she discovered he was still alive, she nursed him back to health. Sebastian stood by a staircase where the emperor was to pass and harangued Diocletian for his cruelties against Christians; this freedom of speech, from a person whom he supposed to have been dead astonished the emperor.
A pious lady, called Lucina, admonished by the martyr in a vision removed the body, buried it in the catacombs at the entrance of the cemetery of Calixtus, where now stands the Basilica of St. Sebastian. Remains reputed to be those of Sebastian are housed in Rome in the Basilica Apostolorum, built by Pope Damasus I in 367 on the site of the provisional tomb of Saints Peter and Paul; the church, today called San Sebastiano fuori le mura, was rebuilt in the 1610s under the patronage of Scipione Borghese. St. Ado, Eginard and other contemporary authors relate that, in the reign of Louis Debonnair, Pope Eugenius II gave the body of St. Sebastian to Hilduin, Abbot of St. Denys, who brought it into France, it was deposited at Saint Medard Abbey, at Soissons, on 8 December, in 826. Sebastian's cranium was brought to the town of Ebersberg in 934. A Benedictine abbey was founded there and became one of the most important pilgrimage sites in southern Germany, it is said the silver-encased cranium was used as a cup in which to present wine to the faithful during the feast of Saint Sebastian.
Reliquary of Saint Sebastian in Ebersberg The belief that Saint Sebastian was a defense against the plague was a medieval addition to his reputation, which accounts for the enormous increase in his importance in the Late Middle Ages. The connection of the martyr shot with arrows with the plague is not an intuitive one, however. In Greco-Roman myth, the archer god, at times destroys his enemies by shooting plague-arrows from the heavens, but is the deliverer from pestilence. Similar metaphors for divine displeasure occur in the Hebrew Bible; the hopeful example of Sebastian being able to recover from his "first m
Roman Catholic Diocese of Metz
The Roman Catholic Diocese of Metz is a diocese of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic Church in France. In the Middle Ages it was a prince-bishopric of the Holy Roman Empire, a de facto independent state ruled by the prince-bishop who had the ex officio title of count, it was annexed to France by King Henry II in 1552. It formed part of the province of the Three Bishoprics. Since 1801 the Metz diocese has been a public-law corporation of cult. Metz was a bishopric by 535, but may date from earlier than that. Metz's Basilica of Saint-Pierre-aux-Nonnains is built on the site of a Roman basilica, a location for the one of the earliest Christian congregations of France; the diocese was under the metropolitan of Trier. After the French Revolution, the last prince bishop, Cardinal Louis de Montmorency-Laval fled and the old organization of the diocese was broken up. With the Concordat of 1801 the diocese was re-established covering the departments of Moselle and Forêts, was put under the Archdiocese of Besançon.
In 1817 the parts of the diocese which became Prussian territory were transferred to the Diocese of Trier. In 1871 the core areas of the diocese became part of Germany, in 1874 Metz diocese reconfined to the borders of the new German Lorraine department became subject to the Holy See; as of 1910 there were about 533,000 Catholics living in the diocese of Metz. When the 1905 French law on the Separation of the Churches and the State was enacted, doing away with public-law religious corporations, this did not apply to the Metz diocese being within Germany. After World War I it was returned to France, but the concordatary status has been preserved since as part of the Local law in Alsace-Moselle. In 1940, after the French defeat, it came under German occupation till 1944 when it became French again. Together with the Archdiocese of Strasbourg the bishop of the see is nominated by the French government according to the concordat of 1801; the concordat further provides for the clergy being paid by the government and Roman Catholic pupils in public schools can receive religious instruction according to diocesan guide lines.
According to the traditional list of bishops, the current bishop Pierre René Ferdinand Raffin is the 105th bishop of Metz. According to this list, the first bishop was Saint Clement sent by Saint Peter himself to Metz; the first authenticated bishop however is Sperus or Hesperus, bishop in 535. Many of the bishops were declared holy or blessed, like Saint Arnulf, Saint Chrodegang or Saint Agilram. Adelbero was bishop of Metz in 933 AD; the bishop of Metz is appointed by the President of the Republic. Willibrord Benzler, O. S. B. 1901–1919 Jean-Baptiste Pelt, 1919–1937 Joseph-Jean Heintz, 1938–1958 Paul Joseph Schmitt, 1958–1987 Pierre René Ferdinand Raffin, O. P. 1987–2013 Jean-Christophe Lagleize, 2013–presentAuxiliary bishopsJean-Pierre Vuillemin, appointed 8 January 2019 Catholic Church in France Website of the diocese Catholic hierarchy Herbermann, Charles, ed.. "Metz". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company
Chiaroscuro, in art, is the use of strong contrasts between light and dark bold contrasts affecting a whole composition. It is a technical term used by artists and art historians for the use of contrasts of light to achieve a sense of volume in modelling three-dimensional objects and figures. Similar effects in cinema and photography are called chiaroscuro. Further specialized uses of the term include chiaroscuro woodcut for coloured woodcuts printed with different blocks, each using a different coloured ink; the underlying principle is that solidity of form is best achieved by the light falling against it. Artists known for developing the technique include Leonardo da Vinci and Rembrandt, it is a mainstay of black and white and low-key photography. It is one of the modes of painting colour in Renaissance art. Artists well-known for their use of chiaroscuro include Rembrandt, Caravaggio and Goya; the term chiaroscuro originated during the Renaissance as drawing on coloured paper, where the artist worked from the paper's base tone toward light using white gouache, toward dark using ink, bodycolour or watercolour.
These in turn drew on traditions in illuminated manuscripts going back to late Roman Imperial manuscripts on purple-dyed vellum. Such works are called "chiaroscuro drawings", but may only be described in modern museum terminology by such formulae as "pen on prepared paper, heightened with white bodycolour". Chiaroscuro woodcuts began as imitations of this technique; when discussing Italian art, the term sometimes is used to mean painted images in monochrome or two colours, more known in English by the French equivalent, grisaille. The term broadened in meaning early on to cover all strong contrasts in illumination between light and dark areas in art, now the primary meaning; the more technical use of the term chiaroscuro is the effect of light modelling in painting, drawing, or printmaking, where three-dimensional volume is suggested by the value gradation of colour and the analytical division of light and shadow shapes—often called "shading". The invention of these effects in the West, "skiagraphia" or "shadow-painting" to the Ancient Greeks, traditionally was ascribed to the famous Athenian painter of the fifth century BC, Apollodoros.
Although few Ancient Greek paintings survive, their understanding of the effect of light modelling still may be seen in the late-fourth-century BC mosaics of Pella, Macedonia, in particular the Stag Hunt Mosaic, in the House of the Abduction of Helen, inscribed gnosis epoesen, or'knowledge did it'. The technique survived in rather crude standardized form in Byzantine art and was refined again in the Middle Ages to become standard by the early fifteenth-century in painting and manuscript illumination in Italy and Flanders, spread to all Western art. According to the theory of the art historian Marcia B. Hall, which has gained considerable acceptance, chiaroscuro is one of four modes of painting colours available to Italian High Renaissance painters, along with cangiante and unione; the Raphael painting illustrated, with light coming from the left, demonstrates both delicate modelling chiaroscuro to give volume to the body of the model, strong chiaroscuro in the more common sense, in the contrast between the well-lit model and the dark background of foliage.
To further complicate matters, the compositional chiaroscuro of the contrast between model and background would not be described using this term, as the two elements are completely separated. The term is used to describe compositions where at least some principal elements of the main composition show the transition between light and dark, as in the Baglioni and Geertgen tot Sint Jans paintings illustrated above and below. Chiaroscuro modelling is now taken for granted, but it has had some opponents, her Majesty... chose her place to sit for that purpose in the open alley of a goodly garden, where no tree was near, nor any shadow at all..."In drawings and prints, modelling chiaroscuro is achieved by the use of hatching, or shading by parallel lines. Washes, stipple or dotting effects, "surface tone" in printmaking are other techniques. Chiaroscuro woodcuts are old master prints in woodcut using two or more blocks printed in different colours, they were first produced to achieve similar effects to chiaroscuro drawings.
After some early experiments in book-printing, the true chiaroscuro woodcut conceived for two blocks was first invented by Lucas Cranach the Elder in Germany in 1508 or 1509, though he backdated some of his first prints and added tone blocks to some prints first produced for monochrome printing, swiftly followed by Hans Burgkmair the Elder. Despite Vasari's claim for Italian precedence in Ugo da Carpi, it is clear that his, the first Italian examples, date to around 1516 But other sources suggest, the first chiaroscuro woodcut to be the Triumph of Julius Caesar, created by Andrea Mantegna, an Italian painter, between 1470 and 1500. Another view states that: "Lucas Cranach backdated two of his works in an attempt to grab the glory" and that the technique was invented "in all probability" by Burgkmair "who was commissioned by the emperor Maximilian to find a c