John Sidney McCain III was an American politician and military officer who served as a United States senator from Arizona from January 1987 until his death. He served two terms in the United States House of Representatives and was the Republican nominee for president of the United States in the 2008 election, which he lost to Barack Obama. McCain graduated from the United States Naval Academy in 1958 and received a commission in the United States Navy, he flew ground-attack aircraft from aircraft carriers. During the Vietnam War, he died in the 1967 USS Forrestal fire. While on a bombing mission during Operation Rolling Thunder over Hanoi in October 1967, he was shot down injured, captured by the North Vietnamese, he was a prisoner of war until 1973. He refused an out-of-sequence early release. During the war, he sustained wounds, he moved to Arizona, where he entered politics. In 1982, McCain was elected to the United States House of Representatives, where he served two terms, he entered the U. S. Senate in 1987 and won reelection five times.
While adhering to conservative principles, McCain had a reputation as a "maverick" for his willingness to break from his party on certain issues. His supportive stances on LGBT rights, gun regulations, campaign finance reform were more liberal than those of the party's base. McCain was investigated and exonerated in a political influence scandal of the 1980s as one of the Keating Five, he was known for his work in the 1990s to restore diplomatic relations with Vietnam. McCain opposed pork barrel spending, he belonged to the bipartisan "Gang of 14", which played a key role in alleviating a crisis over judicial nominations. McCain entered the race for the Republican nomination for president in 2000, but lost a heated primary season contest to Governor George W. Bush of Texas, he lost the general election. McCain subsequently adopted more orthodox conservative stances and attitudes and opposed actions of the Obama administration with regard to foreign policy matters. In 2015, he became Chairman of the Senate Armed Services Committee.
He refused to support then-Republican presidential nominee Donald Trump in 2016. While McCain opposed the Affordable Care Act, he cast the deciding vote against the ACA-repealing American Health Care Act of 2017. After being diagnosed with brain cancer in 2017, McCain reduced his role in the Senate in order to focus on treatment, he died on August 2018, four days before his 82nd birthday. Following his death, McCain lay in state in the Arizona State Capitol rotunda and in the United States Capitol rotunda, his funeral was televised from the Washington National Cathedral, with former U. S. Presidents George W. Bush and Barack Obama giving eulogies. John Sidney McCain III was born on August 29, 1936, at Coco Solo Naval Air Station in the Panama Canal Zone, to naval officer John S. McCain Jr. and Roberta McCain. He had a younger brother Joe. At that time, the Panama Canal was under U. S. control. McCain's family tree includes English ancestors, his father and his paternal grandfather, John S. McCain Sr. were Naval Academy graduates and both became four-star admirals in the United States Navy.
The McCain family followed his father to various naval postings in the United States and the Pacific. Altogether, he attended about 20 schools. In 1951, the family settled in Northern Virginia, McCain attended Episcopal High School, a private preparatory boarding school in Alexandria, he excelled at wrestling and graduated in 1954. He referred to himself as an Episcopalian as as June 2007 after which date he said he came to identify as a Baptist. Following in the footsteps of his father and grandfather, McCain entered the United States Naval Academy, where he was a friend and informal leader for many of his classmates and sometimes stood up for targets of bullying, he fought as a lightweight boxer. McCain did well in academic subjects that interested him, such as literature and history, but studied only enough to pass subjects that gave him difficulty, such as mathematics, he came into conflict with higher-ranking personnel and did not always obey the rules, which contributed to a low class rank, despite a high IQ. McCain graduated in 1958.
McCain began his early military career when he was commissioned as an ensign and started two and a half years of training at Pensacola to become a naval aviator. While there, he earned a reputation as a man, he became a naval pilot of ground-attack aircraft. McCain began as a sub-par flier, at times careless and reckless, his aviation skills improved over time, he was seen as a good pilot, albeit one who tended to "push the envelope" in his flying. On July 3, 1965, McCain was 28 when he married Carol Shepp, who had worked as a runway model and secretary. McCain adopted her two young children Andrew, he and Carol had a daughter named Sidney. McCain requested a combat assignment and was assigned
Baker County, Georgia
Baker County is a county in Georgia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 3,451; the county seat and only city is Newton. The county was created December 12, 1825 from the eastern portion of Early County by an act of the Georgia General Assembly and is named for Colonel John Baker, a hero of the American Revolutionary War. Baker County is included in GA Metropolitan Statistical Area; the Baker County Courthouse is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Three other properties in Newton are listed on the register: Notchaway Baptist Church and Cemetery, Pine Bloom Plantation, Tarver Plantation. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 349 square miles, of which 342 square miles is land and 7.2 square miles is water. The eastern half of Baker County is located in the Lower Flint River sub-basin of the ACF River Basin; the western half of the county is located in the Ichawaynochaway Creek sub-basin of the same ACF River Basin. State Route 37 State Route 91 State Route 200 State Route 216 State Route 253 Dougherty County, Georgia - northeast Mitchell County, Georgia - east Decatur County, Georgia - southwest Early County, Georgia - west Miller County, Georgia - west Calhoun County, Georgia - northwest As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 3,451 people, 1,372 households, 892 families residing in the county.
The population density was 10.1 inhabitants per square mile. There were 1,652 housing units at an average density of 4.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 48.5% white, 46.7% black or African American, 0.7% Asian, 0.3% American Indian, 0.1% Pacific islander, 2.5% from other races, 1.2% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 4.2% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 7.3% were English, 0.0% were American. Of the 1,372 households, 30.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.2% were married couples living together, 15.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.0% were non-families, 30.5% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.52 and the average family size was 3.14. The median age was 41.6 years. The median income for a household in the county was $27,462 and the median income for a family was $42,585. Males had a median income of $25,954 versus $25,688 for females; the per capita income for the county was $16,379.
About 23.1% of families and 30.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 49.1% of those under age 18 and 5.6% of those age 65 or over. As of the census of 2000, there were 4,074 people, 1,514 households, 1,094 families residing in the county; the population density was 12 people per square mile. There were 1,740 housing units at an average density of 5 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 50.39% Black or African American, 47.42% White, 0.22% Native American, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 1.33% from other races, 0.61% from two or more races. 2.72% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 1,514 households out of which 33.10% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.70% were married couples living together, 19.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.70% were non-families. 25.10% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.80% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.68 and the average family size was 3.20.
In the county, the population was spread out with 27.30% under the age of 18, 10.00% from 18 to 24, 26.90% from 25 to 44, 22.10% from 45 to 64, 13.70% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 86.20 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.30 males. The median income for a household in the county was $30,338, the median income for a family was $36,438. Males had a median income of $25,891 versus $16,462 for females; the per capita income for the county was $16,969. About 19.90% of families and 23.40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 32.50% of those under age 18 and 20.10% of those age 65 or over. Baker County School System operates public schools. Although Barry Goldwater, George Wallace and Richard Nixon carried it in successive elections between 1964 and 1972, Baker County is Democratic. In 1956 Adlai Stevenson received over 96% of the county's vote, it has gone majority Democratic from 1992 to 2012, but by much closer margins than that.
In 2008 Barack Obama won with just 50.1% to John McCain's 49.1%. Newton Cheevertown Dewsville Fish Trap LedbetterSource: National Register of Historic Places listings in Baker County, Georgia Baker County Sheriff's Office Baker County historical marker
Asian Americans are Americans of Asian ancestry. The term refers to a panethnic group that includes diverse populations, which have ancestral origins in East Asia, South Asia, or Southeast Asia, as defined by the U. S. Census Bureau; this includes people who indicate their race on the census as "Asian" or reported entries such as "Chinese, Indian, Japanese and Other Asian". Asian Americans with other ancestry comprise 5.6% of the U. S. population, while people who are Asian alone, those combined with at least one other race, make up 6.9%. Although migrants from Asia have been in parts of the contemporary United States since the 17th century, large-scale immigration did not begin until the mid-18th century. Nativist immigration laws during the 1880s–1920s excluded various Asian groups prohibiting all Asian immigration to the continental United States. After immigration laws were reformed during the 1940s–60s, abolishing national origins quotas, Asian immigration increased rapidly. Analyses of the 2010 census have shown that Asian Americans are the fastest growing racial or ethnic minority in the United States.
As with other racial and ethnicity-based terms and common usage have changed markedly through the short history of this term. Prior to the late 1960s, people of Asian ancestry were referred to as Oriental and Mongoloid. Additionally, the American definition of'Asian' included West Asian ethnic groups Jewish Americans, Armenian Americans, Assyrian Americans, Iranian Americans, Kurdish Americans, Arab Americans, although these groups are now considered Middle Eastern American; the term Asian American was coined by historian Yuji Ichioka, credited with popularizing the term, to frame a new "inter-ethnic-pan-Asian American self-defining political group" in the late 1960s. Changing patterns of immigration and an extensive period of exclusion of Asian immigrants have resulted in demographic changes that have in turn affected the formal and common understandings of what defines Asian American. For example, since the removal of restrictive "national origins" quotas in 1965, the Asian-American population has diversified to include more of the peoples with ancestry from various parts of Asia.
Today, "Asian American" is the accepted term for most formal purposes, such as government and academic research, although it is shortened to Asian in common usage. The most used definition of Asian American is the U. S. Census Bureau definition, which includes all people with origins in the Far East, Southeast Asia, the Indian subcontinent; this is chiefly because the census definitions determine many governmental classifications, notably for equal opportunity programs and measurements. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, "Asian person" in the United States is sometimes thought of as a person of East Asian descent. In vernacular usage, "Asian" is used to refer to those of East Asian descent or anyone else of Asian descent with epicanthic eyefolds; this differs from the U. S. Census definition and the Asian American Studies departments in many universities consider all those of East, South or Southeast Asian descent to be "Asian". In the US Census, people with origins or ancestry in the Far East, Southeast Asia, the Indian subcontinent are classified as part of the Asian race.
As such, "Asian" and "African" ancestry are seen as racial categories for the purposes of the Census, since they refer to ancestry only from those parts of the Asian and African continents that are outside the Middle East and North Africa. In 1980 and before, Census forms listed particular Asian ancestries as separate groups, along with white and black or negro. Asian Americans had been classified as "other". In 1977, the federal Office of Management and Budget issued a directive requiring government agencies to maintain statistics on racial groups, including on "Asian or Pacific Islander". By the 1990 census, "Asian or Pacific Islander" was included as an explicit category, although respondents had to select one particular ancestry as a subcategory. Beginning with the 2000 census, two separate categories were used: "Asian American" and "Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander"; the definition of Asian American has variations that derive from the use of the word American in different contexts.
Immigration status, citizenship and language ability are some variables that are used to define American for various purposes and may vary in formal and everyday usage. For example, restricting American to include only U. S. citizens conflicts with discussions of Asian American businesses, which refer both to citizen and non-citizen owners. In a PBS interview from 2004, a panel of Asian American writers discussed how some groups include people of Middle Eastern descent in the Asian American category. Asian American author Stewart Ikeda has noted, "The definition of'Asian American' frequently depends on who's asking, who's defining, in what context, why... the possible definitions of'Asian-Pacific American' are many and shifting... some scholars in Asian American Studies conferences suggest that Russians and Israelis all might fit the field's subject of study." Jeff Yang, of the Wall Street Journal, writes that the panethnic definition of Asian American is a unique American construct, as an identity is "in beta".
Scholars have grappled with the accuracy, correctn
Barack Hussein Obama II is an American attorney and politician who served as the 44th president of the United States from 2009 to 2017. A member of the Democratic Party, he was the first African American, he served as a U. S. senator from Illinois from 2005 to 2008. Obama was born in Hawaii. After graduating from Columbia University in 1983, he worked as a community organizer in Chicago. In 1988, he enrolled in Harvard Law School, where he was the first black president of the Harvard Law Review. After graduating, he became a civil rights attorney and an academic, teaching constitutional law at the University of Chicago Law School from 1992 to 2004, he represented the 13th district for three terms in the Illinois Senate from 1997 until 2004 when he ran for the U. S. Senate, he received national attention in 2004 with his March primary win, his well-received July Democratic National Convention keynote address, his landslide November election to the Senate. In 2008, he was nominated for president a year after his campaign began and after a close primary campaign against Hillary Clinton.
He was elected over Republican John McCain and was inaugurated on January 20, 2009. Nine months he was named the 2009 Nobel Peace Prize laureate. Regarded as a centrist New Democrat, Obama signed many landmark bills into law during his first two years in office; the main reforms that were passed include the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, the Dodd–Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, the Don't Ask, Don't Tell Repeal Act of 2010. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 and Tax Relief, Unemployment Insurance Reauthorization, Job Creation Act of 2010 served as economic stimulus amidst the Great Recession. After a lengthy debate over the national debt limit, he signed the Budget Control and the American Taxpayer Relief Acts. In foreign policy, he increased U. S. troop levels in Afghanistan, reduced nuclear weapons with the United States–Russia New START treaty, ended military involvement in the Iraq War. He ordered military involvement in Libya in opposition to Muammar Gaddafi.
He ordered the military operations that resulted in the deaths of Osama bin Laden and suspected Yemeni Al-Qaeda operative Anwar al-Awlaki. After winning re-election by defeating Republican opponent Mitt Romney, Obama was sworn in for a second term in 2013. During this term, he promoted inclusiveness for LGBT Americans, his administration filed briefs that urged the Supreme Court to strike down same-sex marriage bans as unconstitutional. He advocated for gun control in response to the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting, indicating support for a ban on assault weapons, issued wide-ranging executive actions concerning climate change and immigration. In foreign policy, he ordered military intervention in Iraq in response to gains made by ISIL after the 2011 withdrawal from Iraq, continued the process of ending U. S. combat operations in Afghanistan in 2016, promoted discussions that led to the 2015 Paris Agreement on global climate change, initiated sanctions against Russia following the invasion in Ukraine and again after Russian interference in the 2016 United States elections, brokered a nuclear deal with Iran, normalized U.
S. relations with Cuba. During his term in office, America's reputation in global polling improved. Evaluations of his presidency among historians, political scientists, the general public place him among the upper tier of American presidents. Obama left office and retired in January 2017 and resides in Washington, D. C. A December 2018 Gallup poll found Obama to be the most admired man in America for an unprecedented 11th consecutive year, although Dwight D. Eisenhower was selected most admired in twelve non-consecutive years. Obama was born on August 4, 1961, at Kapiolani Medical Center for Women and Children in Honolulu, Hawaii, he is the only president, born outside of the contiguous 48 states. He was born to a black father, his mother, Ann Dunham, was born in Kansas. His father, Barack Obama Sr. was a Luo Kenyan from Nyang'oma Kogelo. Obama's parents met in 1960 in a Russian language class at the University of Hawaii at Manoa, where his father was a foreign student on a scholarship; the couple married in Hawaii, on February 2, 1961, six months before Obama was born.
In late August 1961, Barack and his mother moved to the University of Washington in Seattle, where they lived for a year. During that time, the elder Obama completed his undergraduate degree in economics in Hawaii, graduating in June 1962, he left to attend graduate school on a scholarship at Harvard University, where he earned an M. A. in economics. Obama's parents divorced in March 1964. Obama Sr. returned to Kenya in 1964, where he married for a third time and worked for the Kenyan government as the Senior Economic Analyst in the Ministry of Finance. He visited his son in Hawaii only once, at Christmas time in 1971, before he was killed in an automobile accident in 1982, when Obama was 21 years old. Recalling his early childhood, Obama said, "That my father looked nothing like the people around me – that he was black as pitch, my mother white as milk – registered in my mind." He described his struggles as a young adult to reconcile social perceptions of his multira
Lee County, Georgia
Lee County is a county located in the U. S. state of Georgia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 28,298, its county seat is Leesburg. Lee County is included in GA Metropolitan Statistical Area; the land for Lee, Troup and Carroll counties was ceded by the Creek people in the 1825 Treaty of Indian Springs. The counties' boundaries were created by the Georgia General Assembly on June 9, but they were not named until December 14, 1826; the county was named in honor of Henry Lee III. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 362 square miles, of which 356 square miles is land and 5.9 square miles is water. Most of the western three-quarters of Lee County is located in the Kinchafoonee-Muckalee sub-basin of the ACF River Basin; the eastern quarter of the county is located in the Middle Flint River sub-basin of the same ACF River Basin, while a small corner in the south of Lee County is located in the Lower Flint River sub-basin of the same larger ACF River Basin. An smaller southwestern corner is located in the Ichawaynochaway Creek sub-basin of the ACF River Basin.
Sumter County Crisp County Worth County Dougherty County Terrell County As of the census of 2000, there were 24,757 people, 8,229 households, 6,797 families residing in the county. The population density was 70 people per square mile. There were 8,813 housing units at an average density of 25 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 82.24% White, 15.50% Black or African American, 0.24% Native American, 0.84% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.48% from other races, 0.68% from two or more races. 1.21% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 8,229 households out of which 48.30% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 65.80% were married couples living together, 13.00% had a female householder with no husband present, 17.40% were non-families. 14.30% of all households were made up of individuals and 4.30% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.91 and the average family size was 3.21. In the county, the population was spread out with 30.70% under the age of 18, 8.50% from 18 to 24, 33.20% from 25 to 44, 21.30% from 45 to 64, 6.30% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females, there were 102.10 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 100.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $48,600, the median income for a family was $53,132. Males had a median income of $39,848 versus $25,715 for females; the per capita income for the county was $19,897. About 6.50% of families and 8.20% of the population were below the poverty line, including 10.50% of those under age 18 and 11.70% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 28,298 people, 9,706 households, 7,740 families residing in the county; the population density was 79.5 inhabitants per square mile. There were 10,276 housing units at an average density of 28.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 76.9% white, 18.6% black or African American, 2.2% Asian, 0.3% American Indian, 0.1% Pacific islander, 0.6% from other races, 1.4% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 2.0% of the population.
In terms of ancestry, 15.1% were American, 12.3% were Irish, 10.3% were German, 9.1% were English. Of the 9,706 households, 44.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 62.1% were married couples living together, 13.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 20.3% were non-families, 16.4% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.83 and the average family size was 3.17. The median age was 36.0 years. The median income for a household in the county was $59,811 and the median income for a family was $67,943. Males had a median income of $49,213 versus $34,880 for females; the per capita income for the county was $23,867. About 7.5% of families and 8.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 9.2% of those under age 18 and 8.2% of those age 65 or over. Public schools are operated by the Lee County School District. Lee County High School is the sole high school of the district. Lee County was party of the solidly Democratic Black Belt where control of the dominant black population dictated unified white voting for Democratic candidates due to the Republican association with Reconstruction and black political power.
However, with a combination of the Great Migration and white in-migration, the black shore of the county’s population has declined and it is now powerfully Republican, having voted Republican in every presidential election since 1964, with the exception of 1968 and 1976 when it backed Southern “favorite sons” George Wallace and Jimmy Carter. Leesburg Smithville National Register of Historic Places listings in Lee County, Georgia Official Website
Stewart County, Georgia
Stewart County is a county located in the west portion of the U. S. state of Georgia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 6,058; the county seat is Lumpkin. The county was created on December 23, 1830; the area was inhabited by Native Americans for thousands of years in the Pre-Columbian period. Roods Landing Site on the Chattahoochee River is a significant archaeological site located south of Omaha. Listed on the National Register of Historic Places, it includes major earthwork mounds built about 1100-1350 CE by peoples of the sophisticated Mississippian culture. Another Mississippian site is the Singer Moye Mounds, located in the southern part of the county; the first Europeans to encounter the Native Americans were Spanish explorers in the mid-16th century. At that time the historical Creek tribe inhabited the southern two thirds of what is now defined as Georgia, west of the Low Country, they are believed to be the descendants of the Mississippian culture. They maintained their territory until after European American settlers arrived in increasing number in the early decades of the 19th century.
The ensuing conflicts resulted in most of the Creek people's being driven out of the region. In the 1830s under Indian removal, the US federal government forced most Creek to relocate west of the Mississippi River, to Indian Territory in what became present-day Oklahoma. Stewart County was created by an act of the Georgia General Assembly on December 23, 1830, from land, part of Randolph County, Georgia; the county is named for Daniel Stewart, a Revolutionary War veteran, fighter against American Indians. He was one of the four great-grandfathers of U. S. president Theodore Roosevelt. Settlers developed the area as large cotton plantations, part of the "Black Belt" of Georgia and the Deep South. Before the American Civil War, planters depended on enslaved labor of thousands of African Americans to cultivate and process the cotton for market. Born in the United States, the slaves were transported from the Upper South, with many families broken up when some members were purchased through sales in the domestic slave trade.
In 1850, the county reached its peak in wealth as one of the largest cotton producers in the state. It had the tenth-largest population of any county in the state, with 16,027 people. African-American slaves numbered 46 % of the population; this was By 1860, the county population was 13,422. The apparent drop was due to the counties of Kinchafoonee and Quitman being created from Stewart County territory in 1853 and 1858, respectively. There were 5,534 slaves in the redefined Stewart County, constituting more than one-third of the population. After the war and emancipation, cotton continued as the major commodity crop and additional territory was developed by planters for cultivation. Many freedmen became sharecroppers and tenant farmers in the area, agricultural for decades, but in decline. Stewart County lost its premier position when it was bypassed by developing railroads, which went to the north and south, it did not have railroad access until 1885. Inappropriate farming practices and over-cultivation of cotton from before the Civil War led to extensive land erosion by the early 20th century.
Together with mechanization of agriculture and damage due to infestation by the boll weevil, there were losses in this part of the economy. Population declined. Up to the mid century, many blacks left the area in two waves of the Great Migration, seeking escape from Jim Crow conditions, jobs and better lives in northern and midwestern industrial cities. Farmers shifted to cultivating peanuts and pine trees to reclaim and restore the land. Population losses continued throughout the 20th century, as the forest and lumber industry did not require as many laborers. In 1965, some of the towns in the county began to redevelop their historic properties to attract tourists and expand the economy. Lumpkin and Louvale all had intact historic properties and commercial districts. Green Grove is an historic African-American community established by freedmen after the Civil War. Stewart was the first rural county in the state to use historic preservation and Main Street redevelopment to support heritage tourism.
According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 464 square miles, of which 459 square miles is land and 4.9 square miles is water. The vast majority of Stewart County is located in the Middle Chattahoochee River-Walter F. George Lake sub-basin of the ACF River Basin. Just the eastern edge of the county, bordered by a north-to-south line running through Richland, is located in the Kinchafoonee-Muckalee sub-basin of the same ACF Basin, with the southeastern corner located in the Ichawaynochaway Creek sub-basin of the larger ACF River Basin. Chattahoochee County Webster County Randolph County Quitman County Barbour County, Alabama Russell County, Alabama Eufaula National Wildlife Refuge As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 6,058 people, 1,862 households, 1,187 families residing in the county; the population density was 13.2 inhabitants per square mile. There were 2,383 housing units at an average density of 5.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 47.3% black or African American, 28.0% white, 0.7% Asian, 0.2% American Indian, 22.8% from other races, 1.0% from two or more races.
Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 24.0% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 6.8% were English, 6.3% were German, 4.9% were American. Of the 1,862 households
Native Americans in the United States
Native Americans known as American Indians, Indigenous Americans and other terms, are the indigenous peoples of the United States, except Hawaii. There are over 500 federally recognized tribes within the US, about half of which are associated with Indian reservations; the term "American Indian" excludes Native Hawaiians and some Alaska Natives, while Native Americans are American Indians, plus Alaska Natives of all ethnicities. Native Hawaiians are not counted as Native Americans by the US Census, instead being included in the Census grouping of "Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander"; the ancestors of modern Native Americans arrived in what is now the United States at least 15,000 years ago much earlier, from Asia via Beringia. A vast variety of peoples and cultures subsequently developed. Native Americans were affected by the European colonization of the Americas, which began in 1492, their population declined precipitously due to introduced diseases as well as warfare, territorial confiscation and slavery.
After the founding of the United States, many Native American peoples were subjected to warfare and one-sided treaties, they continued to suffer from discriminatory government policies into the 20th century. Since the 1960s, Native American self-determination movements have resulted in changes to the lives of Native Americans, though there are still many contemporary issues faced by Native Americans. Today, there are over five million Native Americans in the United States, 78% of whom live outside reservations; when the United States was created, established Native American tribes were considered semi-independent nations, as they lived in communities separate from British settlers. The federal government signed treaties at a government-to-government level until the Indian Appropriations Act of 1871 ended recognition of independent native nations, started treating them as "domestic dependent nations" subject to federal law; this law did preserve the rights and privileges agreed to under the treaties, including a large degree of tribal sovereignty.
For this reason, many Native American reservations are still independent of state law and actions of tribal citizens on these reservations are subject only to tribal courts and federal law. The Indian Citizenship Act of 1924 granted U. S. citizenship to all Native Americans born in the United States. This emptied the "Indians not taxed" category established by the United States Constitution, allowed natives to vote in state and federal elections, extended the Fourteenth Amendment protections granted to people "subject to the jurisdiction" of the United States. However, some states continued to deny Native Americans voting rights for several decades. Bill of Rights protections do not apply to tribal governments, except for those mandated by the Indian Civil Rights Act of 1968. Since the end of the 15th century, the migration of Europeans to the Americas has led to centuries of population and agricultural transfer and adjustment between Old and New World societies, a process known as the Columbian exchange.
As most Native American groups had preserved their histories by oral traditions and artwork, the first written sources of the conflict were written by Europeans. Ethnographers classify the indigenous peoples of North America into ten geographical regions with shared cultural traits, called cultural areas; some scholars combine the Plateau and Great Basin regions into the Intermontane West, some separate Prairie peoples from Great Plains peoples, while some separate Great Lakes tribes from the Northeastern Woodlands. The ten cultural areas are as follows: Arctic, including Aleut and Yupik peoples Subarctic Northeastern Woodlands Southeastern Woodlands Great Plains Great Basin Northwest Plateau Northwest Coast California Southwest At the time of the first contact, the indigenous cultures were quite different from those of the proto-industrial and Christian immigrants; some Northeastern and Southwestern cultures, in particular, were matrilineal and operated on a more collective basis than that with which Europeans were familiar.
The majority of Indigenous American tribes maintained their hunting grounds and agricultural lands for use of the entire tribe. Europeans at that time had patriarchal cultures and had developed concepts of individual property rights with respect to land that were different; the differences in cultures between the established Native Americans and immigrant Europeans, as well as shifting alliances among different nations in times of war, caused extensive political tension, ethnic violence, social disruption. Before the European settlement of what is now the United States, Native Americans suffered high fatalities from contact with new European diseases, to which they had not yet acquired immunity. Smallpox epidemics are thought to have caused the greatest loss of life for indigenous populations. William M Denevan, noted author and Professor Emeritus of Geography at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, said on this subject in his essay "The Pristine Myth: The Landscape of the Americas in 1492".
Old World diseases were the primary killer. In many regions the tropical lowlands, populations fell by 90 percent or more in the first century after the contact. "Estimates of the pre-Columbian population of what today constitutes the U. S. vary ranging from William M Denevan's 3.8 million in his 1992 w