Donald John Trump is the 45th and current president of the United States. Before entering politics, he was a television personality. Trump was born and raised in the New York City borough of Queens and received an economics degree from the Wharton School, he was appointed president of his family's real estate business in 1971, renamed it The Trump Organization, expanded it from Queens and Brooklyn into Manhattan. The company built or renovated skyscrapers, hotels and golf courses. Trump started various side ventures, including licensing his name for real estate and consumer products, he managed the company until his 2017 inauguration. He co-authored several books, including The Art of the Deal, he owned the Miss Universe and Miss USA beauty pageants from 1996 to 2015, he produced and hosted The Apprentice, a reality television show, from 2003 to 2015. Forbes estimates his net worth to be $3.1 billion. Trump entered the 2016 presidential race as a Republican and defeated sixteen opponents in the primaries.
His campaign received extensive free media coverage. Commentators described his political positions as populist and nationalist. Trump has made many misleading statements during his campaign and presidency; the statements have been documented by fact-checkers, the media have described the phenomenon as unprecedented in American politics. Trump was elected president in a surprise victory over Democratic nominee Hillary Clinton, he became the oldest and wealthiest person to assume the presidency, the first without prior military or government service, the fifth to have won the election despite having lost the popular vote. His election and policies have sparked numerous protests. Many of his comments and actions have been perceived as racially charged or racist. During his presidency, Trump ordered a travel ban on citizens from several Muslim-majority countries, citing security concerns, he enacted a tax cut package for individuals and businesses, which rescinded the individual health insurance mandate and allowed oil drilling in the Arctic Refuge.
He repealed the Dodd-Frank Act that had imposed stricter constraints on banks in the aftermath of the 2008 financial crisis. He has pursued his America First agenda in foreign policy, withdrawing the U. S. from the Trans-Pacific Partnership trade negotiations, the Paris Agreement on climate change, the Iran nuclear deal. He recognized Jerusalem as the capital of Israel, imposed import tariffs on various goods, triggering a trade war with China, negotiated with North Korea seeking denuclearization, he nominated two justices to the Supreme Court: Neil Gorsuch and Brett Kavanaugh. The Justice Department investigated links between the Trump campaign and the Russian government regarding its election interference; when Trump dismissed FBI Director James Comey, in charge of the investigation, Deputy Attorney General Rod Rosenstein appointed Robert Mueller as special counsel to proceed with the probe. The Special Counsel investigation led to guilty pleas by five Trump associates to criminal charges including lying to investigators, campaign finance violations, tax fraud.
Trump denied accusations of collusion and obstruction of justice, calling the investigation a politically motivated "witch hunt". Attorney General William Barr wrote that the special counsel's final report did not find that Trump or his campaign had "conspired or coordinated" with Russia during the 2016 election, but did not reach a conclusion regarding obstruction of justice, neither implicating him regarding obstruction of justice nor exonerating him. Donald John Trump was born on June 14, 1946, at the Jamaica Hospital in the borough of Queens, New York City, his parents were Frederick Christ Trump, a real estate developer, Mary Anne MacLeod. Trump grew up in the Jamaica Estates neighborhood of Queens, attended the Kew-Forest School from kindergarten through seventh grade. At age 13, he was enrolled in the New York Military Academy, a private boarding school, after his parents discovered that he had made frequent trips into Manhattan without their permission. In 1964, Trump enrolled at Fordham University.
After two years, he transferred to the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania. While at Wharton, he worked at Elizabeth Trump & Son, he graduated in May 1968 with a B. S. in economics. When Trump was in college from 1964 to 1968, he obtained four student draft deferments. In 1966, he was deemed fit for military service based upon a medical examination and in July 1968, a local draft board classified him as eligible to serve. In October 1968, he was given a medical deferment that he attributed to spurs in the heels of both feet, which resulted in a 1-Y classification: "Unqualified for duty except in the case of a national emergency." In the December 1969 draft lottery, Trump's birthday, June 14, received a high number that would have given him a low probability to be called to military service without the 1-Y. In 1972, he was reclassified as 4-F. In 1973 and 1976, The New York Times reported that Trump had graduated first in his class at Wharton. However, a 1984 Times profile of Trump noted.
In 1988, New York magazine reported Trump conceding, "Okay, maybe not'first,' as myth has it, but he had'the highest grades possible.'" Michael Cohen, Trump's former attorney, testified to the House Oversight Committee in February 2019 that Trump "directed me to threaten his high school, his colleges and the College Board to never release his grades or SAT scores." Days after Trump stated in 2011, "I heard [Barack O
Catoosa County, Georgia
Catoosa County is a county located in the northwestern part of the U. S. state of Georgia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 63,942; the county seat is Ringgold. The county was created on December 5, 1853; the meaning of the Cherokee language name "Catoosa" is obscure. Catoosa County is part of the TN -- GA Metropolitan Statistical Area. On April 27, 2011, a devastating tornado touched down in the town of Ringgold, located in Catoosa County, leaving a path of severe destruction. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 162 square miles, of which 162 square miles is land and 0.3 square miles is water. The entire county is located in the Middle Tennessee-Chickamauga sub-basin of the Middle Tennessee-Hiwassee basin. Hamilton County, Tennessee Whitfield County Walker County Chattahoochee National Forest Chickamauga and Chattanooga National Military Park As of the census of 2000, there were 53,282 people, 20,425 households, 15,400 families residing in the county; the population density was 328 people per square mile.
There were 21,794 housing units at an average density of 134 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 96.39% White, 1.26% Black or African American, 0.31% Native American, 0.71% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.39% from other races, 0.93% from two or more races. 1.17% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 20,425 households of which 35.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.60% were married couples living together, 11.00% had a female householder with no husband present, 24.60% were non-families. 21.30% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.59 and the average family size was 3.00. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.80% under the age of 18, 8.10% from 18 to 24, 30.80% from 25 to 44, 23.40% from 45 to 64, 11.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 93.80 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $39,998, the median income for a family was $45,710. Males had a median income of $31,746 versus $23,790 for females; the per capita income for the county was $18,009. About 6.40% of families and 9.40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12.50% of those under age 18 and 11.00% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 63,942 people, 24,475 households, 17,785 families residing in the county; the population density was 394.3 inhabitants per square mile. There were 26,606 housing units at an average density of 164.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 93.6% white, 2.2% black or African American, 1.2% Asian, 0.3% American Indian, 0.1% Pacific islander, 1.0% from other races, 1.6% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 2.3% of the population. Of the 24,475 households, 36.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.7% were married couples living together, 12.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.3% were non-families, 23.1% of all households were made up of individuals.
The average household size was 2.59 and the average family size was 3.05. The median age was 38.3 years. The median income for a household in the county was $46,544 and the median income for a family was $54,796. Males had a median income of $39,962 versus $31,505 for females; the per capita income for the county was $22,563. About 8.5% of families and 11.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.8% of those under age 18 and 9.0% of those age 65 or over. As of 2016 the largest self-reported ancestry groups in Catoosa County, Georgia are: Catoosa County Public Schools Catoosa County elementary schools: Battlefield Elementary, Battlefield Primary, Boynton Elementary, Cloud Springs Elementary, Graysville Elementary, Ringgold Elementary, Ringgold Primary, Tiger Creek Elementary, West Side Elementary, Woodstation Elementary. Catoosa County middle schools: Heritage Middle School, Lakeview Middle School, Ringgold Middle School. Catoosa County high schools: Heritage High School, Lakeview-Fort Oglethorpe High School, Performance Learning Center, Ringgold High School.
Fort Oglethorpe Ringgold Tunnel Hill Indian Springs Lakeview Graysville Shawn Mullins' 2010 album Light You Up included a song titled "Catoosa County", a semi-fictional account of the Civil War conflicts that took place in the county. 2011 Super Outbreak National Register of Historic Places listings in Catoosa County, Georgia Northwest Georgia Joint Development Authority Official website Catoosa county, GA, genealogy Catoosa County historical marker Old Stone Presbyterian Church historical marker
Dade County, Georgia
Dade County is a county in the U. S. state of Georgia. It occupies the northwest corner of Georgia, the county's own northwest corner is the westernmost point in the state; as of the 2010 census, the population is 16,633. The county seat and only incorporated municipality is Trenton. Dade County is part of the TN -- GA Metropolitan Statistical Area. In 1860, residents of Dade County voted to secede from the state of Georgia and from the United States, but no government outside the county recognized this gesture as legal. In 1945, the county symbolically the United States. Dade County was established in 1837 and was named for Major Francis Langhorne Dade, killed in the Dade Massacre by Seminole Indians in December 1835; the first settlers of Dade County won the land in the Georgia Land Lotteries, held to encourage settlement after the Cherokee people were forced off the land. Many settlers worked in regional coke and coal mines that contributed to development of the Chattanooga, Tennessee area; the area was long isolated from the rest of Georgia by its geography of mountains and rivers, which some historians say contributed to early residents' separatist attitudes.
Georgia did not have a road connecting Dade County to the rest of the state until the establishment of Cloudland Canyon State Park in 1939. That year Georgia began work on Highway 136 to connect U. S. 41 to the created park. The Civilian Conservation Corps built many of the facilities and access roads to the park. Up until travelers from elsewhere in Georgia could drive to the county only by way of Alabama or Tennessee. Dade County had a short-lived state secessionist movement before the American Civil War. In 1860, county residents wanted to secede from the Union, but lawmakers for the state of Georgia were cautious. Legend has it that in 1860, the people of Dade County were so impatient that they announced their own secession from both Georgia and the United States. On July 4, 1945, a telegram from President Harry S. Truman was read at a celebration marking the county's "rejoining" the Union. Historians say Dade's individual readmission were symbolic and had no legal effect, they say that Dade County seceded along with the state of Georgia in 1861 and re-entered the Union with the state in 1870.
The noted Southern humorist and seminal writer of Southern humor George Washington Harris is buried in the Brock Cemetery in Trenton. Although he influenced the literary works of Mark Twain, William Faulkner, Flannery O'Connor, his grave was not verified and given a marker until 2008. In 1964 Covenant College established a campus at Lookout Mountain. Founded in 1955 in California, it was ready to expand after a year. Several professors led Covenant to move to St. Louis, where it developed for eight years. After outgrowing its facilities there, the college decided to move to Dade County. Shortly after the Georgia State Quarter was released by the US Mint, Dade County gained attention because of an apparent mistake in the design; as shown on the quarter, the state appears to lack Dade County, in the extreme northwestern part of the state. Some accounts in 2012 suggest the exclusion was intended to refer to the local legend of Dade County's secession from Georgia. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 174 square miles, of which 174 square miles is land and 0.2 square miles is water.
The vast majority of Dade County is located in the Middle Tennessee-Chickamauga sub-basin of the Middle Tennessee-Hiwassee basin. A small part of the southernmost tip of the county is located in the Upper Coosa River sub-basin in the ACT River Basin, while a small part of the westernmost portion of Dade County is located in the Guntersville Lake sub-basin in the Middle Tennessee-Elk basin. I-24 / SR 409 I-59 / SR 406 US 11 / SR 58 SR 136 SR 157 SR 189 SR 299 SR 301 Marion County, Tennessee Hamilton County, Tennessee Walker County DeKalb County, Alabama Jackson County, Alabama Chickamauga and Chattanooga National Military Park Cloudland Canyon State Park As of the census of 2000, there were 15,154 people, 5,633 households, 4,264 families residing in the county; the population density was 87 people per square mile. There were 6,224 housing units at an average density of 36 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 97.51% White, 0.63% Black or African American, 0.49% Native American, 0.38% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.20% from other races, 0.76% from two or more races.
0.90% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 5,633 households out of which 33.30% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 62.70% were married couples living together, 9.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 24.30% were non-families. 21.70% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.20% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.55 and the average family size was 2.97. In the county, the population was spread out with 23.80% under the age of 18, 11.80% from 18 to 24, 27.80% from 25 to 44, 24.50% from 45 to 64, 12.00% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 96.00 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.80 males. The median income for a household in the county was $35,259, the median income for a family was $39,481. Males had a median income of $31,534 versus $21,753 for females; the per capita income for the county was $16,127.
About 7.50% of families and 9.70% of the population were below the poverty line, including 7.40% of th
Native Americans in the United States
Native Americans known as American Indians, Indigenous Americans and other terms, are the indigenous peoples of the United States, except Hawaii. There are over 500 federally recognized tribes within the US, about half of which are associated with Indian reservations; the term "American Indian" excludes Native Hawaiians and some Alaska Natives, while Native Americans are American Indians, plus Alaska Natives of all ethnicities. Native Hawaiians are not counted as Native Americans by the US Census, instead being included in the Census grouping of "Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander"; the ancestors of modern Native Americans arrived in what is now the United States at least 15,000 years ago much earlier, from Asia via Beringia. A vast variety of peoples and cultures subsequently developed. Native Americans were affected by the European colonization of the Americas, which began in 1492, their population declined precipitously due to introduced diseases as well as warfare, territorial confiscation and slavery.
After the founding of the United States, many Native American peoples were subjected to warfare and one-sided treaties, they continued to suffer from discriminatory government policies into the 20th century. Since the 1960s, Native American self-determination movements have resulted in changes to the lives of Native Americans, though there are still many contemporary issues faced by Native Americans. Today, there are over five million Native Americans in the United States, 78% of whom live outside reservations; when the United States was created, established Native American tribes were considered semi-independent nations, as they lived in communities separate from British settlers. The federal government signed treaties at a government-to-government level until the Indian Appropriations Act of 1871 ended recognition of independent native nations, started treating them as "domestic dependent nations" subject to federal law; this law did preserve the rights and privileges agreed to under the treaties, including a large degree of tribal sovereignty.
For this reason, many Native American reservations are still independent of state law and actions of tribal citizens on these reservations are subject only to tribal courts and federal law. The Indian Citizenship Act of 1924 granted U. S. citizenship to all Native Americans born in the United States. This emptied the "Indians not taxed" category established by the United States Constitution, allowed natives to vote in state and federal elections, extended the Fourteenth Amendment protections granted to people "subject to the jurisdiction" of the United States. However, some states continued to deny Native Americans voting rights for several decades. Bill of Rights protections do not apply to tribal governments, except for those mandated by the Indian Civil Rights Act of 1968. Since the end of the 15th century, the migration of Europeans to the Americas has led to centuries of population and agricultural transfer and adjustment between Old and New World societies, a process known as the Columbian exchange.
As most Native American groups had preserved their histories by oral traditions and artwork, the first written sources of the conflict were written by Europeans. Ethnographers classify the indigenous peoples of North America into ten geographical regions with shared cultural traits, called cultural areas; some scholars combine the Plateau and Great Basin regions into the Intermontane West, some separate Prairie peoples from Great Plains peoples, while some separate Great Lakes tribes from the Northeastern Woodlands. The ten cultural areas are as follows: Arctic, including Aleut and Yupik peoples Subarctic Northeastern Woodlands Southeastern Woodlands Great Plains Great Basin Northwest Plateau Northwest Coast California Southwest At the time of the first contact, the indigenous cultures were quite different from those of the proto-industrial and Christian immigrants; some Northeastern and Southwestern cultures, in particular, were matrilineal and operated on a more collective basis than that with which Europeans were familiar.
The majority of Indigenous American tribes maintained their hunting grounds and agricultural lands for use of the entire tribe. Europeans at that time had patriarchal cultures and had developed concepts of individual property rights with respect to land that were different; the differences in cultures between the established Native Americans and immigrant Europeans, as well as shifting alliances among different nations in times of war, caused extensive political tension, ethnic violence, social disruption. Before the European settlement of what is now the United States, Native Americans suffered high fatalities from contact with new European diseases, to which they had not yet acquired immunity. Smallpox epidemics are thought to have caused the greatest loss of life for indigenous populations. William M Denevan, noted author and Professor Emeritus of Geography at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, said on this subject in his essay "The Pristine Myth: The Landscape of the Americas in 1492".
Old World diseases were the primary killer. In many regions the tropical lowlands, populations fell by 90 percent or more in the first century after the contact. "Estimates of the pre-Columbian population of what today constitutes the U. S. vary ranging from William M Denevan's 3.8 million in his 1992 w
Republican Party (United States)
The Republican Party referred to as the GOP, is one of the two major political parties in the United States. The GOP was founded in 1854 by opponents of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, which had expanded slavery into U. S. territories. The party subscribed to classical liberalism and took ideological stands that were anti-slavery and pro-economic reform. Abraham Lincoln was the first Republican president in the history of the United States; the Party was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System and Fourth Party System. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt formed the Progressive Party after being rejected by the GOP and ran unsuccessfully as a third-party presidential candidate calling for social reforms. After the 1912 election, many Roosevelt supporters left the Party, the Party underwent an ideological shift to the right; the liberal Republican element in the GOP was overwhelmed by a conservative surge begun by Barry Goldwater in 1964 that continued during the Reagan Era in the 1980s. After the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965, the party's core base shifted, with the Southern states becoming more reliably Republican in presidential politics and the Northeastern states becoming more reliably Democratic.
White voters identified with the Republican Party after the 1960s. Following the Supreme Court's 1973 decision in Roe v. Wade, the Republican Party made opposition to abortion a key plank of its national party platform and grew its support among evangelicals. By 2000, the Republican Party was aligned with Christian conservatism; the Party's core support since the 1990s comes chiefly from the South, the Great Plains, the Mountain States and rural areas in the North. The 21st century Republican Party ideology is American conservatism, which contrasts with the Democrats' liberal platform and progressive wing; the GOP supports lower taxes, free market capitalism, a strong national defense, gun rights and restrictions on labor unions. The GOP was committed to protectionism and tariffs from its founding until the 1930s when it was based in the industrial Northeast and Midwest, but has grown more supportive of free trade since 1952. In addition to advocating for conservative economic policies, the Republican Party is conservative.
Founded in the Northern states in 1854 by abolitionists, modernizers, ex-Whigs and ex-Free Soilers, the Republican Party became the principal opposition to the dominant Democratic Party and the popular Know Nothing Party. The party grew out of opposition to the Kansas–Nebraska Act, which repealed the Missouri Compromise and opened Kansas Territory and Nebraska Territory to slavery and future admission as slave states; the Northern Republicans saw the expansion of slavery as a great evil. The first public meeting of the general anti-Nebraska movement, at which the name Republican was suggested for a new anti-slavery party, was held on March 20, 1854 in a schoolhouse in Ripon, Wisconsin; the name was chosen to pay homage to Thomas Jefferson's Republican Party. The first official party convention was held on July 1854 in Jackson, Michigan. At the 1856 Republican National Convention, the party adopted a national platform emphasizing opposition to the expansion of slavery into U. S. territories. While Republican candidate John C.
Frémont lost the 1856 United States presidential election to James Buchanan, he did win 11 of the 16 northern states. The Republican Party first came to power in the elections of 1860 when it won control of both houses of Congress and its candidate, former congressman Abraham Lincoln, was elected President. In the election of 1864, it united with War Democrats to nominate Lincoln on the National Union Party ticket. Under Republican congressional leadership, the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution—which banned slavery in the United States—passed the Senate in 1864 and the House in 1865; the party's success created factionalism within the party in the 1870s. Those who felt that Reconstruction had been accomplished, was continued to promote the large-scale corruption tolerated by President Ulysses S. Grant, ran Horace Greeley for the presidency; the Stalwart faction defended Grant and the spoils system, whereas the Half-Breeds pushed for reform of the civil service. The Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act was passed in 1883.
The Republican Party supported hard money, high tariffs to promote economic growth, high wages and high profits, generous pensions for Union veterans, the annexation of Hawaii. The Republicans had strong support from pietistic Protestants, but they resisted demands for Prohibition; as the Northern postwar economy boomed with heavy and light industry, mines, fast-growing cities, prosperous agriculture, the Republicans took credit and promoted policies to sustain the fast growth. The GOP was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System. However, by 1890 the Republicans had agreed to the Sherman Antitrust Act and the Interstate Commerce Commission in response to complaints from owners of small businesses and farmers; the high McKinley Tariff of 1890 hurt the party and the Democrats swept to a landslide in the off-year elections defeating McKinley himself. The Democrats elected Grover Cleveland in 1884 and 1892; the election of William McKinley in 1896 was marked by a resurgence of Republican dominance that lasted until 1932.
McKinley promised that high tariffs would end the severe hardship caused by the Pa
Black people is a term used in certain countries in based systems of racial classification or of ethnicity, to describe persons who are perceived to be dark-skinned compared to other populations. As such, the meaning of the expression varies both between and within societies, depends on context. For many other individuals and countries, "black" is perceived as a derogatory, reductive or otherwise unrepresentative label, as a result is neither used nor defined. Different societies apply differing criteria regarding, classified as "black", these social constructs have changed over time. In a number of countries, societal variables affect classification as much as skin color, the social criteria for "blackness" vary. In the United Kingdom, "black" was equivalent with "person of color", a general term for non-European peoples. In South Africa and Latin America, mixed-race people are not classified as "black". In other regions such as Australasia, settlers applied the term "black" or it was used by local populations with different histories and ancestral backgrounds.
The Romans interacted with and conquered parts of Mauretania, an early state that covered modern Morocco, western Algeria, the Spanish cities Ceuta and Melilla during the classical period. The people of the region were noted in Classical literature as Mauri, subsequently rendered as Moors in English. Numerous communities of dark-skinned peoples are present in North Africa, some dating from prehistoric communities. Others are descendants of the historical Trans-Saharan trade in peoples and/or, after the Arab invasions of North Africa in the 7th century, descendants of slaves from the Arab Slave Trade in North Africa. In the 18th century, the Moroccan Sultan Moulay Ismail "the Warrior King" raised a corps of 150,000 black soldiers, called his Black Guard. According to Carlos Moore, resident scholar at Brazil's University of the State of Bahia, in the 21st century Afro-multiracials in the Arab world, including Arabs in North Africa, self-identify in ways that resemble multi-racials in Latin America.
He claims that black-looking Arabs, much like black-looking Latin Americans, consider themselves white because they have some distant white ancestry. Egyptian President Anwar Sadat had a mother, a dark-skinned Nubian Sudanese woman and a father, a lighter-skinned Egyptian. In response to an advertisement for an acting position, as a young man he said, "I am not white but I am not black either. My blackness is tending to reddish". Due to the patriarchal nature of Arab society, Arab men, including during the slave trade in North Africa, enslaved more black women than men, they used more black female slaves in domestic agriculture than males. The men interpreted the Qur'an to permit sexual relations between a male master and his female slave outside of marriage, leading to many mixed-race children; when an enslaved woman became pregnant with her Arab master's child, she was considered as umm walad or "mother of a child", a status that granted her privileged rights. The child was given rights of inheritance to the father's property, so mixed-race children could share in any wealth of the father.
Because the society was patrilineal, the children took their fathers' social status at birth and were born free. Some succeeded their fathers as rulers, such as Sultan Ahmad al-Mansur, who ruled Morocco from 1578 to 1608, he was not technically considered as a mixed-race child of a slave. In early 1991, non-Arabs of the Zaghawa tribe of Sudan attested that they were victims of an intensifying Arab apartheid campaign, segregating Arabs and non-Arabs. Sudanese Arabs, who controlled the government, were referred to as practicing apartheid against Sudan's non-Arab citizens; the government was accused of "deftly manipulat Arab solidarity" to carry out policies of apartheid and ethnic cleansing. American University economist George Ayittey accused the Arab government of Sudan of practicing acts of racism against black citizens. According to Ayittey, "In Sudan... the Arabs monopolized power and excluded blacks – Arab apartheid." Many African commentators joined Ayittey in accusing Sudan of practising Arab apartheid.
In the Sahara, the native Tuareg Berber populations kept "Negro" slaves. Most of these captives were of Nilotic extraction, were either purchased by the Tuareg nobles from slave markets in the Western Sudan or taken during raids, their origin is denoted via the Ahaggar Berber word Ibenheren, which alludes to slaves that only speak a Nilo-Saharan language. These slaves were sometimes known by the borrowed Songhay term Bella; the Sahrawi autochthones of the Western Sahara observed a class system consisting of high castes and low castes. Outside of these traditional tribal boundaries were "Negro" slaves, who were drawn from the surrounding areas. In parts of the Horn of Africa, the local Afroasiatic speaking populations have long adhered to a construct similar to that of the Sahara and Maghreb. In Ethiopia and Somalia, the slave classes consisted of individuals of Nilotic and Bantu origin who were collectively known as Shanqella and Adone; these captives and others of analogous morphology were distinguished as tsalim barya in contrast with the Afroasiatic-speaking nobles or saba qayh.
The earliest representation of this tradition dates from a seventh or eighth century BC inscription belonging to the Kingdom of Damat. In South Africa, the period of colonization resulted in many unions and marriages between European men and Bantu and Kho
Ranger is a town in Gordon County, United States. The population was 131 at the 2010 census, up from 85 in 2000. A post office called Ranger has been in operation since 1891, it is uncertain whether the town was named after North Carolina, or the Confederate rangers. Ranger is located in eastern Gordon County at 34°30′1″N 84°42′41″W. U. S. Route 411 passes through the center of town, leading north 19 miles to Chatsworth and south 5 miles to Fairmount. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 0.81 square miles, all land. As of the 2010 census there were 131 people, 46 households, 39 families; as of the census of 2000, there were 85 people, 33 households, 23 families residing in the town. The population density was 104.2 people per square mile. There were 44 housing units at an average density of 53.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 100.00% White. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.35% of the population. There were 33 households out of which 18.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.5% were married couples living together, 12.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.3% were non-families.
21.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.27 and the average family size was 2.58. In the town, the population was spread out with 12.9% under the age of 18, 5.9% from 18 to 24, 22.4% from 25 to 44, 30.6% from 45 to 64, 28.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 50 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.7 males. The median income for a household in the town was $26,875, the median income for a family was $33,750. Males had a median income of $30,000 versus $23,750 for females; the per capita income for the town was $15,224. There were 13.3% of families and 8.8% of the population living below the poverty line, including no under eighteens and none of those over 64. Tom Graves, U. S. congressman Robert D. McTeer, economist