Economic liberalism is an economic system organized on individual lines, which means the greatest possible number of economic decisions are made by individuals or households rather than by collective institutions or organizations. It includes a spectrum of different economic policies, such as freedom of movement, but its basis is on strong support for a market economy and private property in the means of production. Although economic liberals can be supportive of government regulation to a certain degree, they tend to oppose government intervention in the free market when it inhibits free trade and open competition. Economic liberalism is associated with private ownership of capital assets. Economic liberalism arose in response to mercantilism and feudalism. Today, economic liberalism is considered opposed to non-capitalist economic orders, such as socialism and planned economies, it contrasts with protectionism because of its support for free trade and open markets. An economy, managed according to these precepts may be described as a liberal economy.
Arguments in favor of economic liberalism were advanced during the Enlightenment, opposing mercantilism and feudalism. It was first analyzed by Adam Smith in An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, which advocated minimal interference of government in a market economy, though it did not oppose the state's provision of basic public goods with what constitutes public goods being seen as limited in scope. Smith claimed that if everyone is left to his own economic devices instead of being controlled by the state the result would be a harmonious and more equal society of ever-increasing prosperity; this underpinned the move towards a capitalist economic system in the late 18th century and the subsequent demise of the mercantilist system. Private property and individual contracts form the basis of economic liberalism; the early theory was based on the assumption that the economic actions of individuals are based on self-interest and that allowing them to act without any restrictions will produce the best results for everyone, provided that at least minimum standards of public information and justice exist, e.g. no one should be allowed to coerce, steal, or commit fraud and there is freedom of speech and press.
The economic liberals had to contend with the supporters of feudal privileges for the wealthy, aristocratic traditions and the rights of kings to run national economies in their own personal interests. By the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th, these were defeated. Economic liberalism opposes government intervention on the grounds that the state serves dominant business interests, distorting the market to their favor and thus leading to inefficient outcomes. Ordoliberalism and various schools of social liberalism based on classical liberalism include a broader role for the state, but do not seek to replace private enterprise and the free market with public enterprise and economic planning. For example, a social market economy is a free market economy based on a free price system and private property, but is supportive of government activity to promote competitive markets and social welfare programs to address social inequalities that result from free market outcomes. Adams, Ian.
Political Ideology Today. Manchester University Press. ISBN 978-0-719-06020-5. Balaam, David N. Introduction to International Political Economy. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-317-34730-9. Turner, Rachel S.. Neo-Liberal Ideology: History and Policies. Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 978-0-748-68868-5. Quotations related to Economic liberalism at Wikiquote
Party of European Socialists
The Party of European Socialists is a social-democratic European political party. The PES comprises national-level political parties from all member states of the European Union plus Norway; this includes major parties such as the Italian Democratic Party, the British Labour Party, the French Socialist Party, Social Democratic Party of Germany and the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party. Parties from a number of other European countries are admitted to the PES as associate or observer parties. Most member and observer parties are members of the wider Progressive Alliance or Socialist International; the PES is led by its president Sergei Stanishev, a former Prime Minister of Bulgaria. Its political group in the European Parliament is the Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats; the PES operates in the Committee of the Regions and the European Council. The party's English name is "Party of European Socialists". In addition, the following names are used in other languages: In March 2014 following the congress in Rome, the PES added the tagline "Socialists and Democrats" to its name following the admission of Italy's Democratic Party into the organisation.
In 1961, the Socialists in the European Parliament attempted to produce a common'European Socialist Programme' but this was neglected due to the applications of Britain, Denmark and Norway to join the European Community. The Socialists' 1962 congress pushed for greater democratisation and powers for Parliament, though it was only in 1969 that this possibility was examined by the member states. In 1973, Denmark and the United Kingdom joined the European Community, bringing in new parties from these countries; the enlarged Socialist Congress met in Bonn and inaugurated the Confederation of the Socialist Parties of the European Community. The Congress passed a resolution on social policy, including the right to decent work, social security and equality in the European economy. In 1978, the Confederation of Socialist Parties approved the first common European election Manifesto, it focused on several goals among which the most important were to ensure a right to decent work, fight pollution, end discrimination, protect the consumer and promote peace, human rights and civil liberties.
At its Luxembourg Congress in 1980, the Confederation of Socialist Parties approved its first Statute. The accession of Greece to the EU in 1981, followed by Spain and Portugal in 1986, brought in more parties. In 1984, a common Socialist election manifesto proposed a socialist remedy for the economic crisis of the time by establishing a link between industrial production, protection of fundamental social benefits, the fight for an improved quality of life. In 1992, with the European Community becoming the European Union and with the Treaty of Maastricht establishing the framework for political parties at a European level, the Confederation of Socialist Parties voted to transform itself into the Party of European Socialists; the party's first programme concentrated on job creation, gender equality and consumer protection and security, regulation of immigration, discouragement of racism and fighting organised crime. Along with the Socialist Group in the European Parliament, the founding members of the PES were: Social Democratic Party of Austria Socialist Party and the Socialist Party of Belgium Social Democrats of Denmark Socialist Party of France Social Democratic Party of Germany Panhellenic Socialist Movement of Greece Labour Party of Ireland Italian Democratic Socialist Party, Italian Socialist Party and Democratic Party of the Left of Italy Luxembourg Socialist Workers' Party Labour Party of the Netherlands Socialist Party of Portugal Spanish Socialist Workers' Party Swedish Social Democratic Party Labour Party and Social Democratic and Labour Party of the UK In 2004 Poul Nyrup Rasmussen defeated Giuliano Amato to be elected President of the PES, succeeding Robin Cook in the post.
He was re-elected for a further 2.5 years at the PES Congress in Porto on 8 December 2006 and again at the Prague Congress in 2009. In 2010, the Foundation for European Progressive Studies was founded as the political foundation of the PES. Mr Rasmussen stood down at the PES Progressive Convention in Brussels on 24 November 2011, he was replaced as interim president by Sergei Stanishev, chairman of the Bulgarian Socialist Party and former prime minister of Bulgaria. On 28-29 September 2012, the PES Congress in Brussels Congress elected interim president Sergei Stanishev as full President, as well as four deputies: Jean-Christophe Cambadélis, Elena Valenciano, Jan Royall and Katarína Neveďalová; the same Congress elected Achim Post as its new secretary general, adopted a process which it described as "democratic and transparent" for electing its next candidate for Commission President in 2014. The PES had agreed in 2011 to use a PES presidential primary for the election; the PES has thirty-four full member parties from each of the twenty-eight EU member states and Norway.
There are twelve observer parties from other European countries. The youth organisation of the PES is the Young European Socialists. PES Women is the party's women's organisation, led by Zita Gurmai; the LGBTI campaign organisation is Rainbow Rose. PES is an associated organisation of the Progressive Alliance; the President represents the party on a daily basis and chairs the Presidency, which consists of the Secretary General, President of the S&D group in Parliament and one representative per full/associat
The color amber is a pure chroma color, located on the color wheel midway between the colors of yellow and orange. The color name is derived from the material known as amber, found in a range of yellow-orange-brown-red colors. In English the first recorded use of the term as a color name, rather than a reference to the specific substance, was in 1500. Amber is one of several technically defined colors used in automotive signal lamps. In North America, SAE standard J578 governs the colorimetry of vehicle lights, while outside North America the internationalized European ECE regulations hold force. Both standards designate a range of orange-yellow hues in the CIE color space as "amber". In the past, the ECE amber definition was more restrictive than the SAE definition, but the current ECE definition is identical to the more permissive SAE standard; the SAE formally uses the term "yellow amber", though the color is most referred to as "yellow". This is not the same as selective yellow, a color used in some fog headlamps.
ECE amber was defined according to the 1968 Convention on Road Traffic, as follows: Recent revisions to the ECE regulations have aligned ECE Amber with SAE Yellow, defined as follows: The entirety of these definitions lie outside the gamut of the sRGB color space — such a pure color cannot be represented using RGB primaries. The color box shown above is a desaturated approximation, created by taking the centroid of the standard definition and moving it towards the D65 white point, until it meets the sRGB gamut triangle. Computers The Digital Equipment Corporation VT220 computer terminals were available with amber phosphors in their CRTs. Interior design The original Amber Room in the Catherine Palace of Tsarskoye Selo near Saint Petersburg was a complete chamber decoration of amber panels backed with gold leaf and mirrors. Due to its singular beauty, it was sometimes dubbed the Eighth Wonder of the World. Sports In Gaelic games, Armagh play in a darker Amber color, Offaly play in the original colors of the Irish flag and Kilkenny play in black and amber, albeit a more yellow amber.
Amber is a color worn by English Football Clubs Hull City AFC, Bradford City AFC, Barnet FC, Shrewsbury Town FC, Mansfield Town, Cambridge United FC and Sutton United. The color is worn by the Scottish football club Motherwell FC, as well as many other sports clubs around the world. Traffic engineering Amber is used in traffic lights and turn signals. Business management Amber is used in business management to indicate a status of work, as in RAG status. R stands for Red, A stands for Amber represented as the color Yellow in the reports, G stands for Green. Green indicates that all is well and no action is needed, Yellow indicates a wait-and-watch approach or some action to make the status Green, Red indicates that the work or project is not as planned and requires immediate attention and corrective actions to turn it to Green status. Amber Alert The appearance of the word "amber" here is only a coincidence. Spectral color List of colors UNECE Regulation No. 6: Uniform Provisions Concerning the Approval of Direction Indicators for Motor Vehicles and their Trailers UNECE Regulation No. 48: Uniform Provisions Concerning the Approval of Vehicles with Regard to the Installation of Lighting and Light-Signalling Devices
2018 Georgian presidential election
Presidential elections were held in Georgia on 28 October 2018, the seventh presidential elections since the country's restoration of independence from the Soviet Union in 1991. The previous elections in October 2013 resulted in a victory for Giorgi Margvelashvili, a candidate of the Georgian Dream coalition. Following amendments to the constitution in 2017, the 2018 elections will be the last direct presidential vote. In view of these changes, the President will be elected for a term of six years in 2018. A second round involving Salome Zurabishvili and Grigol Vashadze was held on 28 November 2018 because no candidate was able to secure at least 50% of the vote in the first round. Salome Zurabishvili won with around 60% of the vote in the second round and took office on 16 December 2018; the pre-election campaign was marred by a polarized political environment and a series of secret tape recordings aired by the pro-opposition Rustavi 2 TV, leading to allegations of kidnappings and torture by investigators to secure convictions and coercion on businesses and media, high-level corruption, selective justice.
International observers assessed the elections as competitive and free, stressing that "one side enjoyed an undue advantage and the negative character of the campaign on both sides undermined the process", while the misuse of administrative resources "blurred the line between party and state." 46 people applied to participate in the elections, 21 of which were rejected by the Election Administration of Georgia. 25 presidential candidates were registered by the Election Administration of Georgia. This is the largest number since Georgia's first presidential election in 1991. All 25 candidates were included on the ballot paper. Nino Burjanadze, Georgian politician and lawyer who served as Chairman of Parliament of Georgia, she has served as the acting President of Georgia twice. She backed out of the election on 8 September. Giorgi Margvelashvili, incumbent President refused to take part in the election in late August; the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe stated that the elections were "competitive and professionally administered," but noted concerned about a "substantial imbalance in donations", "excessively high spending limits", a "lack of analytical reporting" as contributing factors to creating an unlevel playing field.
On 29 November, the second day after the run-off results were released, the United National Movement leader-in-exile Mikheil Saakashvili encouraged supporters not to accept the election results and to hold demonstrations against the newly elected president. He called for civil disobedience toward the police and armed forces
2016 Georgian parliamentary election
Parliamentary elections were held in Georgia on 8 October 2016 to elect the 150 members of Parliament. The ruling Georgian Dream coalition, led by Prime Minister Giorgi Kvirikashvili, sought a second term in office. Opposition parties included the former ruling party and main opposition, the United National Movement. Georgian Dream won 115 seats, an increase of 67 seats, while the United National Movement was reduced to 27 seats; the 150 members of the unicameral Parliament are elected by two methods: 77 by proportional representation in a single nationwide constituency with an electoral threshold of 5%, 73 by two-round system in single-member constituencies with majority rule requiring the winner to get over 50%. Boundaries of constituencies were re-drawn to reduce malapportionment effect. Size of electorates ranged from less than 6,000 voters in one district to over 150,000 voters in another; the elections did not take place in constituencies in the breakaway regions of Abkhazia and South Ossetia.
Georgian Dream declared victory. Georgia Dream Prime Minister Giorgi Kvirikashvili told supporters at party headquarters that "I congratulate you with a big victory Georgia! According to all preliminary results, Georgian Dream is leading with a big advantage." Georgia Dream Deputy Prime Minister Kakha Kaladze added that the party's own data showed that it had won around 59 percent of the vote. However, the United National Movement campaign head Nika Melia accused the government of vote rigging, saying "Votes have been stolen from us. We will defend our votes." Other parties such as Democratic Georgia, the Labour Party and the Alliance of Patriots accused the government of massive vote rigging
Parliament of Georgia
The Parliament of Georgia the supreme national legislature of Georgia. It is a unicameral parliament consisting of 150 members. According to the 2017 constitutional amendments, the Parliament will transfer to proportional representation in 2024. All members of the Parliament are elected for four years on the basis of universal human suffrage; the Constitution of Georgia grants the Parliament of Georgia a central legislative power, limited by the legislatures of the autonomous republics of Adjara and Abkhazia. The idea of limiting royal power and creating a parliamentary-type body of government was conceived among the aristocrats and citizens in the 12th century Kingdom of Georgia, during the reign of Queen Tamar, the first Georgian female monarch. In the view Queen Tamar's oppositionists and their leader, Qutlu Arslan, the first Georgian Parliament was to be formed of two "Chambers": a) Darbazi – or assembly of aristocrats and influential citizens who would meet from time to time to take decisions on the processes occurring in the country, the implementation of these decisions devolving on the monarch b) Karavi – a body in permanent session between the meetings of the Darbazi.
The confrontation ended in the victory of the supporters of unlimited royal power. Qutlu Arslan was arrested on the Queen’s order. Subsequently, it was only in 1906 that the Georgians were afforded the opportunity of sending their representatives to a Parliamentary body of Government, to the Second State Duma. Georgian deputies to the Duma were Noe Zhordania, Ilia Chavchavadze, Irakli Tsereteli, Karlo Chkheidze, others. In 1918 the first Georgian National Parliament was founded in the independent Georgia. In 1921 the Parliament adopted the first Georgian Constitution. However, shortly after the adoption of the Constitution, Georgia was occupied by the Bolshevik Red Army; this was followed by a gap of 69 years in the Parliamentary Government in Georgian history. The construction of the parliament building started in 1938 and completed in 1953, when Georgia was still a part of Soviet Union, it was designed by architects Victor Giorgi Lezhava. The first multiparty Elections in the Soviet Union were held in Georgia on October 28, 1990.
The elected Supreme Soviet proclaimed the independence of Georgia. On May 26, 1991 Georgia’s population elected the Chairman of the Supreme Council Zviad Gamsakhurdia as President of the country; the tension between the ruling and opposition parties intensified, which in 1991-92 developed into an armed conflict. The President left the country, the Supreme Soviet ceased to function and power was taken over by the Military Council. In 1992, former Minister of Foreign Affairs of Soviet Union Eduard Shevardnadze returned to Georgia, assuming Chairmanship of the Military Council, reconstituted into a State Security Council; the State Council restored Georgia’s Constitution of 1921, announcing August 4, 1992 as the day of parliamentary elections. In 1995, the newly elected Parliament adopted a new Constitution. Georgia now has a semi-presidential system with a unicameral parliament. In 2011 Mikheil Saakashvili the president of Georgia signed the amendment of constitution which located the parliament in the western city of Kutaisi.
On 26 May 2012, Saakashvili inaugurated the new Parliament building in Kutaisi. This was done in an effort to decentralise power and shift some political control closer to Abkhazia, although it has been criticised as marginalising the legislature, for the demolition of a Soviet War Memorial at the new building's location. Starting from January 1st, 2019, Tbilisi is once again the sole seat of Parliament and all operations and meetings now take place in the capital, similar to the situation prior to 2012 move to Kutaisi; the Parliament of Georgia is the country's supreme representative body which effects legislative authority, determines the main directions of the country's home and foreign policy, controls the activity of the Government within limits defined by the Constitution and exercises other rights. The Parliament of Georgia is a unicameral legislature; the Constitution envisages, following the full restoration of Georgia's jurisdiction throughout the entire territory of Georgia, creation of a bicameral parliament: the Council of the Republic and the Senate.
The Council is to be composed of members elected through a proportional system. The Parliament is composed of 150 members, elected for a term of four years through a mixed system: 77 are proportional representatives and 73 are elected through single-member district plurality system, representing their constituencies. According to the 2017 constitutional
Sozar Subari is a Georgian politician and human rights activist. He was Georgia's Minister for IDPs, Accommodation and Refugees from 26 July 26 to 13 June 2018, he served as a Public Defender of Georgia from 2004 to 2009 and Minister of Corrections and Legal Assistance from 2012 to 2014. Subari was born as Sozar Subeliani in the highland village Chuberi, he studied history at theology at the Tbilisi Theological Academy. After a service as a deacon from 1989 to 1991, he took part in the armed conflict in Abkhazia in 1993, he was involved with the influential NGO Liberty Institute from 2000 to 2004. He worked as a journalist, including being a correspondent for Radio Liberty, an editor of the Tbilisi-based Kavkasioni newspaper. Subari was elected as Public Defender of Georgia by the Parliament of Georgia for five years term in 2004. During his tenure, the ombudsman's role in Georgian society increased. Subari emerged as a prominent critic of the Mikheil Saakashvili government. During the anti-government rally of 2007, he claimed to have been beaten by the police, stated, "Georgia is now the same as Lukashenko’s Belarus."
He claimed that the police breakdown was masterminded at a secret meeting of top military and police officials and that Georgia's Interior Minister Vano Merabishvili had ordered police to beat protesters, "mainly in the kidneys and the stomach". On their part, the government officials have accused Subari of "politicizing" the Public Defender’s Office and turning into an opposition politician. Subari's term expired on September 16, 2009, he was succeeded by Giorgi Tughushi, a ruling United National Movement party nominee, approved by the parliament in July 2009. Subari himself joined the opposition Alliance for Georgia led by Georgia's former UN envoy, Irakli Alasania. In 2012, Subari became a member of the Georgian Dream party, founded by the billionaire Bidzina Ivanishvili, whose coalition won the October 1, 2012 parliamentary election. After this, Subari became Minister of Corrections and Legal Assistance in the cabinet of Bidzina Ivanishvili on October 25, 2012, succeeding Giorgi Tughushi, his onetime successor as an ombudsman.
Subari's biography. Public Defender of Georgia website