Billy Ray Cyrus
William Ray Cyrus is an American singer and actor. Having released 12 studio albums and 44 singles since 1992, he is best known for his number one single "Achy Breaky Heart", which became the first single to achieve triple Platinum status in Australia, it was the best-selling single in the same country in 1992. Due to the video of this song, the line dance gained in popularity. Cyrus, a multi-platinum selling recording artist, has scored a total of eight top-ten singles on the Billboard Country Songs chart, his most successful album to date is his debut Some Gave All, certified 9× Multi-Platinum in the United States and is the longest time spent by a debut artist at number one on the Billboard 200 and most consecutive chart-topping weeks in the SoundScan era. It is the only album in the SoundScan era to log 17 consecutive weeks at number one and is the top-ranking debut album by a male country artist, it ranked 43 weeks in the top 10, a total topped by only one country album in history, Ropin' the Wind by Garth Brooks.
Some Gave All was the first debut album to enter at number one on the Billboard Country Albums chart. The album has sold more than 20 million copies worldwide and is the best-selling debut album of all time for a solo male artist; some Gave All was the best-selling album of 1992 in the US with 4,832,000 copies. In his career, he has released 36 charted singles, of which 17 charted in the top 40. From 2001 to 2004, Cyrus starred in the television show Doc; the show was about a country doctor. From 2006 to 2011, he co-starred in the Disney Channel series Hannah Montana with his daughter Miley Cyrus. From 2016 to 2017, he starred as Vernon Brownmule on the CMT sitcom Still the King. William Ray Cyrus was born on August 25, 1961 in Flatwoods, Kentucky, to Ron Cyrus, a politician and former steelworker, his wife, the former Ruth Ann Casto. Cyrus started singing at the age of four, his parents divorced in 1966. His grandfather was a Pentecostal preacher. Growing up, he was surrounded by bluegrass and gospel music from his family.
His right-handed father played guitar however left-handed Cyrus tried to play his father's guitar, but could not. He attended Georgetown College on a baseball scholarship before changing to music, he dropped out of Georgetown during his junior year, realized he wanted to become a musician after attending a Neil Diamond concert, set a 10-month goal to start a career. In the 1980s, he played in a band called Sly Dog, before signing a record contract with Mercury Nashville Records. Sly Dog was named after a one-eyed dog. While trying to get a recording contract in Los Angeles, Cyrus suffered many hardships including living in his neighbor's car. However, in 1990, he was signed to PolyGram/Mercury; that same year, he opened for Reba McEntire. Cyrus began to record and write music for his debut album, released in 1992; some Gave All was released in 1992. The album became an instant chart and sales success, it debuted at No. 1 on the Billboard Top Country Albums, Billboard 200, Canadian Country Albums chart, Canadian Albums Chart, on the charts of several other foreign countries.
The album featured four consecutive top 40 singles on the Hot Country Songs chart from 1992 to 1993, including an album cut, the title track. The most successful single released was "Achy Breaky Heart", it reached No. 1 on the Hot Country Songs chart and was a hit on the Billboard Hot 100, where it reached No. 4. Although the song was the only number one single, "Could've Been Me" reached No. 2, "Wher'm I Gonna Live?" reached No. 23, "She's Not Cryin' Anymore" reached No. 6. Some Gave All was certified 9× Multi-Platinum in the United States in 1996, has sold over 20 million copies worldwide. In 1993, Cyrus and Mercury Records released Cyrus' second studio album, It Won't Be the Last; the album featured four singles. The album debuted at No. 1 on the Country charts, No. 3 on the Billboard 200. By the end of the year, It Won't Be the Last was certified Platinum by the RIAA; the highest charting single, "In the Heart of a Woman", charted to No. 3, with "Somebody New" charting to No. 9, "Words By Heart" at No.
12, "Talk Some" at No. 63. In 1993, Cyrus appeared on Dolly Parton's single "Romeo". Cyrus' third studio album, Storm in the Heartland, was released in 1994, it was the final album he recorded for PolyGram, as they closed their doors in 1995. The album was not as successful as its predecessors, it only reached No. 11 on the Country albums chart, only the title track made the top 40 of the Country singles chart. "Deja Blue" was the second single released. 66, the third and final single, "One Last Thrill", failed to chart at all. The album only managed to be certified Gold in the U. S. Before Cyrus started on his next album, he was transferred to Mercury Nashville. In 1994, Cyrus contributed the song "Pictures Don't Lie" to the AIDS benefit album Red Hot + Country produced by the Red Hot Organization. Cyrus' most critically acclaimed album was 1996's Trail of Tears on Mercury Records; the album debuted at No. 20 on the Country chart. Only two songs made the cut to radio, although neither one hit the top 60.
The title track and "Three Little Words" reached No. 65 respectively. The album failed to reach any certification, was on and off the charts after only four weeks. In 1998, Cyrus released his last album for Mercury Records Shot Full of Love; the album became his lowest-peaking album, debuting at No. 32. The first single
A dance squad or dance team, sometimes called a pom squad or song team, is a team of participants that participates in competitive dance. In a routine, a squad will incorporate a specific dance style, technical work, depending on the routine, pom-poms and/or cheers. A pom squad differs from a regular dance squad in that it uses pom-poms in all its dance routines, whilst a regular dance squad may or may not do pom work in a dance routine. Dance teams are popular in performance dance at sporting events, most performing during the pre-game and halftime periods of football and basketball games. Dance is a competitive activity. Youth/association, middle school, high school, all-star, professional teams, compete on local, state and international levels. Teams are judged on a number of criteria including form, team unison, precision of motions, leaps, choreography, and, in the case of pom squads, visual use of poms-poms. Pom squads are like cheerleading or dance. Pom squads use kicklines in their routines, after they set down their poms, or choose to hold them during the kickline.
A kickline routine is a routine of kicks, which cheerleaders use: high kicks, fan kicks, low kicks, kicks that go to their waist. Pom squads compete in competitions and perform at sporting events. Dance squads emphasize synchronized motions along with technical dance skills, their routines encompass various styles of dance including the more incorporated hip hop, jazz and kickline styles, to the more unusually used styles like disco and roll, gospel. A key feature of the dance is the ability to change formations smoothly. Traditional high school dance/pom squads include competition, performance dance, promoting school spirit with dance. Dance/pom is a year-round sport, performing in competitions and at sporting events, most football and basketball games; some schools have their dance team perform short sideline dances, some dance teams perform at school pep rallies. College dance squads are like traditional high school squads in that both include competition and performance dance, but there are many differences between the two.
For example, a college squad will most dance on the sidelines at games or have a specific spot in the stands, whereas high schools reserve this activity for cheerleaders. The U. S. All Star Federation governs all-star dance-pom squads. Tryouts for all-star dance squads may be conducted in different ways; some teams have only one tryout in the spring, whereas others may have a tryout in the spring and another in the fall. Some squads have year-round open tryouts; the opportunity to compete in many large competitions attracts dancers to all-star programs. All-star dance teams can compete regionally and internationally. Most high schools in Texas have a precision dance/drill team with 25-75 members; the traditional uniform for teams includes a white hat and white boots, with team officers wearing a solid white uniform while the line members wear school colors. Teams perform visual routines at football games, both in the stands during the game, on the field at halftime. During the spring, teams perform at basketball game halftimes, compete in many different dance styles at competitions sponsored by dance and drill team companies.
They conclude the year with a spring show in late April or early May. Texas dance/drill teams are structured with a chain of command similar to the military including captains and lieutenants leading squads. Traditionally, Texas drill teams have been all female, but males have auditioned and been selected to teams in recent years. Several colleges in Texas have dance teams. Well-known teams include the Tyler Junior College Apache Belles. A fierce but friendly rivalry between KC & TJC has existed since the Apache Belles were formed in 1947; the Rangerettes were the first college drill team created in 1939 by Miss Gussie Nell Davis. In 1960, Barbara Tidwell, a former Kilgore College Rangerette, created the Strutters at Southwest Texas State University, the first precision dance team created at a four-year university. In Minnesota, competitive high school dance team is regulated under the Minnesota State High School League; the season begins after a two-week choreography period in October and ends after the state tournament in February each year.
Team selection is led by the coaching staff in a tryout process individual to each participating school. Teams within this league are able to compete in one of three class divisions: A, AA, or AAA and in one or both of two categories: high kick or jazz; the high kick division requires a routine that ranges from 2:30 to 3:00 in length, contains 45-60 kicks performed by all members, consists of up to 34 competing members. The jazz division has a range between 2:30 and 3:00 in length and may have up to 26 competing members. Music selection is done by the coaching staff and/or members of the team. Throughout the state, a wide variety of costume styles are worn to enhance the theme or mood of each routine. During the competition season, teams compete within their designated conference, at team invites, within designated sections, may qualify to compete at the state tournament. Visit MSHSL dance team judging for more information on dance team scoring process. In addition to competitions, MSHSL dance teams can perform at invitationals and
Campbellsville University is a private university in Campbellsville, United States. Founded as Russell Creek Academy, a Baptist institution, the university enrolls more than 4,000 students and is open to students of all denominations; the university offers associate, bachelor's, master's degrees. In 2014, the university trustees ended its covenant agreement with the Kentucky Baptist Convention, but vowed to uphold the ideals. Campbellsville University traces its origins to the founding in 1906 of Russell Creek Academy, a school for boys, by the Russell Creek Baptist Association; the Academy developed its offerings and a four-year curriculum, becoming accredited as a college. With an expansion of graduate programs, in 1996 the college gained university status; the president of the university is Michael V. Carter, Ph. D; the immediate past president is Kenneth W. Winters, he is a Republican state senator from District 1 based in Murray in southwestern Kentucky. Before Winters, the president was William Randolph "Randy" Davenport of Campbellsville, who served 1969–1988.
Fuller Harding, an attorney and former state representative from Campbellsville, served on the CU board of trustees for five years. His father, Abel Turner Harding, had been instrumental in raising funds to establish Russell Creek Academy, the forerunner of Campbellsville College. Forest Shely, a physician in Campbellsville and a 1943 graduate of the former Campbellsville Junior College, served as a trustee of the university for 56 years, from 1954 until his death in 2010. In 2014, representatives from Campbellsville University met with Kentucky Baptist Convention leaders to report that the CU board of trustees had voted to end its Covenant Agreement with the KBC. CU's Board Chairman Dr. Joseph L. Owens said, "Our actions will allow us to select our own trustees but these decisions in no way change the mission or the character of Campbellsville University. We look forward to discussing the new proposed agreement that will continue CU working with the KBC and its churches in areas of joint mission and ministry in the spirit of the Great Commandment and in following the command of the Great Commission."In February 2017, the CU field house was damaged in a fire.
The university will rebuild on the same spot. The new structure is expected to be available in time for the new football season in mid-August; the Gosser Fine Arts Center is home to Campbellsville University's School of Music. Housed in this complex are classrooms, practice rooms, faculty studios, offices, a computer lab, a piano lab, an instrumental rehearsal hall, a choral rehearsal hall, the Gheens Recital Hall; the Music Library is on the mezzanine level of the Montgomery Library. This collection contains performance videos, CDs, AV listening/viewing stations, musical scores, music reference books, music periodicals. There is a conducting room in the basement level for music students to videotape practice and conducting assignments. Next to the Gosser Fine Arts Center is the University's School of Art. Like Gosser, the School of Art main building has classrooms, is to have a computer lab for students who want to learn about art; the School has a Gallery building and the Tessener complex, that were once houses.
When Campbellsville College gained university status in 1996, the re-organized governance included one college of Arts and Sciences and five schools, including The School of Education, which oversees the preparation of teachers. In the fall of 1996, the School of Education moved its offices into Carter Hall and in 2006 into the new School of Education building; the current dean is Dr. Beverly Ennis; the preparation of teachers has expanded to offering graduate education and online education in a wide variety of certifications and advanced roles. The university offers programs in Louisville and Elizabethtown in addition to the main campus; the School of Education has been accredited by the National Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Education and the Kentucky Education Professional Standards Board since 2007. The 80-acre campus is situated in the center of Kentucky, about a half mile from downtown Campbellsville, population 9,000. Another portion of the campus, Clay Hill Memorial Forest, is seven miles from campus.
It is a 135-acre educational and research woodland, being developed by the Division of Natural Science as a regional center for environmental education and research. Green River Lake, a 10,000-acre recreational state park, is five miles from campus. Since 2002, Campbellsville University has operated an off-site center in Kentucky, it moved to nearby Jeffersontown in July 2007. Campbellsville University has a satellite center in Hodgenville in LaRue County, the birthplace of Abraham Lincoln; the branch center offers adult education, general education classes, children's programs. The building in Hodgenville is a gift to CU from Freddie Hilpp. Nearly half of the students enrolled at CU live on campus; the Residence Village The Residence Village Broadway North Hall South Hall East South Hall West Stapp Hall Campbellsville University Apartments Campbellsville University offers online-degree opportunities. Online programs include four associate degree programs: Associate of Science in Business Administration, Associate of Science in Christian Studies, Associate of Science in Criminal Justice, Associate of Science in General Studies.
Graduate programs include master's and Rank I programs in education and special education, master's programs in theology, business administration, organizational leadership, social work. Campbellsville University offers
Volleyball is a popular team sport in which two teams of six players are separated by a net. Each team tries to score points by grounding a ball on the other team's court under organized rules, it has been a part of the official program of the Summer Olympic Games since Tokyo 1964. The complete rules are extensive, but play proceeds as follows: a player on one of the teams begins a'rally' by serving the ball, from behind the back boundary line of the court, over the net, into the receiving team's court; the receiving team must not let the ball be grounded within their court. The team may touch the ball up to 3 times, but individual players may not touch the ball twice consecutively; the first two touches are used to set up for an attack, an attempt to direct the ball back over the net in such a way that the serving team is unable to prevent it from being grounded in their court. The rally continues, with each team allowed as many as three consecutive touches, until either: a team makes a kill, grounding the ball on the opponent's court and winning the rally.
The team that wins the rally serves the ball to start the next rally. A few of the most common faults include: causing the ball to touch the ground or floor outside the opponents' court or without first passing over the net; the ball is played with the hands or arms, but players can strike or push the ball with any part of the body. A number of consistent techniques have evolved in volleyball, including spiking and blocking as well as passing and specialized player positions and offensive and defensive structures. In the winter of 1895, in Holyoke, William G. Morgan, a YMCA physical education director, created a new game called Mintonette, a name derived from the game of badminton, as a pastime to be played indoors and by any number of players; the game took some of its characteristics from other sports such as handball. Another indoor sport, was catching on in the area, having been invented just ten miles away in the city of Springfield, only four years before. Mintonette was designed to be an indoor sport, less rough than basketball, for older members of the YMCA, while still requiring a bit of athletic effort.
The first rules, written down by William G Morgan, called for a net 6 ft 6 in high, a 25 ft × 50 ft court, any number of players. A match was composed of nine innings with three serves for each team in each inning, no limit to the number of ball contacts for each team before sending the ball to the opponents' court. In case of a serving error, a second try was allowed. Hitting the ball into the net was considered a foul —except in the case of the first-try serve. After an observer, Alfred Halstead, noticed the volleying nature of the game at its first exhibition match in 1896, played at the International YMCA Training School, the game became known as volleyball. Volleyball rules were modified by the International YMCA Training School and the game spread around the country to various YMCAs; the first official ball used in volleyball is disputed. The rules evolved over time: in 1916, in the Philippines, the skill and power of the set and spike had been introduced, four years a "three hits" rule and a rule against hitting from the back row were established.
In 1917, the game was changed from requiring 21 points to win to a smaller 15 points to win. In 1919, about 16,000 volleyballs were distributed by the American Expeditionary Forces to their troops and allies, which sparked the growth of volleyball in new countries; the first country outside the United States to adopt volleyball was Canada in 1900. An international federation, the Fédération Internationale de Volleyball, was founded in 1947, the first World Championships were held in 1949 for men and 1952 for women; the sport is now popular in Brazil, in Europe, in Russia, in other countries including China and the rest of Asia, as well as in the United States. Beach volleyball, a variation of the game played on sand and with only two players per team, became a FIVB-endorsed variation in 1987 and was added to the Olympic program at the 1996 Summer Olympics. Volleyball is a sport at the Paralympics managed by the World Organization Volleyball for Disabled. Nudists were early adopters of the game with regular organized play in clubs as early as the late 1920s.
By the 1960s, a volleyball court had become standard in all nudist/naturist clubs. Volleyball has been part of the Summer Olympics program for both men and women since 1964. A volleyball court is 9 m × 18 m, divided into equal square halves by a net with a width of one meter; the top of the net is 2.43 m above the center of the court for men's competition, 2.24 m for women's competition, varied for veterans a
For other institutions called "Cumberland College," see Cumberland College. For the school in Williamsburg, see University of the Cumberlands. Cumberland University is a private university in Tennessee, it was founded in 1842, though the current campus buildings were constructed between 1892 and 1896. The university was founded by the Cumberland Presbyterian Church in 1842 and received its Tennessee State charter in 1843. In 1847 Cumberland Presbyterian church leaders added a law school, the first in Tennessee and the first west of the Appalachian Mountains, in 1854 a school of theology was begun; the original building, designed by Philadelphia architect William Strickland, housed schools of art and theology. It was burned by the Union Army during the American Civil War. Following the war, the university's faculty included former Confederate general A. P. Stewart, he taught there during his post-Civil War Union parole. From its early years, Cumberland University maintained a reputation for high-quality education.
The Cumberland School of Law at one time was said to have had more of its alumni elected to Congress than any other in the South. The Civil War nearly destroyed Cumberland University. University Hall was burned to the ground by Confederate forces under the command of General Joseph Wheeler. A Cumberland student wrote on a ruined Corinthian column the Latin Ex Cineribus Resurgam; the university thereafter adopted the mythical phoenix bird as its symbol. By 1866, just one year after the war's end, all departments were again operating in various locations in the town of Lebanon. Cumberland University moved to its present campus location in 1892; the university fell on hard times during the Great Depression. After World War II, Cumberland experienced several changes in sponsorship and programs. In 1946, The Tennessee Baptist Convention assumed control of the school, ending a century of operation by the Cumberland Presbyterian Church. In 1951, the Tennessee Baptists closed the College of Arts and Sciences and operated only the School of Law.
In 1956, the Board of Trust secured an amendment to the Charter and changed Cumberland to a private, independent corporation. The College of Arts and Sciences was reopened as a two-year junior college, known as Cumberland College of Tennessee. In 1962, the assets of the School of Law were transferred to Howard College, now known as Samford University, in Birmingham, Alabama; the Board of Trust expanded the academic programs of the junior college in 1982, returning Cumberland to a four-year, degree institution. It resumed the old name of Cumberland University. Since Cumberland has expanded its academic program to include new majors and specialized student-learning opportunities. Cumberland University believes that a broad education, based in the liberal arts, is the best foundation for a lifetime of learning. Students from every state and from many foreign countries now attend Cumberland, its alumni include 14 governors, more than 80 members of the United States Congress, two Supreme Court justices, three United States ambassadors, one United States Secretary of State.
In 1847 Cumberland Presbyterian church leaders added the Cumberland School of Law, the first law school in Tennessee and the first west of the Appalachian Mountains. For many years the law school was located in historic Caruthers Hall, named for Robert Looney Caruthers, a founder of Cumberland University; the trustees sold the School of Law and its assets in 1962 to what is now Samford University in Birmingham, Alabama. The law school continues to operate there. Cumberland University gives back to the local community in many ways. Cumberland has a Circle K club, affiliated with Kiwanis International. On February 13, 2010, Cumberland University hosted a conference basketball game, donated half of its gate admissions to Sherry's Run, a non-profit organization created to benefit people with cancer; the Cumberland University cycling team formed its own chapter of local non-profit organization Ride for Reading. The university has 5 fraternities; the sororities include the Lambda Omicron chapter of Alpha Omicron Pi and the Delta Mu chapter of Alpha Sigma Tau as well as Zeta Phi Beta.
The fraternities include the Theta Prime chapter of the Nu chapter of Sigma Chi. There are 3 NPHC fraternities: Gamma Rho Gamma chapter of Phi Beta Sigma, the Phi Delta Delta chapter of Omega Psi Phi and Kappa Alpha Psi. Cumberland University teams, nicknamed athletically as the Phoenix, are part of the National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics competing in the Mid-South Conference; the Phoenix competed in the TranSouth Athletic Conference. Men's sports include baseball, cross country, golf, soccer and wrestling. Cumberland football began on October 26, 1894 with a 6–6 tie with Peabody and finished that first year with a 2–1–1 season record; the early days of Cumberland football were promising. The pinnacle of the early days of CU football was the 1903 season that began with a win over Vanderbilt a loss to Sewanee and continued with a five-day road trip with victories over Alabama November 14, 1903, LSU November 16, 1903, Tulane November 18, 1903. Cumberland would play a postseason game against Coach John Heisman's Clemson team on Thanksgiving Day that ended in an 11–11 tie and a record of 4–1–1 which gave Coach A.
L. Phillips and Cumberland University the Championship of the Southern Intercollegiate Athletic Association; the 1916 game against Georgia Tech is famous as the most lop
University of the Cumberlands
For other institutions called "Cumberland College," see Cumberland College. University of the Cumberlands is a private, religious college located in Williamsburg, with an enrollment of 7,000 students; the school, known as Cumberland College until January 7, 2005, is affiliated with the Kentucky Baptist Convention, the Kentucky affiliate of the Southern Baptist Convention. University of the Cumberlands, first called Williamsburg Institute, was founded on January 7, 1889. At the 1887 annual meeting of the Mount Zion Association, representatives from 18 eastern Kentucky Baptist churches discussed plans to provide higher education in the Kentucky mountains; the college was incorporated by the Kentucky state legislature on April 6, 1888. In 1907 the school bought the three buildings of Highland College, in 1913, Williamsburg Institute's name was changed to Cumberland College; the name reflected the institution's location along the Cumberland River and its proximity to Cumberland Falls and the Cumberland Gap.
From its inception, the institution has been affiliated with the Baptist Church, its mission has been to educate and prepare leaders for service to the greater community. On the basis of being controlled by the Kentucky Baptist Convention and being bound by its policies, the university has requested and received exemptions from Title IX in the areas of "admissions, education programs or activities, employment", allowing it to discriminate in those fields based on its views regarding "marriage, sex outside of marriage, sexual orientation, gender identity and abortion."Although founded as a senior college, in 1918 Cumberland College became a junior college. The college received its first accreditation from the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools in 1931. In 1956 the Board of Trustees began bringing the college back to senior college status; the junior year was added in 1959-60 and the senior year in 1960-61. SACS granted initial accreditation to the institution as a senior college in December 1964.
Since SACS has reaffirmed the college's accreditation in 1974, 1985, 1995, 2006. It is next scheduled for reaffirmation in 2016. Cumberland College received authority to award its first graduate degree, the Master of Arts in Education on April 6, 1988. Graduate education has since become an integral part of the institution. In 2005, the institution received authorization from SACS to offer the Master of Arts in Teaching degree; this action was followed in 2006 with permission from the SACS Commission on Colleges to offer both the MAED and MAT degrees online. More in 2008, the Commission authorized the granting of the MBA degree, the Ed. S. degree, as well as the institution's first doctoral degree, an Ed. D. in Educational Leadership. Master's programs in Professional Counseling and in Physician Assistant Studies were approved by SACS in 2009, the Master of Arts in Christian Studies in 2010. On July 1, 2005, after action by the Board of Trustees, Cumberland College became the University of the Cumberlands.
The university is authorized by the Commonwealth of Kentucky to operate as a nonprofit corporation with perpetual duration and is licensed by the Kentucky Council on Postsecondary Education to grant the degrees offered through July 2017. The institution is recognized by the Commission on Colleges of SACS as a Level V institution and thus accredited to offer up to three doctoral programs, it offers three doctoral degrees: Ed. D. in Educational Leadership, Ed. D. in Counselor Education, Ph. D. in Psychology. As Williamsburg Institution as Cumberland College, now as University of the Cumberlands, the institution continues to provide quality education in a Christian environment, producing graduates who will serve and become leaders in their communities. Ten presidents have led the college including William James Johnson. On October 3, 2014, university President Dr. James Taylor announced that then-Vice President for Academic Affairs Dr. Larry Cockrum would take over day-to-day operations of the university after the board of trustees meeting on October 15, 2014.
Taylor announced his retirement as president effective October 15, 2015 with the recommendation that Cockrum be named university president effective October 16, 2015. On that date, Taylor would assume the honorary title of university chancellor; the board of trustees approved the succession plan on October 15, 2014 giving Cockrum a seven-year contract and the title of Chief Executive Officer & President-Elect. The board of trustees, in a unanimous vote named Cockrum university president on October 15, 2015. Notable alumni include two governors, five military generals, five college and university presidents. University of the Cumberlands' campus is in the southeastern part of Kentucky, just off Interstate 75, 190 miles south of Cincinnati, 70 miles north of Knoxville, Tennessee. Roburn Hall: The first building on the campus, Roburn Hall has been used as a classroom building and a women's and men's residence hall, it is now a women's residence hall. Gillespie Hall: Originally called Johnson Hall, the women's residence was the second building built by Williamsburg Institute.
Mahan Hall: Built in 1907 as Felix Hall, Mahan was the first men's residence. Clyde V. and Patricia Bennett Building: Formerly known as the Gray Brick Building, the Bennett Building was built in 1906 by Highland College. Highland and Cumberland merged in 1907. Ruby Gatliff Archer President's Home: Built in 1905 as a replica of
Tennis is a racket sport that can be played individually against a single opponent or between two teams of two players each. Each player uses a tennis racket, strung with cord to strike a hollow rubber ball covered with felt over or around a net and into the opponent's court; the object of the game is to maneuver the ball in such a way that the opponent is not able to play a valid return. The player, unable to return the ball will not gain a point, while the opposite player will. Tennis is played at all levels of society and at all ages; the sport can be played by anyone. The modern game of tennis originated in Birmingham, England, in the late 19th century as lawn tennis, it had close connections both to various field games such as croquet and bowls as well as to the older racket sport today called real tennis. During most of the 19th century, in fact, the term tennis referred to real tennis, not lawn tennis; the rules of modern tennis have changed little since the 1890s. Two exceptions are that from 1908 to 1961 the server had to keep one foot on the ground at all times, the adoption of the tiebreak in the 1970s.
A recent addition to professional tennis has been the adoption of electronic review technology coupled with a point-challenge system, which allows a player to contest the line call of a point, a system known as Hawk-Eye. Tennis is played by millions of recreational players and is a popular worldwide spectator sport; the four Grand Slam tournaments are popular: the Australian Open played on hard courts, the French Open played on red clay courts, Wimbledon played on grass courts, the US Open played on hard courts. Historians believe that the game's ancient origin lay in 12th century northern France, where a ball was struck with the palm of the hand. Louis X of France was a keen player of jeu de paume, which evolved into real tennis, became notable as the first person to construct indoor tennis courts in the modern style. Louis was unhappy with playing tennis outdoors and accordingly had indoor, enclosed courts made in Paris "around the end of the 13th century". In due course this design spread across royal palaces all over Europe.
In June 1316 at Vincennes, Val-de-Marne and following a exhausting game, Louis drank a large quantity of cooled wine and subsequently died of either pneumonia or pleurisy, although there was suspicion of poisoning. Because of the contemporary accounts of his death, Louis X is history's first tennis player known by name. Another of the early enthusiasts of the game was King Charles V of France, who had a court set up at the Louvre Palace, it wasn't until the 16th century that rackets came into use, the game began to be called "tennis", from the French term tenez, which can be translated as "hold!", "receive!" or "take!", an interjection used as a call from the server to his opponent. It was popular in England and France, although the game was only played indoors where the ball could be hit off the wall. Henry VIII of England was a big fan of this game, now known as real tennis. During the 18th and early 19th centuries, as real tennis declined, new racket sports emerged in England. Further, the patenting of the first lawn mower in 1830, in Britain, is believed to have been the catalyst, for the preparation of modern-style grass courts, sporting ovals, playing fields, greens, etc.
This in turn led to the codification of modern rules for many sports, including lawn tennis, most football codes, lawn bowls and others. Between 1859 and 1865 Harry Gem, a solicitor and his friend Augurio Perera developed a game that combined elements of racquets and the Basque ball game pelota, which they played on Perera's croquet lawn in Birmingham, United Kingdom. In 1872, along with two local doctors, they founded the world's first tennis club on Avenue Road, Leamington Spa; this is. After Leamington, the second club to take up the game of lawn tennis appears to have been the Edgbaston Archery and Croquet Society in Birmingham. In Tennis: A Cultural History, Heiner Gillmeister reveals that on December 8, 1874, British army officer Walter Clopton Wingfield wrote to Harry Gem, commenting that he had been experimenting with his version of lawn tennis “for a year and a half”. In December 1873, Wingfield designed and patented a game which he called sphairistikè, was soon known as "sticky" – for the amusement of guests at a garden party on his friend's estate of Nantclwyd Hall, in Llanelidan, Wales.
According to R. D. C. Evans, turfgrass agronomist, "Sports historians all agree that deserves much of the credit for the development of modern tennis." According to Honor Godfrey, museum curator at Wimbledon, Wingfield "popularized this game enormously. He produced a boxed set which included a net, rackets, balls for playing the game – and most you had his rules, he was terrific at marketing and he sent his game all over the world. He had good connections with the clergy, the law profession, the aristocracy and he sent thousands of sets out in the first year or so, in 1874." The world's oldest annual tennis tournament took place at Leamington Lawn Tennis Club in Birmingham in 1874. This was three years before the All England Lawn Tennis and Croquet Club would hold its first championships at Wimbledon, in 1877; the first Championships culminated a significant debate on. In the U. S. in 1874 Mary Ewing Outerbridge, a young socialite, returned from Bermuda with a sphairistikè set. She became fascin