Blockbuster LLC Blockbuster Entertainment, Inc. and known as Blockbuster Video or Blockbuster, is an American-based provider of home movie and video game rental services through a video rental shop, DVD-by-mail, video on demand, cinema theater. Blockbuster expanded internationally throughout the 1990s. At its peak in 2004, Blockbuster employed 84,300 people worldwide, including about 58,500 in the United States and about 25,800 in other countries, had 9,094 stores in total, with more than 4,500 of these in the US. Competition from the Netflix mail-order service, Redbox automated kiosks, video on demand services were major factors in Blockbuster's eventual demise. Blockbuster began to lose significant revenue during the 2000s, in 2010, the company filed for bankruptcy protection; the following year, its remaining 1,700 stores were bought by satellite television provider Dish Network. In November 2013, the last 300 company-owned stores were closed. While the Blockbuster brand has been retired, Dish maintained a small number of Blockbuster franchise agreements, which allowed some stores to remain open.
By April 2019, just one store remained open -- in Oregon. Blockbuster's early beginnings can be traced back to another company, Cook Data Services, founded by David Cook in 1978; the company's primary goal was to supply software services to the oil and gas industries throughout Texas, but it was not successful. Sandy Cook, David's wife, wanted to get into the video business, her husband would soon study the industry and future prospects. Using profit he made from the sale of David P. Cook & Associates, the subsidiary of his company, he decided to buy into a video store franchise in Dallas known as Video Works; when Video Works would not allow him to decorate the interior of his store with a blue-and-yellow design, he departed the franchise and opened the first Blockbuster Video in 1985 under his own company Blockbuster Video Inc. When he realized the potential in video rentals, Cook abandoned the oil industry and began franchising the Blockbuster store; the first Blockbuster store opened October 19, 1985, in Dallas, with an inventory of 8,000 VHS and 2,000 Beta tapes.
Cook's experience with managing huge databases proved helpful in driving innovation within the industry. Following early success from the company's first stores, Cook built a $6-million warehouse in Garland, Texas, to help sustain and support future growth that allowed new stores to open quickly. Blockbuster would custom-tailor a store's inventory to its neighborhood, based on local demographics. In 1987, the company won a court case against Nintendo; that year, Waste Management co-founder Wayne Huizenga, who had reservations about entering the video rental industry, agreed to acquire several Blockbuster stores. At that point the number of stores counted 19, attracted Huizenga's associate John Melk's attention due to its efficiency, family-friendly image and business model, convinced Huizenga to have a look at it. Huizenga and Melk utilized techniques from their waste business and Ray Kroc's model of expansion to expand Blockbuster, soon they were opening a new store every 24 hours, they took over many of the existing Blockbuster franchise stores as well, Huizenga spent much of the late 1980s acquiring several of Blockbuster's rivals, including Major Video.
In 1990, Blockbuster bought. In 1992, Blockbuster acquired the Sound Warehouse and Music Plus music retail chains and created Blockbuster Music. In October 1993, Blockbuster took controlling interest in Spelling Entertainment Group, a media company run by television producer Aaron Spelling. Blockbuster purchased Super Club Retail Entertainment Corp. on November 22, 1993 from Philips Electronics, N. V. for 5.2 million shares of Blockbuster stock. This brought 270 Record Bar, Tracks and Rhythm and Views music stores and 160 video retail superstores into the corporation, it owned 35% of Republic Pictures. Blockbuster became a multibillion-dollar company, but Huizenga was worried about how new technology could threaten their business, such as video on demand and the growth of cable television. In 1991, just three days after Time Warner had announced they would upgrade their cable system, Blockbuster's shares dropped more than 10 percent. In 1993, he made an attempt to expand into other areas by investing in Viacom.
Huizenga considered buying a cable company, but this was unknown territory for Blockbuster and he decided not to take the risk. He had the idea of a 2,500-acre Blockbuster sports and amusement park in Florida, something Blockbuster was still considering as late as August 1994. Unable to come up with a proper solution about how to face the growing threats to the traditional videostore, he made the decision to sell Blockbuster to Viacom and pull out. Viacom acquired Blockbuster in 1994 for $8.4 billion to help finance its bid for Paramount in the bidding war with QVC Network Inc. Blockbuster's stock trade had been dropping the months before the merger, with a small rise after the deal was announced, three years in 1997, it's worth was estimated to just $4.6 billion. The Blockbuster Block Party concept was test-marketed in Albuquerque, New Mexico, Indianapolis, Indiana, in 1994, it was an "entertainment complex" aimed at adults, containing eight themed areas housing a restaurant, laser tag arena, motion simulator rides, was housed in a windowless building the size of a city block.
During the 1990s, Blockbuster expanded in the United Kingdom, purchasing that country's Ritz Video chain. The stores were rebrand
Toys "R" Us
Toys "R" Us is an international toy, video game, baby product retailer owned by Tru Kids, Inc. and various others. It was founded in April 1948, with its headquarters located in Wayne, New Jersey, in the New York metropolitan area. Founded by Charles Lazarus in its modern iteration in June 1957, Toys "R" Us traced its origins to Lazarus's children's furniture store, which he started in 1948, he added toys to his offering, shifted his focus. The company had been in the toy business for more than 65 years and operated around 800 stores in the United States and around 800 outside the US, although these numbers have decreased with time. Toys "R" Us expanded as a chain, becoming predominant in its niche field of toy retail, branched out into baby supplies and children's clothing. At its peak, Toys "R" Us was considered a classic example of a category killer. With the rise of mass merchants, as well as online retailers such as Amazon.com, Toys "R" Us began to lose its share of the toy market. The company filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection on September 18, 2017, its British operations entered administration in February 2018.
In March 2018, the company announced that it would close all of its U. S. and British stores. The British locations closed in April and the U. S. locations in June. The Australian wing of Toys "R" Us entered voluntary administration on May 22 and closed all of its stores on August 5, 2018. Operations in other international markets such as Asia and Africa were less affected, but chains in Canada, parts of Europe and Asia were sold to third-parties; the company continues to operate as the licensor of the chain's international operations, but its lenders announced in October 2018 that it planned to re-launch the U. S. Toys "R" Us retail business in the future; the lenders partnered with Kroger to add "Geoffrey's Toy Box" pop-up departments to selected locations in order to give Toys "R" Us a presence during the holiday shopping season. On February 11, 2019, the company emerged from bankruptcy as Tru Kids. In April 1948, Charles P. Lazarus founded a baby-furniture retailer Children's Supermart in Washington, D.
C. during the post-war baby boom. Lazarus, who served in the Army during World War II, opened the first store at 2461 18th St. NW, he began receiving requests from customers for baby toys. After adding baby toys, he got requests for toys for older children, it was acquired in 1966 by Interstate Department Stores, Inc. owner of the White Front, Topps Chains and Children's Bargain Town USA. The focus of the store changed in June 1957, the first Toys "R" Us, dedicated to toys rather than furniture, was opened by Lazarus in Rockville, Maryland. Lazarus designed and stylized the Toys "R" Us logo, which featured a backwards "R" to give the impression that a child wrote it; the original Toys "R" Us store design from 1969 to 1989 consisted of vertical rainbow stripes and a brown roof with a front entrance and side exit. To improve the company, the board of directors installed John Eyler in May 2000. Eyler launched an expensive plan to remodel and re-launch the chain. Blaming market pressures, Toys "R" Us considered splitting its toy and baby businesses.
On March 17, 2005, a consortium of Bain Capital Partners LLC, Kohlberg Kravis Roberts and Vornado Realty Trust announced a $6.6 billion leveraged buyout of the company. Public stock closed for the last time on July 21, 2005 at $26.74—a 63% increase since when it first announced that the company was put up for sale. Toys "R" Us became a owned entity after the buyout; the company still files with the Securities and Exchange Commission, as required by its debt agreements. On August 23, 2011, Toys "R" Us announced it would begin to open combined Toys "R" Us/Babies "R" Us stores, with 21 new stores using the concept, 23 remodeled into the concept; the new locations were being built in Alabama, Georgia, New Jersey, Texas. In December 2013, eight days before Christmas, Toys "R" Us announced their stores in the United States would stay open for 87 hours straight; the flagship store of the retailer in Times Square was open for 24 hours a day from December 1 to 24, to cater to tourists. The announcement came after snow and rain caused a nearly 9 percent year-over-year decline in U.
S. store foot traffic. This move pushed the retailer to hire an additional 45,000 seasonal workers to cater to the demand of the extended store hours. Since the toy business is seasonal, more than 40% of the company's sales come in during the fourth quarter of the year. In 2014, Toys "R" Us announced its "TRU Transformation" strategy, which concentrated on efforts to fix foundational issues affecting future growth, including making stores less cluttered, improving the customer experience, clearer pricing strategies and promotions, tighter integration of its retail and online businesses. In 2015, the company launched the first of a new concept store called the "Toy Lab" in Freehold, New Jersey; the new layout provided more space for interactive exhibits and areas to play with new toys before purchase. This concept has since been expanded to stores in California, Florida, New York and Pennsylvania. On September 18, 2017, Toys "R" Us, Inc. filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy, stating the move would give it flexibility to deal with $5 billion in long-term debt, borrow $2 billion so it can pay suppliers for the upcoming holiday season and invest in improving current operations.
The company has not had an annual profit since 2013. It reported a net loss of US$164 million in the quarter ended
Stephanie Herseth Sandlin
Stephanie Marie Herseth Sandlin is an American attorney and university administrator who served in the United States House of Representatives for South Dakota's at-large congressional district from 2004 until 2011. She was first elected to Congress in a special election in June 2004 and was re-elected three times before losing her seat in Congress to Republican Kristi Noem in 2010, she was the youngest female member of the House and the first woman elected to the U. S. House of Representatives from South Dakota. Before her 2007 marriage to Max Sandlin, she was known as Stephanie Herseth. Stephanie Herseth was born on December 3, 1970, the daughter of Joyce and Ralph Lars Herseth, was raised on her family's farm near Houghton, her father's family has been active for two generations in South Dakota politics. Her father served in the South Dakota State Legislature for two decades and ran for governor in 1986, her paternal grandfather, Ralph Herseth, was the Governor of South Dakota, her paternal grandmother, Lorna H. Herseth, was Secretary of State of South Dakota.
Her ancestry includes Norwegian. Herseth graduated from Groton High School in South Dakota, she earned her B. A. from Georgetown University in 1993. D. from Georgetown University Law Center in 1997. After law school, Herseth worked as a judicial law clerk to Judge Charles B. Kornmann of the United States District Court for the District of South Dakota and Judge Diana Gribbon Motz on the United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit, she worked in private practice as an attorney in Washington, DC and taught at the Georgetown University Law Center. Prior to her election to the House, she was executive director of the South Dakota Farmer's Union Foundation, served on the board of directors for First Bank and Trust of Brookings, South Dakota. After her service in the U. S. House, she went on to work as legal counsel for Raven Industries until winter 2017 when she became the president of Augustana University in Sioux Falls, South Dakota. During her tenure in the House, Herseth Sandlin was assigned to committees of concern to her constituency in South Dakota.
The Agriculture Committee affects the state's largest industry, the Natural Resources Committee has jurisdiction over national forests in the Black Hills, as well as policies affecting the state's nine federally recognized Native American tribes. She was selected to serve on the Select Committee on Global Warming and Energy Independence based upon her work on issues related to biofuels and renewable energy in rural America, she was a senior whip in the House of Representatives and co-chair of the Democratic conservative Blue Dog Coalition. Herseth Sandlin voted against the Affordable Health Care for America Act. In regard to voting against Healthcare Reform, she said she would "not vote for the Senate bill as is" and that she would "not vote for a package of changes that would go through the reconciliation process."She opposed her party's leadership on some issues related to gun rights, which won her the support of the National Rifle Association. On social issues, Herseth Sandlin is pro-choice and expressed opposition to Referred Law 6, which sought to ban all abortions in her home state, including those for victims of incest and rape.
She supported the Employment Nondiscrimination Act in 2007. Early in the 2008 presidential election cycle, she supported Senator John Edwards. On February 26, 2008, she endorsed Barack Obama for President of the United States, she ran unsuccessfully for the United States House of Representatives seat in the 2002 election, losing in a close race to Republican Governor Bill Janklow. Janklow was convicted of manslaughter in a motor vehicle accident, resigned his seat, effective January 20, 2004, triggering a special election. Herseth Sandlin was selected as the Democratic nominee, on June 1, 2004, beat Republican candidate Larry Diedrich with 51 percent of the vote; the victory gave South Dakota its first all-Democratic congressional delegation since 1937, with Senators Tom Daschle and Tim Johnson both Democrats. In the scheduled election in November 2004, Herseth beat Diedrich with 53.4 percent of the vote. The vote margin in June was about 3,000 votes, but by the November election – which included a hard-fought contest for the Senate seat held by Senate Minority Leader Tom Daschle – it had grown to more than 29,000.
Both the 2004 special and general elections were close compared to many other House races in the rest of the United States, garnered national attention. In November 2006, she defeated challenger Bruce Whalen for her second full-term, she received the second highest vote total for a Democratic candidate for the House in 2006. Herseth Sandlin was mentioned as a possible likely, candidate for Governor of South Dakota in 2010, but she announced on July 7, 2009, that she would seek re-election to the U. S. House of Representatives. Prior to the 2010 Democratic primary, Kevin Weiland, a physician who had begun a campaign against Herseth Sandlin, but who had not yet filed to be on the ballot, called off his efforts, he said he had "concern for what the net effect would be on our political party retaining the seat in the next Congress, but after receiving assurances from Stephanie that she will not vote to repeal the passed health care reform law." He had spoken to Democratic party leaders as well as to Herseth Sandlin before making this decision.
Her opponent, Republican Kristi Noem, charged that Weiland's decision not to run was due to Herseth Sandlin trading her vote for personal gain. Herseth Sandlin denied the allegation and said there was no quid pro quo arrangement between her and Weiland. During the campaign, Noem criticized Herseth Sandlin's husband, Max Sandlin, she said the lobbyist and former Cong
S. Fitzgerald Haney
Stafford Fitzgerald Haney is an American diplomat and businessman who served as the U. S. Ambassador to the Republic of Costa Rica from 2015 to 2017. Haney was nominated as U. S. Ambassador to Costa Rica by President Barack Obama on July 8, 2014, was confirmed by the full Senate on May 23, 2015, he served until July 15, 2017, having been the only Obama-appointed political ambassador in the world allowed to stay under the Donald Trump administration. Born in Nashville, Haney grew up in Naperville and graduated from Georgetown University, earning a B. S. in international economics and an M. S. in international business and diplomacy from Georgetown University's School of Foreign Service, Washington, D. C. 1986-1991. Haney was born in Tennessee. In 1986, he graduated from Naperville Central High School. Haney received his B. S. in international economics in 1990 and his M. S. in international business diplomacy both from Georgetown University. After graduating, Haney moved to Latin America to work for a number of U.
S. multinationals in Puerto Rico, Central America, Brazil. After nearly a decade in Latin America, he moved to Israel, where he met his future wife, Rabbi Andrea Haney; the couple settled in Englewood, New Jersey. Haney started his professional life working for Procter & Gamble in San Juan, Puerto Rico in what was called the brand management department. Haney spent three years at P&G Puerto Rico working in food & beverage sectors, he left P&G in 1994 as an assistant brand manager. In 1994, Haney moved to PepsiCo Restaurants International, where he worked as a marketing manager for Puerto Rico. In 1995, the company moved him to Mexico City to become the marketing manager for Mexico and Central America. During his time in Mexico, Haney was part of the team which developed a new line of lower cost pizzas, Pizza Mia, in response to the currency and economic crisis; the line has since been launched globally. In 1996, Pepsico Restaurants promoted Haney to be marketing director for Brazil, he was responsible for marketing and strategy for the entire PepsiCo Restaurants business in the country covering both brands, Pizza Hut and KFC, as well as franchise relations.
Haney relaunched both brands, revamped business strategy and was successful in turning the businesses around. In 1997, Haney became the vice president of marketing and strategic planning for Citibank Mexico in Mexico City, he was charged with developing a strategy for what was Citibank's third largest consumer business in the world and largest in Latin America after the bank's acquisition of Banco Confia. Haney managed 192 people and a marketing budget of US$31 million. Haney attended Catholic grade school. At Georgetown University, he participated in Catholic retreat programs and attended mass. Upon moving to Mexico for the second time, Haney started studying Judaism one-on-one with an Orthodox rabbi. After 18 months of study, Haney decided to take a leave of absence from Citibank and move to Israel to participate in the WUJS program in Arad, Israel. Prior to moving to Israel, Haney spent time in his hometown of Chicago, where he attended the Anshe Emet Synagogue converting to Judaism under Conservative Judaism auspices.
Once in Israel, Haney continued to study Judaism, both at WUJS in Arad and at the Pardes Institute of Jewish Studies re-converting this time under Orthodox Judaism auspices. Haney has been active in Jewish organizations and served as treasurer, co-chair of the Foundation for Jewish Culture, board member of Ayecha, member of a modern orthodox synagogue, Kesher, in Englewood/Tenafly, New Jersey and was appointed by President Obama as a member of the United States Holocaust Memorial Council. After finishing his studies at WUJS, Haney moved to Jerusalem and began working as a senior associate at Israel Seed Partners the largest seed-stage venture capital firm in Israel, he managed deal flow and investment analysis for $240 million seed capital fund and was involved in strategy and fund-raising activity for $200 million fourth fund. He was the lead investor in Cyota, Inc. and managed the company through subsequent rounds until it was acquired by RSA Security for $145MM, as well as having managed the investment, business development, subsequent acquisition of location-based services portfolio company NomadIQ by Omnisky.
In 2002, Haney was recruited to join the Depository Trust and Clearing Corporation in New York City as the Director of Strategy and New Business Development. In 2006, Haney began a stint as Senior Vice President of Ethnic Consumer Products at IDT Corporation in Newark, New Jersey. From 2007 to 2015, he was a Principal and Director of Business Development and Client Service at Pzena Investment Management in New York City and Middle East. On July 8, 2014, President Obama announced his intention to nominate Haney as U. S. Ambassador to the Republic of Costa Rica. Haney presented testimony before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee on July 25, 2014 with Senator Tim Kaine presiding over the hearing, he was voted out of committee on September 18, 2014, his nomination was forwarded to the full Senate. The Senate failed to act on the nomination and it languished to the end of the session. At the end of the session, the nomination was returned to the White House. On February 5, 2015, President Obama once again forwarded Haney's nomination to the Senate.
Haney presented testimony before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee on March 10, 2015. On May 23, 2015, Haney
School of Foreign Service
The Edmund A. Walsh School of Foreign Service, known as the School of Foreign Service or SFS, is a school of international relations at Georgetown University in Washington, D. C, it is considered to be one of the world's leading international affairs schools, granting degrees at both undergraduate and graduate levels. The school's most notable alumni include U. S. President Bill Clinton, former CIA Director George Tenet, King Felipe VI of Spain, as well as the heads of state or government of many countries, its faculty has included many distinguished figures in international affairs, such as the former U. S. Secretary of State Madeleine Albright, former U. S. Defense Secretary Chuck Hagel, the former President of Poland Aleksander Kwaśniewski. Founded in 1919, the School of Foreign Service predates the U. S. Foreign Service by six years, is sometimes referred to as the “West Point of the U. S. diplomatic corps” due to the large number of graduates who end up shaping U. S. foreign policy. Despite its reputation for producing prominent American statesmen and diplomats, SFS is not a diplomatic academy and its graduates go on to have careers in a diverse set of sectors, including Wall Street.
The School of Foreign Service was established by Edmund A. Walsh with the goal of preparing Americans for various international professions in the wake of expanding U. S. involvement in world affairs after the First World War. Today, the school hosts a student body of 2,250 from over 100 nations each year, it offers an undergraduate program based in the liberal arts, which leads to the Bachelor of Science in Foreign Service degree, as well as eight interdisciplinary graduate programs. The school has evolved from its original emphasis on diplomacy and law to become a center for research and teaching on global affairs. Faculty are today drawn from disciplines such as political science, history and cultural studies, as well as from business, the non-profit sector and international organizations; the school has about 1,400 undergraduates seeking a Bachelor of Science in Foreign Service degree. The undergraduate program is intended to provide a liberal arts education with a focus in international affairs.
Undergraduates concentrate in International Politics, International History and Politics, International Economics, International Political Economy and Comparative Studies, Global Business, or Science, Technology, & International Affairs. The STIA program was the first of its kind. Harvard and Georgia Tech, among others, now have STIA programs as well. Graduate students can pursue eight graduate programs: five regional studies programs as well as the Master of Science in Foreign Service, Master of Global Human Development and the Master of Arts in Security Studies Program. Graduates go on to careers in the public and nonprofit sectors as well as further higher education. Alumni include current, recent heads of state; the current dean of the school is Joel Hellman. Notable faculty members at the Walsh School of Foreign Service have included former US Secretary of State Madeleine Albright, former Undersecretary of Defense Douglas Feith, former Polish President Aleksander Kwaśniewski, former National Security Advisor Anthony Lake, former U.
S. Senator and Obama Secretary of Defense Chuck Hagel, Ambassador Donald McHenry, former CIA Director George Tenet, former Malaysian Deputy Prime Minister and current Malaysian Opposition Leader Anwar Ibrahim, former World Bank VP Callisto Madavo, former Dean Robert Gallucci, former USAID Administrator and Special Envoy for Sudan Andrew Natsios, Ambassador of Israel to the United States Michael Oren, former Prime Minister of Spain José María Aznar, former President of Colombia Alvaro Uribe Velez; the School of Foreign Service's undergraduate program features a rigorous core curriculum including a freshman proseminar, two philosophy courses, two theology courses, two humanities and writing courses, two government courses, two courses in engaging diversity, three history courses, a four-course economics sequence, a geopolitics course unique to SFS entitled Map of the Modern World. To graduate, students must attain proficiency in at least one modern foreign language, demonstrated through successful completion of a specially-designed oral exam.
Following completion of the core, students declare one of the following interdisciplinary majors: Culture and Politics Global Business International Economics International History International Political Economy International Politics Regional and Comparative Studies Science, Technology, & International Affairs In addition to their major, students may choose from a number of undergraduate certificate programs: African Studies, Arab Studies, Asian Studies, Australian & New Zealand Studies and European Studies, International Business Diplomacy, International Development, Muslim-Christian Understanding, Jewish Civilization, Justice & Peace Studies, Latin American Studies, Medieval Studies, Russian & East European Studies, Social & Political Thought, Women's and Gender Studies. Graduate students can pursue eight interdisciplinary graduate degrees in the School: Master of Science in Foreign Service Master of Arts in Security Studies Master of Global Human Development Master of Arts in Arab Studies Master of Arts in Asian Studies Master of Arts in German and European Studies Master of Arts in Eurasian and East European Studies Master of Arts in Latin American StudiesThere are two joint degrees offered in partnership with Georgetown's McDonough School of Business.
The first i
Matthew Rombach Denver was a U. S. Representative from Ohio, son of James William Denver. Born in Rombach Place in Wilmington, Denver attended public schools there, he graduated from Georgetown University in Washington, D. C. in 1892. He was involved in agriculture and manufacturing, he served as delegate to the Democratic National Conventions in 1896, 1908, 1912, 1920, 1924, 1928, 1932, 1936 and as a member of the Democratic State committee from 1896 to 1908. Denver was elected as a Democrat to the Sixtieth, Sixty-first, Sixty-second Congresses, he declined candidacy for reelection in 1912 to the Sixty-third Congress. He returned to banking in Wilmington and served as president of the Ohio Bankers' Association in 1918 and 1919. Denver was again elected a member of the Democratic State committee for the 1926-1928 term, he served as president of the Clinton County National Bank & Trust Co. from 1902 until his death in Wilmington on May 13, 1954. His remains are interred at the Sugar Grove Cemetery. United States Congress.
"Matthew Denver". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Matthew Denver at Find a Grave This article incorporates public domain material from the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress website http://bioguide.congress.gov
Georgetown University is a private research university in the Georgetown neighborhood of Washington, D. C. Founded in 1789 as Georgetown College, the university has grown to comprise nine undergraduate and graduate schools, among which are the School of Foreign Service, School of Business, Medical School, Law School. Located on a hill above the Potomac River, the school's main campus is identifiable by its flagship Healy Hall, a National Historic Landmark. Georgetown offers degree programs in forty-eight disciplines, enrolling an average of 7,500 undergraduate and 10,000 post-graduate students from more than 130 countries. Georgetown is the oldest Catholic and Jesuit-affiliated institution of higher education in the United States; the Jesuits have participated in the university's academic life, both as scholars and as administrators, since 1805. The majority of Georgetown students are not Catholic. Georgetown's notable alumni include U. S. President Bill Clinton, U. S. Supreme Court Justice Antonin Scalia, CIA Director George Tenet, King Felipe of Spain, as well as the royalty and heads of state of more than a dozen countries.
In 2015, Georgetown had 1190 alumni working as diplomats for the U. S. Foreign Service, more than any other university. In 2014, Georgetown ranked second in the nation by the average number of graduates serving in the U. S. Congress. Georgetown is a top feeder school for careers in consulting and investment banking on Wall Street. Georgetown is home to the country's largest student-run business, largest student-run financial institution, the oldest continuously running student theatre troupe, one of the oldest debating societies in the United States; the school's athletic teams are nicknamed the Hoyas and include a men's basketball team that has won a record-tying seven Big East championships, appeared in five Final Fours, won a national championship in 1984. The university has a co-ed sailing team that holds thirteen national championships and one world championship title. Jesuit settlers from England founded the Province of Maryland in 1634. However, the 1646 defeat of the Royalists in the English Civil War led to stringent laws against Roman Catholic education and the extradition of known Jesuits from the colony, including missionary Andrew White, the destruction of their school at Calverton Manor.
During most of the remainder of Maryland's colonial period, Jesuits conducted Catholic schools clandestinely. It was not until after the end of the American Revolution that plans to establish a permanent Catholic institution for education in the United States were realized; because of Benjamin Franklin's recommendation, Pope Pius VI appointed former Jesuit John Carroll as the first head of the Roman Catholic Church in the United States though the papal suppression of the Jesuit order was still in effect. Carroll began meetings of local clergy in 1783 near Annapolis, where they orchestrated the development of a new university. On January 23, 1789, Carroll finalized the purchase of the property in Georgetown on which Dahlgren Quadrangle was built. Future Congressman William Gaston was enrolled as the school's first student on November 22, 1791, instruction began on January 2, 1792. During its early years, Georgetown College suffered from considerable financial strain; the Maryland Society of Jesus began its restoration in 1805, Jesuit affiliation, in the form of teachers and administrators, bolstered confidence in the college.
The school relied on private sources of funding and the limited profits from local lands, donated to the Jesuits. To raise money for Georgetown and other schools in 1838, Maryland Jesuits conducted a mass sale of some 272 slaves to two Deep South plantations in Maringouin, Louisiana from their six in Maryland, ending their slaveholding. President James Madison signed into law Georgetown's congressional charter on March 1, 1815, creating the first federal university charter, which allowed it to confer degrees, with the first bachelor's degrees being awarded two years later. In 1844, the school received a corporate charter, under the name "The President and Directors of Georgetown College", affording the growing school additional legal rights. In response to the demand for a local option for Roman Catholic students, the Medical School was founded in 1851; the U. S. Civil War affected Georgetown as 1,141 students and alumni enlisted in one army or the other, the Union Army commandeered university buildings.
By the time of President Abraham Lincoln's May 1861 visit to campus, 1,400 troops were living in temporary quarters there. Due to the number of lives lost in the war, enrollment levels remained low until well after the war. Only seven students graduated in 1869, down from over 300 in the previous decade; when the Georgetown College Boat Club, the school's rowing team, was founded in 1876 it adopted two colors: blue, used for Union uniforms, gray, used for Confederate uniforms. These colors signified the peaceful unity among students. Subsequently, the school adopted these as its official colors. Enrollment did not recover until during the presidency of Patrick Francis Healy from 1873 to 1881. Born in Georgia as a slave by law and mixed-race by ancestry, Healy was the first head of a predominantly white American university of acknowledged African descent, he identified as Irish Catholic, like his father, was educated in Catholic schools in the United States and France. He is credited with reforming the undergraduate curriculum, lengthening the medical and law programs, creating the Alumni Association.
One of his largest undertakings was the construction of a major new building, subsequently named Healy Hall in his honor. For his work, Healy is known as the school's "second fo