Belgrade is the capital and largest city of Serbia. It is located at the confluence of the Sava and Danube rivers and its name translates to White city. The urban area of the City of Belgrade has a population of 1.34 million, one of the most important prehistoric cultures of Europe, the Vinča culture, evolved within the Belgrade area in the 6th millennium BC. In antiquity, Thraco-Dacians inhabited the region, and after 279 BC Celts conquered the city and it was conquered by the Romans during the reign of Augustus, and awarded city rights in the mid-2nd century. In 1521, Belgrade was conquered by the Ottoman Empire and became the seat of the Sanjak of Smederevo and it frequently passed from Ottoman to Habsburg rule, which saw the destruction of most of the city during the Austro-Ottoman wars. Belgrade was again named the capital of Serbia in 1841, northern Belgrade remained the southernmost Habsburg post until 1918, when the city was reunited. As a strategic location, the city was battled over in 115 wars, Belgrade was the capital of Yugoslavia from its creation in 1918, to its final dissolution in 2006.
Belgrade has an administrative status within Serbia and it is one of five statistical regions of Serbia. Its metropolitan territory is divided into 17 municipalities, each with its own local council, City of Belgrade covers 3. 6% of Serbias territory, and 22. 5% of the countrys population lives within its administrative limits. It is classified as a Beta- global city, chipped stone tools found at Zemun show that the area around Belgrade was inhabited by nomadic foragers in the Palaeolithic and Mesolithic eras. Some of these belong to the Mousterian industry, which are associated with Neanderthals rather than modern humans. Aurignacian and Gravettian tools have discovered there, indicating occupation between 50,000 and 20,000 years ago. The first farming people to settle in the region are associated with the Neolithic Starčevo culture, there are several Starčevo sites in and around Belgrade, including the eponymous site of Starčevo. The Starčevo culture was succeeded by the Vinča culture, a more sophisticated farming culture that grew out of the earlier Starčevo settlements which is named for a site in the Belgrade region.
Evidence of early knowledge about Belgrades geographical location comes from ancient myths, the rock overlooking the confluence of the Sava and Danube rivers has been identified as one of the place in the story of Jason and the Argonauts. The Paleo-Balkan tribes of Thracians and Dacians ruled this area prior to the Roman conquest, Belgrade was inhabited by a Thraco-Dacian tribe Singi, after the Celtic invasion in 279 BC, the Scordisci took the city, naming it Singidūn. In 34–33 BC the Roman army led by Silanus reached Belgrade, jovian reestablished Christianity as the official religion of the Roman Empire, ending the brief revival of traditional Roman religions under his predecessor Julian the Apostate. In 395 AD, the passed to the Eastern Roman or Byzantine Empire
Pavlo Petrovych Skoropadskyi was a Ukrainian aristocrat and state leader, decorated Imperial Russian Army and Ukrainian Army general of Cossack heritage. Skoropadsky became a leader in Ukraine following the Russian Revolution of 1917. The father of Pavlo Petro Ivanovych Skoropadsky was a Cavalry Guard Colonel, afterwards he served as a speaker for the Starodub County Council until his death. Pavlos aunt Countess Yelyzaveta Myloradovych was a Ukrainian public activist and she was one of the main sponsors for foundation first Ukrainian scientific institution Shevchenko Scientific Society in Lviv. Her husband was Count Lev Myloradovych whose mother was from the Kochubey family, the grandfather Ivan served as a speaker for the Pryluky County and Poltava Governorate councils. He was known for building the Trostyanets Arboretum, Pavlos father Petro Ivanovych was a descendant of the Tarnovsky family, while Pavlos mother was a descendant of Miklashewsky and Olsufiev families. Pavlo grew up at his fathers estate in Trostianets, Pryluky County and he attended a gymnasium in Starodub and graduated from the Page Corps cadet school in Saint Petersburg.
In 1893 Skoropadsky graduated from the Page Corps and was assigned as a cornet to the Chevalier Guard regiment where he was put in charge of a squadron, after two years he was assigned a duty of the Regimental adjutant in the same regiment. In December 1897 he was promoted to Poruchik, in 1897 Skoropadsky married Aleksandra Petrovna Durnovo, a daughter of Pyotr Pavlovich Durnovo, the General Governor of Moscow. Skoropadskys first major assignment was a commander in the 2nd Chita Cossack Regiment of the Trans-Baikal Cossack Host in Chita during the Russo-Japanese War. Later he became an adjutant to the commander of the Russian forces on the Far East General Nikolay Linevich, during the war Skoropadsky was awarded the Georges Weapon and several orders. In December 1905 Tsar Nikolai II made him a Fliegel-Adjutant in a rank of Colonel, on September 4,1910 Colonel Skoropadsky was commissioned as the commander of the 20th Finnish Dragoon Regiment still continuing to be a Fliegel-Adjutant of the H. I. M.
Retinue. On April 15,1911 he was reassigned to the Leib-Guard Cavalry Regiment, leib-Guards were the elite Russian military forces assigned for a personal protection of the emperor. On December 6,1912 Skoropadsky was promoted to the Major General of the H. I. M. Retinue. At the start of World War I Skoropadsky was put in charge of the reorganized 1st Brigade of the 1st Cavalry Guard Division as part of the 1st Army commanded by General Paul von Rennenkampf. Skoropadsky already worked for von Rennenkampf during the Russo-Japanese War when the last was commanding Trans-Baikal Cossack Host, on August 6,1914 his regiment distinguished itself in battles near Kraupishken as part of the Russian invasion of East Prussia. Later he was appointed as a commander of the United Cavalry Guard Division which distinguished near Kaushen, General Skoropadsky commanded the 5th Cavalry Division. On April 2,1916 he was promoted to Lieutenant General and was commissioned the 1st Cavalry Guard Division, from January 22 to July 2,1917 he is in charge of the 34th Army Corps
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west, the Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east, the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain in its centre and south, and includes over 100 smaller islands such as the Isles of Scilly, and the Isle of Wight. England became a state in the 10th century, and since the Age of Discovery. The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the worlds first industrialised nation, Englands terrain mostly comprises low hills and plains, especially in central and southern England. However, there are uplands in the north and in the southwest, the capital is London, which is the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland through another Act of Union to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain, the name England is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means land of the Angles. The Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages, the Angles came from the Angeln peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea. The earliest recorded use of the term, as Engla londe, is in the ninth century translation into Old English of Bedes Ecclesiastical History of the English People. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars, it has been suggested that it derives from the shape of the Angeln peninsula, an angular shape. An alternative name for England is Albion, the name Albion originally referred to the entire island of Great Britain.
The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus, specifically the 4th century BC De Mundo, in it are two very large islands called Britannia, these are Albion and Ierne. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, the word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins. Albion is now applied to England in a poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England, the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximately 780,000 years ago. The oldest proto-human bones discovered in England date from 500,000 years ago, Modern humans are known to have inhabited the area during the Upper Paleolithic period, though permanent settlements were only established within the last 6,000 years
Ukraine is currently in territorial dispute with Russia over the Crimean Peninsula which Russia annexed in 2014 but which Ukraine and most of the international community recognise as Ukrainian. Including Crimea, Ukraine has an area of 603,628 km2, making it the largest country entirely within Europe and it has a population of about 42.5 million, making it the 32nd most populous country in the world. The territory of modern Ukraine has been inhabited since 32,000 BC, during the Middle Ages, the area was a key centre of East Slavic culture, with the powerful state of Kievan Rus forming the basis of Ukrainian identity. Following its fragmentation in the 13th century, the territory was contested and divided by a variety of powers, including Lithuania, the Ottoman Empire, Austria-Hungary, and Russia. A Cossack republic emerged and prospered during the 17th and 18th centuries, two brief periods of independence occurred during the 20th century, once near the end of World War I and another during World War II.
Before its independence, Ukraine was typically referred to in English as The Ukraine, following independence, Ukraine declared itself a neutral state. Nonetheless it formed a limited partnership with the Russian Federation and other CIS countries. In the 2000s, the government began leaning towards NATO, and it was agreed that the question of joining NATO should be answered by a national referendum at some point in the future. Former President Viktor Yanukovych considered the current level of co-operation between Ukraine and NATO sufficient, and was against Ukraine joining NATO and these events formed the background for the annexation of Crimea by Russia in March 2014, and the War in Donbass in April 2014. On 1 January 2016, Ukraine applied the economic part of the Deep, Ukraine has long been a global breadbasket because of its extensive, fertile farmlands and is one of the worlds largest grain exporters. The diversified economy of Ukraine includes a heavy industry sector, particularly in aerospace.
Ukraine is a republic under a semi-presidential system with separate powers, executive. Its capital and largest city is Kiev, taking into account reserves and paramilitary personnel, Ukraine maintains the second-largest military in Europe after that of Russia. Ukrainian is the language and its alphabet is Cyrillic. The dominant religion in the country is Eastern Orthodoxy, which has strongly influenced Ukrainian architecture, there are different hypotheses as to the etymology of the name Ukraine. According to the older and most widespread hypothesis, it means borderland, while more recently some studies claim a different meaning, homeland or region. The Ukraine now implies disregard for the sovereignty, according to U. S. ambassador William Taylor. Neanderthal settlement in Ukraine is seen in the Molodova archaeological sites include a mammoth bone dwelling
Witte was neither a liberal or a conservative. He attracted foreign capital to boost Russias industrialization, Witte served under the last two emperors of Russia, Alexander III and Nicholas II. During the Russo-Turkish War he had risen to a position in which he controlled all the passing to the front along the lines of the Odessa Railways. As Minister of Finance Witte presided over extensive industrialization and the management of various railroad lines and he framed the October Manifesto of 1905, and the accompanying government communication, but was not convinced it would solve Russias problem with the Tsarist autocracy. On 20 October 1905 he became the first Chairman of the Russian Council of Ministers, assisted by his Council he designed Russias first constitution. Within a few months he fell in disgrace within court circles as a reformer and he resigned before the First Duma assembled. He has been described as the great reforming finance minister of the 1890s, one of Nicholass most enlightened ministers, Wittes father Christoph Hendrik Georg Witte descended from a Lutheran Baltic family of Dutch origin and converted to Russian Orthodoxy upon marriage with Yekaterina Fadeyeva.
He became a member of the knighthood in Pskov, but moved to Saratov, Sergei was raised on the estate of his mothers parents. His grandfather was Andrei Mikhailovich Fadeyev, a Governor of Saratov and Privy Councillor of the Caucasus, Sergei had two brothers and two sisters, and the mystic Helena Blavatsky was their first cousin. He entered a Tiflis gymnasium, but he took more interest in music, Sergei finished Gymnasium I in Kishinev and commenced studying Physico-Mathematical Sciences at the Novorossiysk University in Odessa in 1866 graduating top of his class in 1870. Witte had initially planned to pursue a career in academia with the aim of becoming a professor in Theoretical Mathematics and his relatives took a dim view of this career path as it was considered unsuitable for a noble at the time. He was instead persuaded by Count Vladimir Alekseyevich Bobrinsk, Minister of Ways and Communication, at the end of this period he was appointed chief of the traffic office. After a wreck on the Odessa Railways in late 1875 cost many lives, in 1879, Witte accepted a post in St.
Petersburg, where he met his future wife. He moved to Kiev the following year, in 1883, he published a paper on Principles of railway tariffs for cargo transportation, in which he spoke out on social issues and the role of the monarchy. In 1886, he was appointed manager of the privately held Southwestern Railways, based in Kiev and his warnings were proven in the October 1888 Borki train disaster, which resulted in the appointment of Witte to the position of Director of State Railways. Witte worked in management for twenty years, starting out as a ticket clerk. He served as Russian Director of Railway Affairs within the Finance Ministry from 1889 to 1891, until less than one-fourth of the small railway systems was under direct state control, but Witte set about making the railway service a monopoly of the State. Witte obtained the right to assign employees based on their performance and this resulted in a new customs law for Russia in 1891, which spurred an increase in industrialization in Russia towards the turn of the century
The Russian Empire was a state that existed from 1721 until it was overthrown by the short-lived February Revolution in 1917. One of the largest empires in history, stretching over three continents, the Russian Empire was surpassed in landmass only by the British and Mongol empires. The rise of the Russian Empire happened in association with the decline of neighboring powers, the Swedish Empire, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Persia. It played a role in 1812–14 in defeating Napoleons ambitions to control Europe. The House of Romanov ruled the Russian Empire from 1721 until 1762, and its German-descended cadet branch, with 125.6 million subjects registered by the 1897 census, it had the third-largest population in the world at the time, after Qing China and India. Like all empires, it included a large disparity in terms of economics, there were numerous dissident elements, who launched numerous rebellions and assassination attempts, they were closely watched by the secret police, with thousands exiled to Siberia.
Economically, the empire had an agricultural base, with low productivity on large estates worked by serfs. The economy slowly industrialized with the help of foreign investments in railways, the land was ruled by a nobility from the 10th through the 17th centuries, and subsequently by an emperor. Tsar Ivan III laid the groundwork for the empire that emerged and he tripled the territory of his state, ended the dominance of the Golden Horde, renovated the Moscow Kremlin, and laid the foundations of the Russian state. Tsar Peter the Great fought numerous wars and expanded an already huge empire into a major European power, Catherine the Great presided over a golden age. She expanded the state by conquest and diplomacy, continuing Peter the Greats policy of modernisation along West European lines, Tsar Alexander II promoted numerous reforms, most dramatically the emancipation of all 23 million serfs in 1861. His policy in Eastern Europe involved protecting the Orthodox Christians under the rule of the Ottoman Empire and that connection by 1914 led to Russias entry into the First World War on the side of France and Serbia, against the German and Ottoman empires.
The Russian Empire functioned as a monarchy until the Revolution of 1905. The empire collapsed during the February Revolution of 1917, largely as a result of failures in its participation in the First World War. Perhaps the latter was done to make Europe recognize Russia as more of a European country, Poland was divided in the 1790-1815 era, with much of the land and population going to Russia. Most of the 19th century growth came from adding territory in Asia, Peter I the Great introduced autocracy in Russia and played a major role in introducing his country to the European state system. However, this vast land had a population of 14 million, grain yields trailed behind those of agriculture in the West, compelling nearly the entire population to farm. Only a small percentage lived in towns, the class of kholops, close to the one of slavery, remained a major institution in Russia until 1723, when Peter I converted household kholops into house serfs, thus including them in poll taxation
Ufa is the capital city of the Republic of Bashkortostan and the industrial, economic and cultural center of the republic. As of the 2010 Census, its population was 1,062,319, early history of the surrounding area of Ufa out in Paleolithic times. Presumably from the 5th to the 16th century on the site of Ufa there was a medieval city, french orientalist Henri Cordier associates the position of Pascherti with the current location of Ufa. Ibn Khaldun among the largest cities of the Golden Horde called the town Bashkort, Russian historian of the 18th century Peter Rychkov wrote that on the territory of Ufa before the arrival of the Russians there was a great city. The official of the Orenburg Governorate government Vasily Rebelensky wrote that Ufa was founded by the Bashkirs, town status was granted to it in 1586. Before becoming the seat of a separate Ufa Governorate in 1781, during the 1800-1810s, Scottish Russian architect William Heste developed a general city plan for Ufa as a regional capital shaping the modern outline of its historical center.
The Belaya River Waterway and the Samara-Zlatoust Railroad connected the city to the European part of the Russian Empire, as a result, in 1913 the population of Ufa grew to 100,000. During World War II, following eastward Soviet retreat in 1941, the city became the wartime seat of the Soviet Ukrainian government. During 9—10 July 2015 Ufa hosted summits of the BRICS group, Ufa is the capital of the republic and, within the framework of the administrative divisions, it serves as the administrative center of Ufimsky District, even though it is not a part of it. As a municipal division, the city of republic significance of Ufa is incorporated as Ufa Urban Okrug, according to Forbes, in 2013, Ufa was the best city in Russia for business among cities with population over one million. Many urban enterprises engaged in oil refining, mechanical engineering reside in Ufa, the economy of Ufa is composed of many fuel and engineering complexes. Ufa is home to about 200 large and medium industrial enterprises, Ufa is the only city connected to Moscow by more than one federal highway.
The M7 motorway links the city to Kazan and Moscow and the M5 motorway links Ufa to Moscow, the Ufa Metro is a planned and oft-delayed subway system, discussed since the late 1980s. On May 30,1996, there was a ceremony marking the beginning of construction work. Public transportation in Ufa includes trams and trolleybuses, as well as bus, population of Ufa exceeded one million in 1980. The area of the city is 707.93 square kilometers and it stretches from north to south for 53.5 kilometers and from west to east for 29.8 kilometers. Local government The bodies of local self-government of Ufa are, formed of 35 deputies for 4 years. Chairman of the Board – the head of the urban okrug, the structure of the administration approved by the Council on the proposal of the Head of the Administration
He was brother of conductor and singer Oleksa Chupryna-Chekhivsky. Chekhivsky was born on July 19,1876 to the family of a clergyman in a village of Horokhuvatka, in 1900 he graduated from the Kiev Theological Academy and the University of Odessa, from 1905 he was a Doctor of Theology. From 1897 he was a member of the student club of Drahomanovs Socialist-Democrats, from 1901 to 1905 Cherkhivsky worked as Deputy Inspector of the seminaries of Kiev and Kamyanets-Podilsky. Because of his activity and interest in Ukrainian nationalism at the seminaries, from 1905 to 1906 he was a teacher of Russian language as well as of the History of Literature and the Theory of Philology at the Cherkassy Theology College. Between 1902-1904 Chekhivsky was a member of the Revolutionary Ukrainian Party, in 1906, he was elected to the Imperial Duma, however the Russian government exiled him, as a Ukrainian to Vologda in Russia. However, through the efforts of his electors to the Imperial Duma, from 1908 to 1917 Chekhivsky lived in Odessa where he taught in a gymnasium as well as commercial and technical colleges.
During that time he was under police surveillance. Nonetheless, Chekhivsky participated in the activities of a local Ukrainian Hromada, since 1915 he was a member of a masonic lodge Star of the East that existed in Odessa and was part of the Great East of Peoples of Russia. After the February Revolution Chekhivsky became editor of the Ukrayinske Slovo newspaper that was published in Odessa, from April 1917 he headed the Odessa committee of the USDLP and the Ukrainian council of Odessa. From May 1917 Cherkhivsky was an inspector of the Odessa School Council. From June 1917 he was a deputy in the Odessa city duma from the Ukrainian parties, in October–November 1917 Chekhivsky was a member of the Revolutionary committee. In November 1917 he became a commissar of Odessa and an education commissar of the Kherson Governorate. At that time Chekhivsky was elected to the Russian Constituent Assembly, in the beginning of 1918 he became a member of Central Committee of the USDLP and from April 1918 — appointed as director of confessions as a minister in government of the Ukrainian Peoples Republic.
Under the administration of Pavlo Skoropadsky, Chekhivsky continued to work in the Ministry of Confessions, during that time he joined the Ukrainian National Union which was in opposition to the Hetman of Ukraine. Chekhivsky headed the Ukrainian revkom during the anti-Hetman uprising, from December 26,1918 to February 11,1919 Chekhivsky was President of the Council of Peoples Ministers and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Ukrainian Peoples Republic. During that time was proclaimed the Unification Act of two Ukraines on January 22,1919, on January 1,1919 the government approved laws about the state language of Ukraine and about the autocephaly of Ukrainian Orthodox Church that were adopted by the Directorate of Ukraine. On January 5,1919 the government approved the Land law that was adopted by the Directorate on January 8, Chekhivsky followed leftist political views, advocated compromise with Bolsheviks, opposed the treaty with Entente. On those issues his position was similar to the point of view of Volodymyr Vynnychenko, Chekhivsky had a little influence on the army of Ukraine
Dmytro Doroshenko was a prominent Ukrainian political figure during the revolution of 1917–1918 and a leading Ukrainian emigre historian during the inter-war period. Doroshenko was a supporter of federal ties with the Russian Republic, Doroshenko was born into an old Ukrainian Cossack noble family which had given Ukraine two prominent Hetmans during the seventeenth century. Thereafter, he became active in the Ukrainian Scientific Society in Kiev, during the war which broke out in 1914 he was active in the Union of Cities and did relief work in Russian held Galicia and Bukovina. The task proved impossible and Doroshenko eventually resigned shortly before the collapse of this conservative regime, in 1919, Doroshenko went into exile and eventually settled in Prague where the Czechoslovak government gave refuge to Ukrainian and Russian emigres, especially scholars. In 1937 and 1938, he made two highly successful tours of Canada which at that time possessed a large Ukrainian immigrant population.
In 1939, he returned to Prague where he continued his work at the Ukrainian Free University. In 1945, Doroshenko fled to western Germany where he became the first president of the Ukrainian Free Academy of Sciences, however, he fell ill in Winnipeg and in 1950 returned to Europe. He died in Munich in early 1951, as a historian, Doroshenko represented the conservative Derzhavnyk or statist trend in Ukrainian historiography. His personal bibliography lists almost 1000 titles, Dmytro Doroshenko, A Survey of Ukrainian History, ed. Oleh Gerus. Idem, A Survey of Ukrainian Historiography, Annals of the Ukrainian Academy of Arts and Sciences in the US, thomas M. Prymak, Dmytro Doroshenko, A Ukrainian Emigre Historian of the Interwar Period, Harvard Ukrainian Studies, XXV, 1–2, 31–56. Dmytro Doroshenko and Canada, Journal of Ukrainian Studies, XXX,2, 1–25
Mechnikov National University, located in Odessa, Ukraine, is one of the countrys major universities, named after the scientist Élie Metchnikoff, a Nobel prizewinner in 1908. The university was founded in 1865, by an edict of Tsar Alexander II of Russia reorganizing the Richelieu Lyceum of Odessa into the new Imperial Novorossiya University, in the Soviet era, the University was renamed Odesa I. I. During the century and a half of its existence, the University has earned the reputation of being one of the best educational institutions in Ukraine, mechnikov National University comprises four institutes, ten faculties, and seven specialized councils. The University is famous for its library, the largest and oldest of any university in Ukraine. Mechnikov National University is one of the oldest in Ukraine and it was founded in 1865, when by Edict of the Russian Tsar Alexander II the Richelieu Lyceum was reorganized into the Imperial Novorossiya University. World-famous teachers and scientists have worked at Imperial Novorossiya University during different times of its existence, Professors I. M.
Sechenov, A. A. Kovalevskiy, N. F. Gamaleya, N. Y. Zelinskiy, D. L. Mendeleyev, physicist G. A. Gamov, mathematician A. M. Lyapunov, the first Rector of the university was Professor I. Y. At different periods of time, the university was headed by Professors P. N. Lebedyev, yurzhenko, A. V. Bogatskiy, V. V. Serdyuk, I. P. Zelinskiy—all prominent specialists in different branches of knowledge. Mechnikov National University is situated in two parts of the city and occupies summarily 70 hectares, the university is divided into a number of faculties. These faculties are directly administered by the university, in all the areas of the University location, there are cafeterias, cafes and medical sections. List of modern universities in Europe Study in Ukraine -- Official Website Odesa I. I, mechnikov National University Odesa I. I. Mechnikov National University -- press service Odesa I. I, mechnikov National University page on Facebook Odessa National University
A historian is a person who researches and writes about the past, and is regarded as an authority on it. Historians are concerned with the continuous, methodical narrative and research of past events as relating to the human race, if the individual is concerned with events preceding written history, the individual is an historian of prehistory. Although historian can be used to describe amateur and professional historians alike, some historians, are recognized by publications or training and experience. Historian became an occupation in the late nineteenth century as research universities were emerging in Germany. Modern historical analysis usually draws upon other social sciences, including economics, politics, anthropology, while ancient writers do not normally share modern historical practices, their work remains valuable for its insights within the cultural context of the times. Understanding the past appears to be a human need. What constitutes history is a philosophical question, the earliest chronologies date back to Mesopotamia and ancient Egypt, though no historical writers in these early civilizations were known by name.
Systematic historical thought emerged in ancient Greece, a development that became an important influence on the writing of history elsewhere around the Mediterranean region, the earliest known critical historical works were The Histories, composed by Herodotus of Halicarnassus who became known as the father of history. Herodotus attempted to distinguish between more and less reliable accounts, and personally conducted research by travelling extensively, giving accounts of various Mediterranean cultures. Although Herodotus overall emphasis lay on the actions and characters of men and he was the first to distinguish between cause and immediate origins of an event, while his successor Xenophon introduced autobiographical elements and character studies in his Anabasis. The Romans adopted the Greek tradition, while early Roman works were still written in Greek, the Origines, composed by the Roman statesman Cato the Elder, was written in Latin, in a conscious effort to counteract Greek cultural influence.
Strabo was an important exponent of the Greco-Roman tradition of combining geography with history, livy records the rise of Rome from city-state to empire. His speculation about what would have happened if Alexander the Great had marched against Rome represents the first known instance of alternate history, in Chinese historiography, the Classic of History is one of the Five Classics of Chinese classic texts and one of the earliest narratives of China. Sima Qian was the first in China to lay the groundwork for professional historical writing and his written work was the Shiji, a monumental lifelong achievement in literature. Christian historiography began early, perhaps as early as Luke-Acts, which is the source for the Apostolic Age. Writing history was popular among Christian monks and clergy in the Middle Ages and they wrote about the history of Jesus Christ, that of the Church and that of their patrons, the dynastic history of the local rulers. In the Early Middle Ages historical writing often took the form of annals or chronicles recording events year by year, muslim historical writings first began to develop in the 7th century, with the reconstruction of the Prophet Muhammads life in the centuries following his death.
With numerous conflicting narratives regarding Muhammad and his companions from various sources, to evaluate these sources, they developed various methodologies, such as the science of biography, science of hadith and Isnad
Fedir Andriyovych Lyzohub was a Ukrainian politician and the Otaman of Council of Ministers in 1918. He was the son of Nadezhda Dmitrievna Dunin-Borkowska and Andriy Ivanovych Lyzohub, a poet, Fedir Lyzohub was a distant descendant of Yakiv Lyzohub who was the acting Hetman of the Zaporizhian Host after the death of Danylo Apostol. He had two brothers and Illya, Lyzohub Government, the longest serving governments of Ukraine in 1917-1920 Fedir Lyzohub at the History of Poltava portal. Fedir Lyzohub at the Cabinet of Ukraine website Fedir Lyzohub at the Encyclopedia of Ukraine