Georgian architecture

Georgian architecture is the name given in most English-speaking countries to the set of architectural styles current between 1714 and 1830. It is eponymous for the first four British monarchs of the House of Hanover—George I, George II, George III, George IV—who reigned in continuous succession from August 1714 to June 1830; the style was revived in the late 19th century in the United States as Colonial Revival architecture and in the early 20th century in Great Britain as Neo-Georgian architecture. In the United States the term "Georgian" is used to describe all buildings from the period, regardless of style; the Georgian style is variable, but marked by symmetry and proportion based on the classical architecture of Greece and Rome, as revived in Renaissance architecture. Ornament is normally in the classical tradition, but restrained, sometimes completely absent on the exterior; the period brought the vocabulary of classical architecture to smaller and more modest buildings than had been the case before, replacing English vernacular architecture for all new middle-class homes and public buildings by the end of the period.

Georgian architecture is characterized by its balance. Regularity, as with ashlar stonework, was approved, imbuing symmetry and adherence to classical rules: the lack of symmetry, where Georgian additions were added to earlier structures remaining visible, was felt as a flaw, at least before John Nash began to introduce it in a variety of styles. Regularity of housefronts along a street was a desirable feature of Georgian town planning; until the start of the Gothic Revival in the early 19th century, Georgian designs lay within the Classical orders of architecture and employed a decorative vocabulary derived from ancient Rome or Greece. In towns, which expanded during the period, landowners turned into property developers, rows of identical terraced houses became the norm; the wealthy were persuaded to live in these in town if provided with a square of garden in front of the house. There was an enormous amount of building in the period, all over the English-speaking world, the standards of construction were high.

Where they have not been demolished, large numbers of Georgian buildings have survived two centuries or more, they still form large parts of the core of cities such as London, Dublin, Newcastle upon Tyne and Bristol. The period saw the growth of a trained architectural profession; this contrasted with earlier styles, which were disseminated among craftsmen through the direct experience of the apprenticeship system. But most buildings were still designed by builders and landlords together, the wide spread of Georgian architecture, the Georgian styles of design more came from dissemination through pattern books and inexpensive suites of engravings. Authors such as the prolific William Halfpenny had editions in America as well as Britain. A similar phenomenon can be seen in the commonality of housing designs in Canada and the United States from the 19th century down to the 1950s, using pattern books drawn up by professional architects that were distributed by lumber companies and hardware stores to contractors and homebuilders.

From the mid-18th century, Georgian styles were assimilated into an architectural vernacular that became part and parcel of the training of every architect, builder, carpenter and plasterer, from Edinburgh to Maryland. Georgian succeeded the English Baroque of Sir Christopher Wren, Sir John Vanbrugh, Thomas Archer, William Talman, Nicholas Hawksmoor; the architect James Gibbs was a transitional figure, his earlier buildings are Baroque, reflecting the time he spent in Rome in the early 18th century, but he adjusted his style after 1720. Major architects to promote the change in direction from Baroque were Colen Campbell, author of the influential book Vitruvius Britannicus. Other prominent architects of the early Georgian period include James Paine, Robert Taylor, John Wood, the Elder; the European Grand Tour became common for wealthy patrons in the period, Italian influence remained dominant, though at the start of the period Hanover Square, Westminster and occupied by Whig supporters of the new dynasty, seems to have deliberately adopted German stylistic elements in their honour vertical bands connecting the windows.

The styles that resulted fall within several categories. In the mainstream of Georgian style were both Palladian architecture—and its whimsical alternatives and Chinoiserie, which were the English-speaking world's equivalent of European Rococo. From the mid-1760s a range of Neoclassical modes were fashionable, associated with the British architects Robert Adam, James Gibbs, Sir William Chambers, James Wyatt, George Dance the Younger, Henry Holland and Sir John Soane. John Nash was one o

French ship Bourbon (1692)

Bourbon was a second rank two-decker ship of the line of the French Royal Navy. She was armed with 68 guns, comprising twenty-six 24-pounder guns on the lower deck and twenty-eight 12-pounder guns on the upper deck, with eight 6-pounder guns on the quarterdeck and six 6-pounder guns on the forecastle. Designed and built by François Coulomb, she was begun at Toulon arsenal in June 1692 as one of the replacements for the ships destroyed by an English attack at La Hougue in June 1692, she was launched in November 1692 and completed in February 1693. Bourbon was captured by the Dutch De Zeven Provinciën at the attack on Vigo in October 1702, burnt by them a week later. Roche, Jean-Michel. Dictionnaire des bâtiments de la flotte de guerre française de Colbert à nos jours 1 1671 - 1870. P. 223. ISBN 978-2-9525917-0-6. OCLC 165892922. Nomenclature des Vaisseaux du Roi-Soleil de 1661 a 1715. Alain Demerliac; the Sun King's Vessels - Jean-Claude Lemineur. Editions ANCRE. ISBN 978-2903179885 Winfield and Roberts, Stephen French Warships in the Age of Sail 1626-1786: Design, Construction and Fates.

Seaforth Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4738-9351-1

Castration anxiety

Castration anxiety is the fear of emasculation in both the literal and metaphorical sense. Castration anxiety is an overwhelming fear of damage to, or loss of, the penis—one of Sigmund Freud's earliest psychoanalytic theories. Although Freud regarded castration anxiety as a universal human experience, few empirical studies have been conducted on the topic. Much of the research, done on the topic was done decades ago, although still relevant today; the theory is that a child has a fear of damage being done to their genitalia by the parent of the same sex as punishment for sexual feelings toward the parent of the opposite sex. It has been theorized that castration anxiety begins between the ages of 3 and 5, otherwise known as the phallic stage of development according to Freud. Although associated with males, castration anxiety is theorized to be experienced in differing ways for both the male and female sexes. Castration anxiety is the conscious or unconscious fear of losing all or part of the sex organs, or the function of such.

In the literal sense, castration anxiety refers to the fear of having one's genitalia disfigured or removed to punish sexual desires of a child. In Freudian psychoanalysis, castration anxiety refers to an unconscious fear of penile loss originating during the phallic stage of psychosexual development and lasting a lifetime. According to Freud, when the infantile male becomes aware of differences between male and female genitalia he assumes that the female's penis has been removed and becomes anxious that his penis will be cut off by his rival, the father figure, as punishment for desiring the mother figure. In 19th-century Europe it was not unheard of for parents to threaten their misbehaving sons with castration or otherwise threaten their genitals; this theme is explored in the story Tupik by French writer Michel Tournier in his collection of stories entitled Le Coq de Bruyère and is a phenomenon Freud documents several times. In this same period, Dr. Kellogg and others in America and English-speaking countries offered to Victorian parents circumcision and in grave instances, castration of their boys and girls as a terminal cure and punishment for a wide variety of perceived misbehaviours, becoming popular over time.

Castration anxiety can refer to being castrated symbolically. In the metaphorical sense, castration anxiety refers to the idea of being insignificant. Symbolic castration anxiety refers to the fear of being degraded, dominated or made insignificant an irrational fear where the person will go to extreme lengths to save their pride and/or perceives trivial things as being degrading making their anxiety restrictive and sometimes damaging; this can tie in with literal castration anxiety in fearing the loss of virility or sexual dominance. The anxiety aspect of this topic can be overwhelming to the individual, can breach other aspects of their lives. A link has been found between castration fear of death. Although differing degrees of anxiety are common, young men who felt the most threatened in their youth tended to show chronic anxiety; because the consequences are extreme, the fear can evolve from potential disfigurement to life-threatening situations. Castration anxiety can lead to a fear of death, a feeling of loss of control over one's life.

To feel so powerless can be detrimental to an individual's mental health. One of the most concerning problems with all of this is the idea that the individual does not recognize that their sexual desires are the cause of the emotional distress; because of unconscious thoughts, as theorized in the ideas of psychoanalysis, the anxiety is brought to the surface where it is experienced symbolically. This will lead to the fear associated with bodily injury in castration anxiety, which can lead to the fear of dying or being killed, it is implied in Freudian psychology that both girls and boys pass through the same developmental stages: oral and phallic stages. Freud, believed that the results may be different because the anatomy of the different sexes is different; the counterpart of castration anxiety for females is penis envy. Penis envy, the concept of such, was first introduced by Freud in an article published in 1908 titled "On the Sexual Theories of Children"; the idea was presumed that females/girls envied those with a penis because theirs was taken from them—essentially they were "castrated".

Freud entertained that the envy they experienced was their unconscious wish to be like a boy and to have a penis. Penis envy, in Freudian psychology, refers to the reaction of the female/young girl during development when she realizes that she does not possess a penis. According to Freud, this was a major development in the identity of the girl; the contemporary culture assumes. This is unrelated to the notion of "small penis syndrome", the assumption by the man that his penis is too small. According to Freud's beliefs, girls developed a weaker superego, which he considered a consequence of penis envy. Among his many suggestions, Freud believed that during the phallic stage, young girls distance themselves from their mothers and instead envy their fathers and show this envy by showing love and affection towards their fathers. According to Cohler and Galatzer, Freud believed that all of the concepts related to penis envy were among his greatest accomplishments. However, these are his most criticized theories as well—most famously by Karen Horney.