Christianity in Madagascar

Christianity in Madagascar is practiced by 41% of Madagascans, according to the U. S. Department of State in 2011, or by 85% of them according to the Pew Research Center in 2010 in syncretic form with traditional religious practices. Protestantism was introduced by the first envoys of the London Missionary Society in 1818, who proselytized and taught literacy through a Malagasy language Bible at the public schools they established in the highlands at the request of King Radama I; the number of converts remained low but grew under repression during the reign of his successor, Queen Ranavalona I, the more permissive religious policies of her son, Radama II, his widow, Queen Rasoherina. The spread of Protestantism among the Merina upper classes by the mid-19th century, including Queen Ranavalona II, coupled with the growing political influence of the British missionaries, led Prime Minister Rainilaiarivony to legislate the conversion of the royal court; this prompted widespread popular conversion to Protestantism throughout the highlands in the late 19th century.

Roman Catholicism was introduced principally through French diplomats and missionaries beginning in the mid-19th century but only gained significant converts under French colonization of Madagascar beginning in 1896. The early spread of Protestantism among the Merina elite resulted in a degree of class and ethnic differentiation among practitioners of Christianity, with the association of Protestantism with the upper classes and Merina ethnic group, Catholicism attracting more adherents among the popular classes and coastal regions. Practitioners of Protestantism outnumber adherents to Catholicism. Half of the country's population practice traditional religion, according to the U. S. Department of State in 2011, though only 4.5% of them do so according to the Pew Research Center in 2010. This traditional religion attributes all of creation to a single god, called Zanahary or Andriamanitra. In addition, it tends to emphasize links between the razana; the veneration of ancestors has led to the widespread tradition of tomb building, as well as the highlands practice of the famadihana, whereby a deceased family member's remains may be exhumed to be periodically re-wrapped in fresh silk shrouds before being replaced in the tomb.

Portuguese and French began the first christianization of Madagascar during the 17th century. They preached in the southeastern parts of the country; the antanosy prince Andriandramaka is the first known malagasy receiving baptism. The first formal European-style school was established in 1818 on the east coast of Madagascar at Toamasina by members of the London Missionary Society. King Radama I, the first sovereign to bring about half the island of Madagascar under his rule, was interested in strengthening ties with European powers; this first school, known as the Palace School, was established by LMS missionary David Jones on 8 December 1820 within Besakana, a Rova building of great historic and cultural significance. Within months, classes were transferred to a larger, purpose-built structure on the Rova grounds. Beginning in December 1820, LMS missionaries established workshops in Antananarivo to teach trades and technical skills, developed a network of public schools. By 1822, LMS missionaries had transcribed the Merina dialect of the Malagasy language using the Latin alphabet.

This dialect, spoken in the central highlands around Antananarivo, was declared the official version of the Malagasy language that year – a status that the highlands dialect has retained since. The Bible, incrementally translated into this dialect and printed on a press, was the first book printed in the Malagasy language and became the standard text used to teach literacy. Convinced that Western schooling was vital to developing Madagascar's political and economic strength, in 1825 Radama declared primary schooling to be compulsory for the andriana throughout Imerina. Schools were constructed in larger towns throughout the central highlands and staffed with teachers from the LMS and other missionary organizations. By the end of Radama's reign in 1829, 38 schools were providing basic education to over 4,000 students in addition to the 300 students studying at the Palace School, teaching dual messages of loyalty and obedience to Radama's rule and the fundamentals of Christian theology; these schools provided Radama with a ready pool of educated conscripts for his military activities.

An additional 600 students received vocational training under Scottish missionary James Cameron. Despite high attendance at the schools, the LMS were unsuccessful in converting pupils to Christianity. Near the end of Radama's reign, the king perceived the few Malagasy, converted as irreverent toward royal authority, he forbade Malagasy people from attending Christian services. Radama died in 1828 and was succeeded by his widow, Ranavalona I, her succession resulted in a relaxation of state control over Christianity. The island's first printing press, imported by LMS missionaries at the end of Radama's reign, was only put into operation in 1828; the press was in heaviest use during the first several years of Ranavalona's reign, when thousands of hymnals and other materials were transcribed and printed. Translation of the New Testament was completed i

Live at Shea Stadium

Live at Shea Stadium is a live album by the English punk rock band The Clash. It was recorded at Shea Stadium in New York City on 13 October 1982, the band's second night opening for The Who; the original recordings were unearthed by Clash frontman Joe Strummer while packing for a move. The album was released in the United Kingdom on 6 October 2008 and in the United States the following day. Reception for Live at Shea Stadium was positive. Review aggregator Metacritic, which collates reviews from various publications, indicates a score of 81. All tracks are written except where noted; the performances of "Career Opportunities" and "Should I Stay Or Should I Go" are available. It is not clear if the visuals of the other performances are in the archives, if so, whether they will be released; the Who's headline performance was released on DVD in 2015. Joe Strummer - lead vocals, rhythm guitar, bass on "The Guns of Brixton" Mick Jones - guitar, vocals Paul Simonon - bass, backing vocals, lead vocals and rhythm guitar on "The Guns of Brixton" Terry Chimes - drumsProduction Glyn Johns - original recording David Bates.