Georgy Zhukov

Georgy Konstantinovich Zhukov was a Soviet general and Marshal of the Soviet Union. He served as Chief of the General Staff, Minister of Defence, was a member of the Presidium of the Communist Party. During the Second World War, Zhukov oversaw some of the Red Army's most decisive victories. Born to a poor peasant family from central Russia, Zhukov was conscripted into the Imperial Russian Army and fought in the First World War, he served in the Red Army during the Russian Civil War. Rising through the ranks, by 1939 Zhukov was given command of an army group and won a decisive battle over Japanese forces at Khalkhin Gol, for which he won the first of his four Hero of the Soviet Union awards. In February 1941, Zhukov became chief of the Red Army's General Staff. Following the German invasion of the Soviet Union, Zhukov lost his position of chief of the general staff. Subsequently, he organized the defense of Leningrad and Stalingrad, he was further involved in the planning of several major offensives, including the Battle of Kursk and Operation Bagration.

In 1945, Zhukov commanded the 1st Belorussian Front and took part in the Vistula–Oder Offensive and the Battle of Berlin, which resulted in the defeat of Nazi Germany, the end of the war in Europe. In recognition of Zhukov's role in the war, he was chosen to accept the German Instrument of Surrender. After the war, Zhukov's success and popularity caused Joseph Stalin to see him as a potential threat. After Stalin's death in 1953, Zhukov returned to favour and supported Nikita Khrushchev's bid for Soviet leadership, he was made a member of the Presidium. In 1957 Zhukov was forced to retire, he never returned to a position of influence and died in 1974. Born into a poverty-stricken peasant family of Russian ethnicity in Strelkovka, Kaluga Governorate, Zhukov became an apprentice furrier in Moscow. Zhukov thought, his father was a shoemaker, adopted as an orphan by Ms. Anuska Zhukova at the age of two. In 1915, Zhukov was conscripted into the Imperial Russian Army, where he served in the 10th Dragoon Novgorod Regiment.

During World War I, Zhukov was awarded the Cross of St. George twice, promoted to the rank of non-commissioned officer for his bravery in battle, he joined the Bolshevik Party after the 1917 October Revolution. After recovering from a serious case of typhus, he fought in the Russian Civil War, serving with the 1st Cavalry Army, among other formations, he received the Order of the Red Banner for his part in subduing the Tambov Rebellion in 1921. At the end of May 1923, Zhukov became a commander of the 39th Cavalry Regiment. In 1924, he entered the Higher School of Cavalry, from which he graduated the next year, returning afterward to command the same regiment. In May 1930, Zhukov became commander of the 2nd Cavalry Brigade of the 7th Cavalry Division. In February 1931, he was appointed the Assistant Inspector of Cavalry of the Red Army. In May 1933, Zhukov was appointed a commander in the 4th Cavalry Division. In 1937, he became a commander of the 3rd Cavalry Corps of the 6th Cavalry Corps. In 1938, he became a deputy commander of the Belorussian Military District for cavalry.

In 1938, Zhukov was directed to command the First Soviet Mongolian Army Group, saw action against Japan's Kwantung Army on the border between the Mongolian People's Republic and the Japanese-controlled state of Manchukuo. The Soviet–Japanese Border Wars lasted from 1938 to 1939. What began as a border skirmish escalated into a full-scale war, with the Japanese pushing forward with an estimated 80,000 troops, 180 tanks and 450 aircraft; these events led to the strategically decisive battle of Khalkhin Gol. Zhukov requested major reinforcements, on 20 August 1939, his Soviet offensive commenced. After a massive artillery barrage, nearly 500 BT-5 and BT-7 tanks advanced, supported by over 500 fighters and bombers; this was the Soviet Air Force's first fighter-bomber operation. The offensive first appeared to be a typical conventional frontal attack. However, two tank brigades were held back and ordered to advance around on both flanks, supported by motorized artillery and other tanks; this daring and successful manoeuvre encircled the Japanese 6th Army and captured the enemy's vulnerable rear supply areas.

By 31 August, the Japanese had been cleared from the disputed border, leaving the Soviets victorious. This campaign had significance beyond local outcome. Zhukov demonstrated and tested the techniques used against the Germans in the Eastern Front of the Second World War; these innovations included the deployment of underwater bridges, improving the cohesion and battle-effectiveness of inexperienced units by adding a few experienced, battle-hardened troops to bolster morale and overall training. Evaluation of the problems inherent in the performance of the BT tanks led to the replacement of their fire-prone petrol engines with diesel engines, provided valuable practical knowledge, essential to the success in development of the T-34 medium tank used in World War II. After this campaign, Nomonhan veterans were transferred to units that had not seen action, to better spread the benefits of their battle experience. For his victory, Zhukov was declared a Hero of the Soviet Union. However, the campaign—and Zhukov's pioneering use of tanks—remained little known outside of the Soviet Union itsel

Office for Judicial Complaints

The Office for Judicial Complaints was an office within the Ministry of Justice which, between 2004 and 2013, managed the handling of complaints against the judiciary of England and Wales. On 1 October 2013 it was replaced by the Judicial Conduct Investigations Office; the OJC assisted in the handling of complaints against the judiciary of Scotland between 2004 and 2011, when the Judicial Complaints Reviewer was introduced. The OJC was created in 2004 as part of the Labour government's programme of constitutional reform, it existed to support the Lord Chancellor and Lord Chief Justice consider and decide upon complaints against members of the judiciary. The current judicial discipline arrangements, under which the Lord Chancellor and Lord Chief Justice/Lord President handle complaints and disciplinary action, were established by Part 4 the Constitutional Reform Act 2005. Complaints about the conduct of judges or magistrates are not investigated by the civil servants who make up the Office for Judicial Complaints.

Once the OJC has determined that the complaint needs investigation, a preliminary investigation is conducted by a'nominated judge' who reports to the Lord Chancellor and the Lord Chief Justice. If a further, more detailed, investigation is required, this is carried out by an'investigating judge'. Any disciplinary action required is taken by the Lord Chief Justice. On 23 January 2010 Cherie Booth QC, wife of Tony Blair, was sitting as a Recorder in a case where a man was found guilty violent assault in which he broke another man's jaw in a queue in a bank. Mrs Booth prevented the man from going to prison. "Mrs Blair said he was a'religious person' who had not been in trouble before." A number of complaints were made to the Office for Judicial Complaints pointing out that under English law everyone is equal under the law and individual religious beliefs cannot be reasons for the guilty to be given privileged treatment. On 10 June 2010 the OJC issued a statement saying that the investigation had found that "Recorder Booth’s observations did not constitute judicial misconduct".

On 18 May 2010, the OJC issued a statement reporting that, following investigation, the Lord Chief Justice had given His Honour Judge Trigger'formal advice' following comments he made whilst passing sentence in a case in July 2009. He had said to the defendant that "your case illustrates all too the lax immigration policy that exists and has existed over recent years in this country. People like you, there are hundreds and hundreds of thousands of people like you, come to these shores from foreign countries to avail themselves of the generous welfare benefits that exist here." The comments were found to be an "inappropriate judicial intervention in the political process". Mr Justice Peter Smith was given a formal reprimand by the Lord Chief Justice following behaviour which the Court of Appeal criticised as "extraordinary", "intemperate" and "regrettable"; the judge, who had failed to gain a position with the law firm Addleshaw Goddard, refused to stand down from hearing a case in which a partner in the firm was a party.

The Court of Appeal had concluded that "the approach adopted by the judge... provides strong support for's submissions that the fair-minded and informed observer, having considered the facts, would conclude that there was a real possibility that the judge was biased against Addleshaw Goddard and its partners, one of whom is the first claimant"


Rompetrol is of KMG International of Romanian origin as a company representative of the Romanian oil and gas industry on international level, becoming an international oil group with operations in 12 countries, known as The Rompetrol Group N. V. In 2014, the Rompetrol Group N. V. was renamed into KMG International N. V. as part of a strategy to promote the brand KazMunayGas. Although the name was changed into KMG International, the Rompetrol brand continues to be used in the distribution segment of the entire company; the company's retail network that operates under the “Rompetrol” brand incorporates over 1,100 fuel distribution points in Romania, Bulgaria, Moldova, in France and Spain, where the company operates under Dyneff brand. In 2015-2016, CEFC China Energy and KazMunayGaz agreed for CEFC China Energy to take over 51% stake in KMG International, the former Rompetrol Group, but by July 2018 the deal fell apart due to the difficult financial situation of the Chinese company. 1974: Rompetrol is established as the international operator of the Romanian oil industry.

1993: Privatized by Management and Employee Buy Out and turnover subsequently reduced to below $6 million by 1998. 1998: Control purchased by a local investor group around Dinu Patriciu, thus increasing company capital and contributing into a substantial turnover growth. 1999: Holding company established as The Rompetrol Group N. V. in the Netherlands. First major acquisition: Vega refinery - located in Ploieşti - is bought and doubles its revenues in the first nine months after takeover. 2000: Rompetrol takes over Petros - at that time Romania's principal oilfield operator. The company has since been renamed Rompetrol Well Services; the Group's largest acquisition, Petromidia S. A. is Romania's largest and most sophisticated oil refinery. Rompetrol committed itself to a sustained modernization process to make Petromidia a state-of-the-art facility in Eastern and Central Europe. 2001: Rompetrol creates Rominserv S. A. Romania's first Engineering Procurement Construction & Maintenance company focusing on the oil industry.

2002: In 2002, with the newly founded company Rompetrol Petrochemicals in charge, the Petromedia refinery resumed its petrochemicals production. 2002: Rompetrol opens subsidiaries in neighboring Moldova and Bulgaria. 2003: Rompetrol implemented its comprehensive program of expanding its gas station network in Romania. As part of its strategy the company unified the quality standards for its entire gas station network. To expand its network and make the process of distributing fuel easier, Rompetrol created a network of oil depots in various regions of the country. 2004: Rompetrol Rafinare S. A. is listed on Bucharest Stock Exchange. 2004: KazMunayGas Trading AG, specializing in the trade of oil and petroleum products. 2005 Most significant Q1 results with net profit reaching $43 million. Rompetrol starts operations Georgia. 2005: The Rompetrol Group N. V. announced the acquisition of 100% in the French company Dyneff S. A. 2006: Rompetrol opens a subsidiary in Ukraine - Rompetrol Ukraine. 2007: In August 2007, the Kazakh company KazMunayGas acquired 75% of the Rompetrol shares from Rompetrol Holding Switzerland 2008: Rompetrol and KazMunayGas launched Media Marine Terminal for crude oil in Media Black Sea port.

2009: KazMunayGas takes over the remaining 25% stake in Rompetrol. 2009: In August 2009, Rompetrol opens its first two fuel stations, on the A2 motorway in Romania, designed as the new premium brand of the group 2010-2011: TRG Petrol A. S. the group's branch was established in Turkey with a view to expand the operations and enter new prospective markets. 2012: Completion of Petromidia refinery modernization process following an investment of US$380 million. 2013: New filling station concept launch. The new filling station concept comprises a modern design that combines 3D elements with color schemes to create a minimalistic and warm concept. 2014: The Board of Directors passed a resolution whereby the group was renamed KMG International N. V. 2015: CEFC China Energy announced intention to take 51% stake in KMG International, the former Rompetrol Group. 2016: KazMunayGaz agreed in December 2016 to sell CEFC a 51 percent stake in its international business, KMGI List of petroleum companies Rompetrol Group N.