The Georgians or Kartvelians are a nation and indigenous Caucasian ethnic group native to Georgia and the South Caucasus. Large Georgian communities are present throughout Russia, Greece, Ukraine, United States, throughout the European Union. Georgians arose from Colchian and Iberian civilizations of the classical antiquity and are one of the most ancient nations still living today. After Christianization of Iberia by Saint Nino they became one of the first who embraced the faith of Jesus in the early 4th century and now the majority of Georgians are Eastern Orthodox Christians and most follow their national autocephalous Georgian Orthodox Church, although there are small Georgian Catholic and Muslim communities, as well as a significant number of irreligious Georgians. Located in the Caucasus, on the continental crossroads of Europe and Asia, the High Middle Ages saw Georgian people form a unified Kingdom of Georgia in 1008 AD and inaugurating the Georgian Golden Age, a height of political and cultural power of the nation.
This lasted until being weakened by the Mongol invasions, as well as internal divisions following the death of George V the Brilliant, the last of the great kings of Georgia. Thereafter and throughout the early modern period, Georgians became politically fractured and were dominated by the Ottoman Empire and successive dynasties of Iran. To ensure the survival of his polity, in 1783, Heraclius II of the eastern Georgian kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti forged an alliance with the Russian Empire; the Russo-Georgian alliance, backfired as Russia was unwilling to fulfill the terms of the treaty, proceeding to annex the troubled kingdom in 1801, as well as the western Georgian kingdom of Imereti in 1810. There were several uprisings and movements to restore the statehood, most notable being 1832 plot that collapsed in failure. Russian rule over Georgia was acknowledged in various peace treaties with Iran and the Ottomans, the remaining Georgian territories were absorbed by the Russian Empire in a piecemeal fashion in the course of the 19th century.
Georgians reasserted their independence from Russia under the First Georgian Republic from 1918 to 1921, in 1991 from the Soviet Union. Georgian nation was formed out of diverse set of geographic subgroups, each with its characteristic traditions, dialects and, in the case of Svans and Mingrelians, own regional languages; the Georgian language, with its own unique writing system and extensive written tradition, which goes back to the 5th century, is the official language of Georgia as well as the language of education of all Georgians living in the country. According to the State Ministry on Diaspora Issues of Georgia unofficial statistics there are more than 5 million Georgians in the world. Georgians call themselves Kartvelebi, their land Sakartvelo, their language Kartuli. According to The Georgian Chronicles, the ancestor of the Kartvelian people was Kartlos, the great-grandson of the Biblical Japheth. However, scholars agree that the word is derived from the Karts, the latter being one of the proto-Georgian tribes that emerged as a dominant group in ancient times.
Kart is cognate with Indo-European gard and denotes to people who live in "fortified citadel". Ancient Greeks and Romans referred to western Georgians as Colchians and eastern Georgians as Iberians; the term "Georgians" is derived from the country of Georgia. In the past, lore based theories were given by the traveller Jacques de Vitry, who explained the name's origin by the popularity of St. George amongst Georgians, while traveller Jean Chardin thought that "Georgia" came from Greek γεωργός, as when the Greeks came into the region they encountered a developed agricultural society. However, as Prof. Alexander Mikaberidze adds, these explanations for the word Georgians/Georgia are rejected by the scholarly community, who point to the Persian word gurğ/gurğān as the root of the word. Starting with the Persian word gurğ/gurğān, the word was adopted in numerous other languages, including Slavic and West European languages; this term itself might have been established through the ancient Iranian appellation of the near-Caspian region, referred to as Gorgan.
The eighteenth century German professor of medicine and member of the British Royal Society Johann Friedrich Blumenbach regarded one of the founders of the discipline of anthropology, regarded Georgians the most beautiful race of people. Caucasian variety – I have taken the name of this variety from Mount Caucasus, both because its neighborhood, its southern slope, produces the most beautiful race of men, I mean the Georgian. Most historians and scholars of Georgia as well as anthropologists and linguists tend to agree that the ancestors of modern Georgians inhabited the southern Caucasus and northern Anatolia since the Neolithic period. Scholars refer to them as Proto-Kartvelian tribes; the Georgian people in antiquity have been known to the ancient Greeks and Romans as Colchians and Iberians. East Georgian tribes of Tibarenians-Iberians formed their kingdom in 7th century BCE. However, western Georgian tribes established the first Georgian state of Colchis before the foundation of the Iberian Kingdom in the east.
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Against All Authorities is an extended play by American hardcore hip hop group Onyx, released on May 5, 2015 by Goon MuSick. The whole album was produced by Canadian producer Scopic; the album features appearances by American rappers Sick Flo, Ras Kass, Jasia'n and Canadian rapper Merkules Against All Authorities was described by UndergroundHipHop.com as the best-selling CD album of May, named by HipHop4Real as the best EP of 2015 in "Best EP of 2015" and recognized by Hip-Hop Chamber as the best album of 2015 in "Best Album of 2015", beating Dr. Dre's album Compton. Against All Authorities is a statement about the current situation in the US of America. Onyx members use their lyrical weaponry to shoot back at the system. Sticky Fingaz and Fredro Starr recorded a 6 track EP protesting against racial injustice and police brutality; this is straight up dark and vintage hardcore hip hop focusing on the murders and brutality showcased by the police force on African-Americans, racial tensions have reached at high.
Fredro detailed the concept of the release in an interview on White Label Radio:"... We giving you our side of this story. We angry because it could be me, it could be anybody in this room. Sad to say no matter how old you are; every day we gotta turn on the news with different person. Young men still got murdered since we did that album. So I felt like it was time to just say something and be aggressive but make a point with our music. We coming from an angry perspective of niggas from Southside Queens who deal with the same shit every day; this is our protest!" Black Lives Matter has given Fredro and Sticky some powerful motivation and you can hear it all over the six tracks of this Scopic produced EP. The sound of this release is similar to the Onyx's second album All We Got Iz Us, released in 1995; the first beat that Canadian producer Scopic sent to Fredro was "Look Like A Criminal":"... I sent this beat to everybody! Nobody wanted it. NOBODY!!!! Onyx gave it one listen and said'YEP! We Rocking This!
Let's make an EP together!'." In April 2015, in support of a new EP, Fredro and Sticky went on a world tour and visited 20 countries. Were printed exclusive t-shirts and hoodies with album logos, "Molotov cocktail" and "The anarchy symbol"; the first single "Against All Authorities" was released on April 21, 2015. The song begins with a recording of Nebraska Senator Ernie Chambers comparing the U. S. police to ISIS, Sticky and Fredo assault us with in-your-face, politically astute aggression. It sounds like a call to action against crooked cops and systematic oppression; the second single "Strike Bac" featuring Sick Flo was released on April 29, 2015. Onyx encourage people to "strike back"; the song is tough and grimey, with an appearance from Sick Flo. Fredro Starr about the concept of this songin an interview with Charlie Sloth:"... We just letting. We don't respect them. We're not being ignorant about. We being upset about what's going on; this is Onyx way to expressing our feelings on wax." Snowgoons's DJ Sixkay made six visual videos for all tracks from this EP.
Onyx released two official music videos from this album: "Against All Authorities" and "Fuck Da Law". Both videos were shot by studio "Rome York" in Rome, Italy on April 20, 2015. Onyx dropped visuals for the song "Fuck Da Law" via 2DOPEBOYZ on the day; the video shows. The second video "Against All Authorities" was premiered on 2DOPEBOYZ on June 10, 2015; the video shows how Sticky caught and crucified a police officer. Strike Bac "I Have A Dream" speech by Martin Luther King Against All Authorities Speech by Nebraska's senator Ernie Chambers from Judiciary Committee Hearing on Allowing Guns in Bars:"... I wouldn’t go to Syria, I wouldn’t go to Iraq, I wouldn’t go to Afghanistan, I wouldn’t go to Yemen, I wouldn’t go to Tunisia, I wouldn’t go to Lebanon, I wouldn’t go to Jordan, I would do it right here. Nobody from ISIS terrorized us as a people as the police do us daily."Black Fatigue "Good Cop/Bad Cop" by Blahzay Blahzay Da Liquor Store Speech by Eric Garner:"... Get away for what? Every time you see me, you want to mess with me.
I'm tired of it. It stops today. Why would you...? Everyone standing here will tell you I didn't do nothing. I did not sell nothing; because every time you see me, you want to harass me. You want to stop me selling cigarettes. I'm minding my business, officer, I'm minding my business. Please just leave me alone. I told you the last time, please just leave me alone."Fuck Da Law Speech by Diane Sawyer on ABC News:"...10,000 law enforcement officers are trying to find a killer in Los Angeles, California. A sweeping manhunt, triggered by this man. A former policeman, accused of a shooting spree, targeting fellow cops and their families, and these images say it all. Police officers on the hunt for someone who knows their coldcodes, their moves. On highways, a request that commuters study license plates and call 911." Against All Authorities was described by UndergroundHipHop.com as the best-selling CD album of May. Against All Authorities was named by HipHop4Real as the best EP of 2015 in "Best EP of 2015".
Against All Authorities was recognized by Hip-Hop Chamber as the best album of 2015 in "Best Album of 2015", beating Dr. Dre's album Compton. Against All Authorities at RapGenius Against All Authorities at Discogs Music video "Against All Authorities" on YouTube Music
The Galician Student League is a student union that advocates for a public education, in galician language, democratic, of quality and not patriarchal. It is an open organization, governed by internal democracy and horizontal assemblies. In the LEG can participate any high school, vocational training or university student; the LEG was born on March 26, 2011 at the Faculty of Law of Santiago de Compostela, after a rupture of more than 150 militants of the Comités with this organization. The splitters accused the Comités of antidemocratic practices and of being controlled by the Galician People's Union. Among the splitters were the militants of youth organizations like Isca!. In April 2012 the first National Assembly of the organization takes place in Lugo; the same year, in May, the League was the most voted student organization in the University of Santiago de Compostela elections, gaining 20 of the 75 student seats in the University Council. In the 2013 elections in the University of A Coruña the LEG won 3 of the 60 student seats.
In 2014 the League was again the most voted student organization in the University of Santiago de Compostela elections, gaining 24 of the 75 student seats in the University Council. Since its foundation the LEG has called for several student strikes, including 5 along with the other galician nationalist unions, AGIR and Comités. In 2016 the organization joined Erguer - Estudantes da Galiza; the Galician Student League rejects apoliticism. The organization defines itself as socialist, "independentist" and feminist and participates in acts of non-student character, as nationalist, language and feminist protests. Official website Official Twitter Official Facebook Official Flickr