Atlanta is the capital of, the most populous city in, the U. S. state of Georgia. With an estimated 2017 population of 486,290, it is the 38th most-populous city in the United States; the city serves as the cultural and economic center of the Atlanta metropolitan area, home to 5.8 million people and the ninth-largest metropolitan area in the nation. Atlanta is the seat of the most populous county in Georgia. A small portion of the city extends eastward into neighboring DeKalb County. Atlanta was founded as the terminating stop of a major state-sponsored railroad. With rapid expansion, however, it soon became the convergence point between multiple railroads, spurring its rapid growth; the city's name derives from that of the Western and Atlantic Railroad's local depot, signifying the town's growing reputation as a transportation hub. During the American Civil War, the city was entirely burned to the ground in General William T. Sherman's famous March to the Sea. However, the city rose from its ashes and became a national center of commerce and the unofficial capital of the "New South".
During the 1950s and 1960s, Atlanta became a major organizing center of the civil rights movement, with Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Ralph David Abernathy, many other locals playing major roles in the movement's leadership. During the modern era, Atlanta has attained international prominence as a major air transportation hub, with Hartsfield–Jackson Atlanta International Airport being the world's busiest airport by passenger traffic since 1998. Atlanta is rated as a "beta" world city that exerts a moderate impact on global commerce, research, education, media and entertainment, it ranks in the top twenty among world cities and 10th in the nation with a gross domestic product of $385 billion. Atlanta's economy is considered diverse, with dominant sectors that include transportation, logistics and business services, media operations, medical services, information technology. Atlanta has topographic features that include rolling hills and dense tree coverage, earning it the nickname of "the city in a forest."
Revitalization of Atlanta's neighborhoods spurred by the 1996 Summer Olympics, has intensified in the 21st century, altering the city's demographics, politics and culture. Prior to the arrival of European settlers in north Georgia, Creek Indians inhabited the area. Standing Peachtree, a Creek village where Peachtree Creek flows into the Chattahoochee River, was the closest Indian settlement to what is now Atlanta; as part of the systematic removal of Native Americans from northern Georgia from 1802 to 1825, the Creek were forced to leave the area in 1821, white settlers arrived the following year. In 1836, the Georgia General Assembly voted to build the Western and Atlantic Railroad in order to provide a link between the port of Savannah and the Midwest; the initial route was to run southward from Chattanooga to a terminus east of the Chattahoochee River, which would be linked to Savannah. After engineers surveyed various possible locations for the terminus, the "zero milepost" was driven into the ground in what is now Five Points.
A year the area around the milepost had developed into a settlement, first known as "Terminus", as "Thrasherville" after a local merchant who built homes and a general store in the area. By 1842, the town had six buildings and 30 residents and was renamed "Marthasville" to honor the Governor's daughter. J. Edgar Thomson, Chief Engineer of the Georgia Railroad, suggested the town be renamed Atlanta; the residents approved, the town was incorporated as Atlanta on December 29, 1847. By 1860, Atlanta's population had grown to 9,554. During the American Civil War, the nexus of multiple railroads in Atlanta made the city a hub for the distribution of military supplies. In 1864, the Union Army moved southward following the capture of Chattanooga and began its invasion of north Georgia; the region surrounding Atlanta was the location of several major army battles, culminating with the Battle of Atlanta and a four-month-long siege of the city by the Union Army under the command of General William Tecumseh Sherman.
On September 1, 1864, Confederate General John Bell Hood made the decision to retreat from Atlanta, he ordered the destruction of all public buildings and possible assets that could be of use to the Union Army. On the next day, Mayor James Calhoun surrendered Atlanta to the Union Army, on September 7, Sherman ordered the city's civilian population to evacuate. On November 11, 1864, Sherman prepared for the Union Army's March to the Sea by ordering the destruction of Atlanta's remaining military assets. After the Civil War ended in 1865, Atlanta was rebuilt. Due to the city's superior rail transportation network, the state capital was moved from Milledgeville to Atlanta in 1868. In the 1880 Census, Atlanta surpassed Savannah as Georgia's largest city. Beginning in the 1880s, Henry W. Grady, the editor of the Atlanta Constitution newspaper, promoted Atlanta to potential investors as a city of the "New South" that would be based upon a modern economy and less reliant on agriculture. By 1885, the founding of the Georgia School of Technology and the Atlanta University Center had established Atlanta as a center for higher education.
In 1895, Atlanta hosted the Cotton States and International Exposition, which attracted nearly 800,000 attendees and promoted the New South's development to the world. During the first decades of the 20th century, Atlanta experienced a period of unprecedented growth. In three decades' time, Atlanta's population tripled as the city limits expanded to include nearby streetcar suburbs; the city's skyline emerged with the construction of the
Milledgeville is a city in and the county seat of Baldwin County in the U. S. state of Georgia. It is northeast of Macon and bordered on the east by the Oconee River; the rapid current of the river here made this an attractive location to build a city. It was the capital of Georgia from 1804 to 1868, notably during the American Civil War. Milledgeville was preceded as the capital city by Louisville and was succeeded by Atlanta, the current capital. Today U. S. Highway 441 connects Milledgeville to Madison and Dublin; the population of the town of Milledgeville was 17,715 at the 2010 census. Milledgeville is along the route of the Fall Line Freeway, under construction to link Milledgeville with Augusta, Macon and other Fall Line cities, they have long histories from the colonial era of Georgia. Milledgeville is the principal city of the Milledgeville Micropolitan Statistical Area, a micropolitan area that includes Baldwin and Hancock counties, it had a combined population of 54,776 at the 2000 census.
The Old State Capitol is located here. Much of the original city is contained within the boundaries of the Milledgeville Historic District, added to the NRHP. Milledgeville, named after Georgia governor John Milledge, was founded by European Americans at the start of the 19th century as the new centrally located capital of the state of Georgia, it served as the state capital from 1804 to 1868. In 1803 an act of the Georgia legislature called for the establishment and survey of a town to be named in honor of the current governor, John Milledge; the Treaty of Fort Wilkinson had forced Native American tribes to cede territory west of the Oconee River. The white population of Georgia continued to press south in search of new farmland; the town of Milledgeville was developed in an area that had long been occupied by indigenous peoples. In December 1804 the state legislature declared Milledgeville the new capital of Georgia; the new planned town, modeled after Savannah and Washington, D. C. stood on the edge of the frontier at the Atlantic fall line, where the Upper Coastal Plain meets the foothills and plateau of the Piedmont.
The area was surveyed, a town plat of 500 acres was divided into 84 4-acre squares. The survey included four public squares of 20 acres each. After 1815 Milledgeville became prosperous and more respectable. Wealth and power gravitated toward the capital. Much of the surrounding countryside was developed by slave labor for cotton plantations, the major commodity crop of the South. Cotton bales were set up to line the roads, waiting to be shipped downriver to Darien. Public-spirited citizens such as Tomlinson Fort promoted better newspapers, learning academies, banks. In 1837-1842 the Georgia Lunatic Asylum was built here. Oglethorpe University, where the poet Sidney Lanier was educated, opened its doors in 1838; the cotton boom in this upland area increased the demand for slave labor. The town market, where slave auctions took place, was located on Capital Square, next to the Presbyterian church. Skilled black carpenters and laborers were forced to construct most of the handsome antebellum structures in Milledgeville.
Two events epitomized Milledgeville's status as the political and social center of Georgia in this period: In 1825 the capital was visited by American Revolutionary War hero and aristocrat, the Marquis de Lafayette. The receptions, formal dinner, grand ball for the veteran apostle of liberty seemed to mark Milledgeville's coming of age; the Governor's Mansion was constructed. By 1854 Baldwin County had a total population of 8148, of whom 3566 were free, 4602 were African-American slaves. On January 19, 1861, Georgia convention delegates passed the Ordinance of Secession, on February 4, 1861, the "Republic of Georgia" joined the Confederate States of America. In the closing months of the war, in November 1864 Union general William T. Sherman and 30,000 Union troops marched into Milledgeville during his March to the Sea. Before leaving a couple of days they had poured sorghum and molasses down the pipes of the organ at St. Stephen's Episcopal Church. In 1868, during Reconstruction, the state legislature moved the capital to Atlanta—a city emerging as the symbol of the New South as as Milledgeville symbolized the Old South.
Milledgeville struggled to survive as a city after losing the business of the capital. The energetic efforts of local leaders established the Middle Georgia Military and Agricultural College in 1879 on Statehouse Square. Where the crumbling remains of the old penitentiary stood, Georgia Normal and Industrial College was founded in 1889. In part because of these institutions, as well as Central State Hospital, Milledgeville developed as a less provincial town than many of its neighbors. In the 1950s the Georgia Power Company completed a dam at Furman Shoals on the Oconee River, about 5 miles north of town, creating a huge reservoir called Lake Sinclair; the lake community became an important part of the town's social and economic identity. In the 1980s and 1990s Milledgeville began to capitalize on its heritage by revitalizing the downtown and historic district, it encouraged restoration of historic buildings and an urban design scheme on Main Street to emphasi
Louisville is a city in Jefferson County, United States. It is the county seat of Jefferson County, it is located southwest of Augusta on the Ogeechee River, its population was 2,493 at the 2010 census, down from 2,712 at the 2000 census. The name is pronounced "Lewis-ville" by locals. Louisville was incorporated on January 1786, as the prospective state capital. Savannah had served as the colonial capital, but was considered too far from the center of population in the growing state. Louisville was named for Louis XVI, still the King of France and had aided the Continentals during the successful American Revolutionary War. Development of the city began and its state government buildings were completed in 1795. An old Revolutionary War Soldiers Cemetery is located on the western side of town; the city of Louisville served as the state capital of Georgia from 1796 to 1806. It was a center of trade and political influence; the Jefferson County courthouse, built in 1904, stands on the site of Georgia's first permanent capitol building.
Louisville's historic, open-sided market house still stands in the center of downtown. The original market had sections for sales of farm produce, household goods, enslaved African Americans; the Old Market is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Roads and other transportation routes intersected at the market square, the hub of the region when the town was the state capital; the state capital was moved to Milledgeville and to Atlanta, in the Piedmont. As a small city and county seat, Louisville now has few major industries. A marker dedicated to the Yazoo land scandal of the 19th century is located in front of the Jefferson County Courthouse. Queensborough National Bank and Trust Company was founded in 1902 and is headquartered in Louisville, on U. S. Highway 1. Louisville is located south of the center of Jefferson County at 33°0′15″N 82°24′18″W. U. S. Route 1 passes through the east side of the city, leading northeast 46 miles to Augusta and south 30 miles to Swainsboro. U. S. Route 221 passes through the north side of downtown as Peachtree Street and leads southwest 10 miles to Bartow.
US-221 leaves Louisville to the north, running with US-1 15 miles to Wrens before continuing north toward Harlem. According to the United States Census Bureau, Louisville has a total area of 3.7 square miles, of which 3.6 square miles are land and 0.1 square miles, or 1.93%, are water. The western city boundary follows Rocky Comfort Creek, which flows into the Ogeechee River at the city limits' southwest corner; the Ogeechee flows to the Atlantic Ocean south of Savannah. As of the census of 2000, there were 2,712 people, 994 households, 664 families residing in the city; the population density was 755.5 people per square mile. There were 1,123 housing units at an average density of 312.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 65.93% African American, 33.63% White, 0.04% Native American, 0.22% Asian, 0.07% from other races, 0.11% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.37% of the population. There were 994 households out of which 33.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 35.8% were married couples living together, 27.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.1% were non-families.
31.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.56 and the average family size was 3.22. In the city, the population was spread out with 28.2% under the age of 18, 8.3% from 18 to 24, 25.1% from 25 to 44, 19.9% from 45 to 64, 18.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 77.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 71.8 males. The median income for a household in the city was $19,883, the median income for a family was $32,578. Males had a median income of $31,500 versus $16,921 for females; the per capita income for the city was $15,028. About 23.1% of families and 28.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 27.8% of those under age 18 and 51.8% of those age 65 or over. The Jefferson County School District holds pre-school to grade twelve, consists of two elementary schools, two middle schools, a high school, an academy school.
The district has 199 full-time teachers and over 3,526 students. Louisville Academy Carver Elementary School Wrens Elementary School Louisville Middle School Jefferson County High School Thomas Jefferson Academy Central Savannah River Area List of municipalities in Georgia Local radio station: WPEH, Big Peach Radio National Register of Historic Places listings in Jefferson County, Georgia Strong, Robert Hale. Halsey, Ashley, ed. A Yankee Private's Civil War. Chicago: Henry Regnery Company. Pp. 106–108. LCCN 61-10744. OCLC 1058411. GovernmentOfficial websiteGeneral information Geographic data related to Louisville, Georgia at OpenStreetMap Louisville, Georgia at the Digital Library of Georgia Louisville, Georgia at Jefferson County Chamber of Commerce and Development Authority of Jefferson County Louisville, Georgia at New Georgia Encyclopedia Louisville Public Library at Jefferson County Library System The Sacking of Louisville at The Historical Marker Database
New Hampshire House of Representatives
The New Hampshire House of Representatives is the lower house in the New Hampshire General Court, the bicameral legislature of the state of New Hampshire. The House of Representatives consists of 400 members coming from 204 legislative districts across the state, created from divisions of the state's counties. On average, each legislator represents about 3,300 residents. Districts vary in number of seats based on their populations, with the least-populous districts electing only one member and the most populous electing 11. In multi-member districts, voters are allowed to cast as many votes; this system results in one party winning all of the seats in the district, as the results below for the current representation attest. Unlike in many state legislatures, there is no single "aisle" to cross per se, as members of both parties sit segregated in five sections; the seat section and number is put on the legislator's motor vehicle license plate, which they pay for if they wish to put one on their personal automobiles, or in the case of the chairpersons and party leaders, their title is put on the legislative plate.
Seating location is enforced, as seating is pre-assigned, although the personal preference of the legislator is asked chairmen and those with special needs are given the preferred aisle seats. The sixth section is the Speaker's seat at the head of the hall; the House of Representatives has met in Representatives Hall of the New Hampshire State House since 1819. Representatives Hall is thus the oldest chamber in the United States still in continuous legislative use. Large arched windows line the walls. On the rostrum hang portraits of John P. Hale, Abraham Lincoln, George Washington, Franklin Pierce, Daniel Webster. ↑ Member was first elected in a special election. ↑ Member was first elected in a special election. ↑ Member was first elected in a special election. ↑ Member was first elected in a special election. ↓ If a candidate receives enough votes in two parties' primaries, they are listed as being the nominee of both parties in the general election. ↑ Member was first elected in a special election.
↑ Member was elected in a special election. ↓ If a candidate receives enough votes in two parties' primaries, they are listed as being the nominee of both parties in the general election. ↑ Member was elected in a special election. State of New Hampshire House of Representatives official government website Leadership Project Vote Smart – State House of New Hampshire voter information The Legislative Branch of State Government
United States Congress
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the Federal Government of the United States. The legislature consists of two chambers: the House of the Senate; the Congress meets in the United States Capitol in Washington, D. C.. Both senators and representatives are chosen through direct election, though vacancies in the Senate may be filled by a gubernatorial appointment. Congress has 535 voting members: 100 senators; the House of Representatives has six non-voting members representing Puerto Rico, American Samoa, the Northern Mariana Islands, the U. S. Virgin Islands, the District of Columbia in addition to its 435 voting members. Although they cannot vote in the full house, these members can address the house and vote in congressional committees, introduce legislation; the members of the House of Representatives serve two-year terms representing the people of a single constituency, known as a "district". Congressional districts are apportioned to states by population using the United States Census results, provided that each state has at least one congressional representative.
Each state, regardless of population or size, has two senators. There are 100 senators representing the 50 states; each senator is elected at-large in their state for a six-year term, with terms staggered, so every two years one-third of the Senate is up for election. To be eligible for election, a candidate must be aged at least 25 or 30, have been a citizen of the United States for seven or nine years, be an inhabitant of the state which they represent; the Congress was created by the Constitution of the United States and first met in 1789, replacing in its legislative function the Congress of the Confederation. Although not mandated, in practice since the 19th century, Congress members are affiliated with the Republican Party or with the Democratic Party and only with a third party or independents. Article One of the United States Constitution states, "All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives."
The House and Senate are equal partners in the legislative process—legislation cannot be enacted without the consent of both chambers. However, the Constitution grants each chamber some unique powers; the Senate ratifies treaties and approves presidential appointments while the House initiates revenue-raising bills. The House initiates impeachment cases. A two-thirds vote of the Senate is required before an impeached person can be forcibly removed from office; the term Congress can refer to a particular meeting of the legislature. A Congress covers two years; the Congress ends on the third day of January of every odd-numbered year. Members of the Senate are referred to as senators. Scholar and representative Lee H. Hamilton asserted that the "historic mission of Congress has been to maintain freedom" and insisted it was a "driving force in American government" and a "remarkably resilient institution". Congress is the "heart and soul of our democracy", according to this view though legislators achieve the prestige or name recognition of presidents or Supreme Court justices.
One analyst argues that it is not a reactive institution but has played an active role in shaping government policy and is extraordinarily sensitive to public pressure. Several academics described Congress: Congress reflects us in all our strengths and all our weaknesses, it reflects our regional idiosyncrasies, our ethnic and racial diversity, our multitude of professions, our shadings of opinion on everything from the value of war to the war over values. Congress is the government's most representative body... Congress is charged with reconciling our many points of view on the great public policy issues of the day. Congress is changing and is in flux. In recent times, the American south and west have gained House seats according to demographic changes recorded by the census and includes more minorities and women although both groups are still underrepresented. While power balances among the different parts of government continue to change, the internal structure of Congress is important to understand along with its interactions with so-called intermediary institutions such as political parties, civic associations, interest groups, the mass media.
The Congress of the United States serves two distinct purposes that overlap: local representation to the federal government of a congressional district by representatives and a state's at-large representation to the federal government by senators. Most incumbents seek re-election, their historical likelihood of winning subsequent elections exceeds 90 percent; the historical records of the House of Representatives and the Senate are maintained by the Center for Legislative Archives, a part of the National Archives and Records Administration. Congress is directly responsible for the governing of the District of Columbia, the current seat of the federal government; the First Continental Congress was a gathering of representatives from twelve of the thirteen British Colonies in North America. On July 4, 1776, the Second Continental Congress adopted the Declaration of Independence, referring to the new nation as the "United States of America"; the Articles of Confederation in 1781 created the Congress of the Confederation, a
Democratic Party of Georgia
The Democratic Party of Georgia is the affiliate of the Democratic Party in the U. S. state of Georgia. It is one of the two major political parties in the state, it is chaired by Nikema Williams. For over a century, the Democratic Party dominated Georgia state and local politics. From 1872 to 2002, the Democratic Party controlled the Governor's Mansion, both houses of the state legislature and most statewide offices. In 1976, Democratic Governor Jimmy Carter was elected the 39th President of the United States. After switching to the Republican Party in 1998, Sonny Perdue went on to defeat Democrat Roy Barnes in the 2002 gubernatorial election. Perdue's unexpected victory marked the beginning of a decline for the Democratic Party of Georgia. Georgia House Speaker Tom Murphy, the longest serving Speaker in any state legislature, lost his bid for another term in the state House. Four Democrats in the Georgia State Senate changed their political affiliation, handing the upper house to the GOP, and in 2004, the Democratic Party lost control of the Georgia House of Representatives, putting the party in the minority for the first time in Georgia history.
The Democratic Party of Georgia entered the 2010 elections with hopes that former Governor Roy Barnes could win back the Governor's Mansion. Polls showed a tight race between Barnes and Republican gubernatorial nominee Nathan Deal, with some predicting a runoff election. However, on election day, Republicans won every statewide office; the Chairman of the Democratic Party of Georgia is Nikema Williams. Porter was elected in August 2013 via special election and was reelected in January 2015 to serve a full four-year term. In 2019, First Vice Chair Nikema Williams was voted to succeed him. Seven individuals—Chairman DuBose Porter, First Vice Chair Nikema Williams, Wendy Davis, former state AFL-CIO President Richard Ray, Sally Rosser, State Representative Pamela Stephenson and former state Democratic Party Chairman David Worley—were elected to represent Georgia on the Democratic National Committee. State Representative Robert Trammell serves as Minority Leader in the Georgia House of Representatives.
State Senator Steve Henson serves as Minority Leader in the Georgia Senate. Officers of the Democratic Party of Georgia are elected by the state Democratic committee at a January meeting following each regular gubernatorial election. Democratic Party of Georgia officers serve four-year terms, there is no limit on the number of terms an individual can serve as a Democratic Party of Georgia officer. Below are the current officers of the Democratic Party of Georgia: Chair: DuBose Porter First Vice Chair: Nikema Williams Congressional District/County Liaison Vice Chair: Sarah Todd Constituency Group Vice Chair: State Representative Pedro "Pete" Marin Candidate Recruitment Vice Chair: Ted Terry Secretary: Stephanie Woods Miller Treasurer: Kip Carr African American Caucus AAPI Caucus disABILITY Caucus Greening Georgia Latino Caucus LGBTQ Caucus Senior Caucus Veterans Caucus Five Democrats represent Georgia in the United States House of Representatives; the Democrats do not hold either of the two United State Senate seats.
To date, the last Democratic senator from Georgia was Zell Miller, serving from 2000 to 2005. Members of United States Congress U. S. House of Representatives Sanford Bishop, 2nd District Hank Johnson, 4th District John Lewis, 5th District Lucy McBath, 6th District David Scott, 13th DistrictThe Democratic Party of Georgia controls none of the fourteen state constitutional offices; the Democrats control 20 of 63 of 180 state house seats. Two-year terms of office apply to both houses, the entire membership of each body is elected at the same time in even-numbered years. Since 1948, the Democrats have secured the state of Georgia 7 times, while the Republican party secured Georgia 8 times. However, during the past 6 presidential elections, the Democrats won the state of Georgia only once, in 1992. Bill Clinton won 43.47% of the vote while incumbent President George H. W. Bush carried 42.88%, while losing his quest for a 2nd term. DuBose Porter Nikema Williams Wendy Davis Louis Elrod Sheikh Rahman Richard Ray Sally Rosser Rep. Pam StephensonAppointed by DNC Chair Tom Perez Mayor Kasim Reed Dan Halpern Thomas Hardeman L. N. Trammell Charles F. Clay B. H. Bigham Hoke Smith William Yates Atkinson Allen Fort Alexander Stephens Clay Fleming W. Dubignon E. T. Brown E. J. Yeomans Alexander Lawton Miller Hewlett A. Hall Charles R. Pendleton W. C. Wright William J. Harris William S.
West E. J. Reagan John James Flynt, Sr. William Jerome Vereen G. E. Maddox 1925-30 Lawrence S. Camp 1930-32 Hugh Howell Charles S. Reid 1937 Jim L. Gillis 1939 William Y. Atkinson, Jr. 1942 J. Lon Duckworth James S. Peters John Sammons Bell J. B. Fuqua James Gray David Gambrell Charles Kirbo Marge Thurman Al Holloway Bert Lance John Henry Anderson Ed Sims John Blackmon David Worley Calvin Smyre Bobby Kahn Jane Kidd Mike Berlon Nikema Williams DuBose Porter Nikema Williams Political party strength in Georgia Democratic Party of Georgia Young Democrats of Georgia
Georgia Republican Party
This article is on the political party of the U. S. state of Georgia. For a political party in the Caucasian nation of Georgia, see Republican Party of Georgia; the Georgia Republican Party is one of the two major political parties in the U. S. state of Georgia. It is affiliated with the United States Republican Party. John Watson is the current state chairman. Carmen Foskey is the executive director. Jason Thompson serves as Republican National Committeeman representing Georgia. Thompson was elected in 2018 to fill the term of Randy Evans, appointed Ambassador to Luxembourg by President Donald Trump. Ginger Howard was elected at the 2016 State Convention as the current RNC Committeewoman. Linda Herren is the past National Committeewoman. Republicans hold every elected position in Georgia; the Republican National Committee handles the national party day-to-day operations. Campaigns and other party related activities are handled by the RNC. Ronna McDaniel is the current chairman of RNC; the chairman of the RNC is chosen by the president when the Republicans have the White House or otherwise by the party's state committees.
There has never been a chairman from Georgia. The RNC, under the direction of the party's presidential candidate, supervises the Republican National Convention, raises funds, coordinates campaign strategy. On the local level there are similar state committees in every state and most large cities and legislative districts, but they have far less money and influence than the national body. After the American Civil War, Georgia was placed under a military governorship, but in 1868 the Republican Party succeeded in capturing the legislature and electing Rufus Bullock as governor. Support for the Republicans came from the 44% of the state's population, African American, along with whites from the mountainous north. Bullock was the first Republican governor of Georgia, but he was threatened with impeachment and fled the state in 1871, leaving the governorship to Benjamin Conley, the president of the Georgia Senate. Conley, the second Republican governor of the state, only lasted 72 days: the legislature called a special election, Conley was succeeded by a Democrat, James Milton Smith, resulting in the end of Reconstruction in Georgia.
After 1882, the Republican Party did not offer a full slate of candidates in Georgia, cementing Democratic one-party rule in the state. By the turn of the 20th century, the party had developed a reputation among white Georgians as a "Negro party" led by corrupt whites and plagued by local infighting. Black Georgians who could register to vote tended to vote for Republicans, who remained a minority in the General Assembly throughout the Jim Crow era. After the resignation of W. H. Rogers of McIntosh County in 1907 and the full defranchisement of African-Americans was completed in 1908, only white legislators could be elected by black voters. In 1961, a young man came to meet Georgia Republican Campaign Chairman John A. "Jeff" Davis. The young man was Newt Gingrich, freshly introducing himself into Georgia Republican politics, he envisioned a competitive Republican Party with vast influence in the nation. Embracing the Southern Strategy Chairman Davis, being optimistic and cautious, worked with this young man to ensure victorious future elections.
In 1966 Republican Howard Callaway received the plurality of votes for governor but failed to win, when the election was decided by the Democratic Party-controlled Georgia legislature in favor of Democrat Lester Maddox. In the 1970s, amid the Watergate Scandal, the rise of Democratic President Jimmy Carter from Georgia, led to the self-proclaimed "dark days" for the Republican Party that led to a decade of failed elections and tough incidents. Georgia Republicans struggled through the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s to become a major party winning victories such as the election of House member Newt Gingrich in 1979. U. S. Senator Mack Mattingly was elected after, in 1980, only to see those gains erased in subsequent elections; the Party's fortunes began to turn in the 1990s. During the decade, Republicans gained a majority in the congressional delegation after a redistricting plan adopted by the General Assembly Democrats backfired. Georgia played a pivotal role in national affairs, as Congressman Newt Gingrich propelled to the top, becoming Speaker of the U.
S. House of Representatives. In 2002 Sonny Perdue was elected as the first Republican governor of Georgia since Reconstruction, he served as governor from 2003-2011 for two terms. Republicans gained control of both chambers the state legislature in 2002 and 2004. On September 28, 2011, it was revealed that Georgia intends to move their Republican Primary to Super Tuesday by December 1; the party feels that it should play a bigger role due to its size and number of delegates, is moving forward with the notion that it can have an important say in this next election. Georgia Republican Party Chairwoman Sue Everhart said that having an early primary would make Georgia a bigger player in 2012, she added. "Since we became a red state, they haven't paid much attention to us," Everhart said, referring to GOP candidates and the RNC. "They use us as a donor state." The mascot of the Georgia Republican Party is the elephant. The elephant was constructed by artist Thomas Nast, in response to the criticism of a possible third term by President Ulysses S. Grant.
The cartoon's image was taken from one of Aesop's fables, "The Ass in the Lion's Skin." It follows up with