Geranium maculatum, the wild geranium, spotted geranium, or wood geranium, is a perennial plant native to woodland in eastern North America, from southern Manitoba and southwestern Quebec south to Alabama and Georgia and west to Oklahoma and South Dakota. It is known as spotted cranesbill or wild cranesbill in Europe, but the wood cranesbill is another plant, the related G. sylvatium. Colloquial names are alum bloom and old maid's nightcap, it grows in dry to moist woods and is abundant when found. It is a perennial herbaceous plant growing to 60 cm tall, producing upright unbranched stems and flowers in spring to early summer; the leaves are palmately lobed with five or seven cut lobes, 10–12.5 cm broad, with a petiole up to 30 cm long arising from the rootstock. They are parted into three or five divisions, each of, again cleft and toothed; the flowers are 2.5–4 cm in diameter, with five rose-purple, pale or violet-purple petals and ten stamens. In the Northern Hemisphere, they appear from April to June.
They are grouped in loose umbels of two to five at the top of the flower stems. The fruit capsule, which springs open when ripe, consists of five cells each containing one seed joined to a long beak-like column 2–3 cm long produced from the center of the old flower; the rhizome is long, 5 to 10 cm thick, with numerous branches. It is covered with scars; when dry it has a somewhat purplish color internally. The plant is well-known in cultivation, numerous cultivars have been developed; the cultivar'Elizabeth Ann' has gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit. The plant has been used in herbal medicine, is grown as a garden plant. Wild geranium is considered an astringent, a substance that causes contraction of the tissues and stops bleeding; the Mesquakie Indians brewed a root tea for toothache and for painful nerves and mashed the roots for treating hemorrhoids
The eudicots, Eudicotidae or eudicotyledons are a clade of flowering plants, called tricolpates or non-magnoliid dicots by previous authors. The botanical terms were introduced in 1991 by evolutionary botanist James A. Doyle and paleobotanist Carol L. Hotton to emphasize the evolutionary divergence of tricolpate dicots from earlier, less specialized, dicots; the close relationships among flowering plants with tricolpate pollen grains was seen in morphological studies of shared derived characters. These plants have a distinct trait in their pollen grains of exhibiting three colpi or grooves paralleling the polar axis. Molecular evidence confirmed the genetic basis for the evolutionary relationships among flowering plants with tricolpate pollen grains and dicotyledonous traits; the term means "true dicotyledons", as it contains the majority of plants that have been considered dicots and have characteristics of the dicots. The term "eudicots" has subsequently been adopted in botany to refer to one of the two largest clades of angiosperms, monocots being the other.
The remaining angiosperms include magnoliids and what are sometimes referred to as basal angiosperms or paleodicots, but these terms have not been or adopted, as they do not refer to a monophyletic group. The other name for the eudicots is tricolpates, a name which refers to the grooved structure of the pollen. Members of the group have tricolpate pollen; these pollens have three or more pores set in furrows called colpi. In contrast, most of the other seed plants produce monosulcate pollen, with a single pore set in a differently oriented groove called the sulcus; the name "tricolpates" is preferred by some botanists to avoid confusion with the dicots, a nonmonophyletic group. Numerous familiar plants are eudicots, including many common food plants and ornamentals; some common and familiar eudicots include members of the sunflower family such as the common dandelion, the forget-me-not and other members of its family, buttercup and macadamia. Most leafy trees of midlatitudes belong to eudicots, with notable exceptions being magnolias and tulip trees which belong to magnoliids, Ginkgo biloba, not an angiosperm.
The name "eudicots" is used in the APG system, of 1998, APG II system, of 2003, for classification of angiosperms. It is applied to a monophyletic group, which includes most of the dicots. "Tricolpate" is a synonym for the "Eudicot" monophyletic group, the "true dicotyledons". The number of pollen grain furrows or pores helps classify the flowering plants, with eudicots having three colpi, other groups having one sulcus. Pollen apertures are any modification of the wall of the pollen grain; these modifications include thinning and pores, they serve as an exit for the pollen contents and allow shrinking and swelling of the grain caused by changes in moisture content. The elongated apertures/ furrows in the pollen grain are called colpi, along with pores, are a chief criterion for identifying the pollen classes; the eudicots can be divided into two groups: the basal eudicots and the core eudicots. Basal eudicot is an informal name for a paraphyletic group; the core eudicots are a monophyletic group.
A 2010 study suggested the core eudicots can be divided into two clades, Gunnerales and a clade called "Pentapetalae", comprising all the remaining core eudicots. The Pentapetalae can be divided into three clades: Dilleniales superrosids consisting of Saxifragales and rosids superasterids consisting of Santalales, Berberidopsidales and asteridsThis division of the eudicots is shown in the following cladogram: The following is a more detailed breakdown according to APG IV, showing within each clade and orders: clade Eudicots order Ranunculales order Proteales order Trochodendrales order Buxales clade Core eudicots order Gunnerales order Dilleniales clade Superrosids order Saxifragales clade Rosids order Vitales clade Fabids order Fabales order Rosales order Fagales order Cucurbitales order Oxalidales order Malpighiales order Celastrales order Zygophyllales clade Malvids order Geraniales order Myrtales order Crossosomatales order Picramniales order Malvales order Brassicales order Huerteales order Sapindales clade Superasterids order Berberidopsidales order Santalales order Caryophyllales clade Asterids order Cornales order Ericales clade Campanulids order Aquifoliales order Asterales order Escalloniales order Bruniales order Apiales order Dipsacales order Paracryphiales clade Lamiids order Solanales order Lamiales order Vahliales order Gentianales order Boraginales order Garryales order Metteniusales order Icacinales Eudicots at the Encyclopedia of Life Eudicots, Tree of Life Web Project Dicots Plant Life Forms
Geranium maderense, known as giant herb-Robert or the Madeira cranesbill, is a species of flowering plant in the Geraniaceae family, native to the island of Madeira. Growing to 120–150 cm tall and wide, it is a mound-forming evergreen perennial with divided ferny leaves. Spectacular pink flowers on hairy red stems are produced in large panicles in summer, it is grown as an ornamental plant in temperate regions, where it is hardy in mild or coastal areas down to −5 °C. It has gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit. "The Madeira Island Geranium:Geranium maderense". University of california davis botanical conservatory. Retrieved 12 June 2013
An annual plant is a plant that completes its life cycle, from germination to the production of seeds, within one year, dies. Summer mature by autumn of the same year. Winter annuals germinate during the autumn and mature during the spring or summer of the following calendar year. One seed-to-seed life cycle for an annual can occur in as little as a month in some species, though most last several months. Oilseed rapa can go from seed-to-seed in about five weeks under a bank of fluorescent lamps; this style of growing is used in classrooms for education. Many desert annuals are therophytes, because their seed-to-seed life cycle is only weeks and they spend most of the year as seeds to survive dry conditions. In cultivation, many food plants are, or are grown as, including all domesticated grains; some perennials and biennials are grown in gardens as annuals for convenience if they are not considered cold hardy for the local climate. Carrot and parsley are true biennials that are grown as annual crops for their edible roots and leaves, respectively.
Tomato, sweet potato and bell pepper are tender perennials grown as annuals. Ornamental perennials grown as annuals are impatiens, wax begonia, pelargonium and petunia. Examples of true annuals include corn, rice, peas, beans and marigold. Summer annuals sprout, produce seed, die, during the warmer months of the year; the lawn weed crabgrass is a summer annual. Winter annuals germinate in autumn or winter, live through the winter bloom in winter or spring; the plants grow and bloom during the cool season when most other plants are dormant or other annuals are in seed form waiting for warmer weather to germinate. Winter annuals die after setting seed; the seeds germinate in the winter when the soil temperature is cool. Winter annuals grow low to the ground, where they are sheltered from the coldest nights by snow cover, make use of warm periods in winter for growth when the snow melts; some common winter annuals include henbit, deadnettle and winter cress. Winter annuals are important ecologically, as they provide vegetative cover that prevents soil erosion during winter and early spring when no other cover exists and they provide fresh vegetation for animals and birds that feed on them.
Although they are considered to be weeds in gardens, this viewpoint is not always necessary, as most of them die when the soil temperature warms up again in early to late spring when other plants are still dormant and have not yet leafed out. Though they do not compete directly with cultivated plants, sometimes winter annuals are considered a pest in commercial agriculture, because they can be hosts for insect pests or fungal diseases which attack crops being cultivated; the property that they prevent the soil from drying out can be problematic for commercial agriculture. In 2008, it was discovered that the inactivation of only two genes in one species of annual plant leads to the conversion into a perennial plant. Researchers deactivated the SOC1 and FUL genes in Arabidopsis thaliana, which control flowering time; this switch established phenotypes common in perennial plants, such as wood formation. Biennial plant – Flowering plant that takes two years to complete its biological lifecycle. Perennial plant – Plant that lives for more than two years
Carl Linnaeus known after his ennoblement as Carl von Linné, was a Swedish botanist and zoologist who formalised binomial nomenclature, the modern system of naming organisms. He is known as the "father of modern taxonomy". Many of his writings were in Latin, his name is rendered in Latin as Carolus Linnæus. Linnaeus was born in the countryside of Småland in southern Sweden, he received most of his higher education at Uppsala University and began giving lectures in botany there in 1730. He lived abroad between 1735 and 1738, where he studied and published the first edition of his Systema Naturae in the Netherlands, he returned to Sweden where he became professor of medicine and botany at Uppsala. In the 1740s, he was sent on several journeys through Sweden to find and classify plants and animals. In the 1750s and 1760s, he continued to collect and classify animals and minerals, while publishing several volumes, he was one of the most acclaimed scientists in Europe at the time of his death. Philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau sent him the message: "Tell him I know no greater man on earth."
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe wrote: "With the exception of Shakespeare and Spinoza, I know no one among the no longer living who has influenced me more strongly." Swedish author August Strindberg wrote: "Linnaeus was in reality a poet who happened to become a naturalist." Linnaeus has been called Princeps botanicorum and "The Pliny of the North". He is considered as one of the founders of modern ecology. In botany and zoology, the abbreviation L. is used to indicate Linnaeus as the authority for a species' name. In older publications, the abbreviation "Linn." is found. Linnaeus's remains comprise the type specimen for the species Homo sapiens following the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, since the sole specimen that he is known to have examined was himself. Linnaeus was born in the village of Råshult in Småland, Sweden, on 23 May 1707, he was the first child of Christina Brodersonia. His siblings were Anna Maria Linnæa, Sofia Juliana Linnæa, Samuel Linnæus, Emerentia Linnæa, his father taught him Latin as a small child.
One of a long line of peasants and priests, Nils was an amateur botanist, a Lutheran minister, the curate of the small village of Stenbrohult in Småland. Christina was the daughter of the rector of Samuel Brodersonius. A year after Linnaeus's birth, his grandfather Samuel Brodersonius died, his father Nils became the rector of Stenbrohult; the family moved into the rectory from the curate's house. In his early years, Linnaeus seemed to have a liking for plants, flowers in particular. Whenever he was upset, he was given a flower, which calmed him. Nils spent much time in his garden and showed flowers to Linnaeus and told him their names. Soon Linnaeus was given his own patch of earth. Carl's father was the first in his ancestry to adopt a permanent surname. Before that, ancestors had used the patronymic naming system of Scandinavian countries: his father was named Ingemarsson after his father Ingemar Bengtsson; when Nils was admitted to the University of Lund, he had to take on a family name. He adopted the Latinate name Linnæus after a giant linden tree, lind in Swedish, that grew on the family homestead.
This name was spelled with the æ ligature. When Carl was born, he was named Carl Linnæus, with his father's family name; the son always spelled it with the æ ligature, both in handwritten documents and in publications. Carl's patronymic would have been Nilsson, as in Carl Nilsson Linnæus. Linnaeus's father began teaching him basic Latin and geography at an early age; when Linnaeus was seven, Nils decided to hire a tutor for him. The parents picked a son of a local yeoman. Linnaeus did not like him, writing in his autobiography that Telander "was better calculated to extinguish a child's talents than develop them". Two years after his tutoring had begun, he was sent to the Lower Grammar School at Växjö in 1717. Linnaeus studied going to the countryside to look for plants, he reached the last year of the Lower School when he was fifteen, taught by the headmaster, Daniel Lannerus, interested in botany. Lannerus gave him the run of his garden, he introduced him to Johan Rothman, the state doctor of Småland and a teacher at Katedralskolan in Växjö.
A botanist, Rothman broadened Linnaeus's interest in botany and helped him develop an interest in medicine. By the age of 17, Linnaeus had become well acquainted with the existing botanical literature, he remarks in his journal that he "read day and night, knowing like the back of my hand, Arvidh Månsson's Rydaholm Book of Herbs, Tillandz's Flora Åboensis, Palmberg's Serta Florea Suecana, Bromelii Chloros Gothica and Rudbeckii Hortus Upsaliensis...."Linnaeus entered the Växjö Katedralskola in 1724, where he studied Greek, Hebrew and mathematics, a curriculum designed for boys preparing for the priesthood. In the last year at the gymnasium, Linnaeus's father visited to ask the professors how his son's studies were progressing. Rothman believed otherwise; the doctor offered to have Linnaeus live with his family in Växjö and to teach him physiology and botany. Nils accepted this offer. Rothman showed Linnaeus that botany was a serious sub
Germanium is a chemical element with symbol Ge and atomic number 32. It is a lustrous, grayish-white metalloid in the carbon group, chemically similar to its group neighbours silicon and tin. Pure germanium is a semiconductor with an appearance similar to elemental silicon. Like silicon, germanium reacts and forms complexes with oxygen in nature; because it appears in high concentration, germanium was discovered comparatively late in the history of chemistry. Germanium ranks near fiftieth in relative abundance of the elements in the Earth's crust. In 1869, Dmitri Mendeleev predicted its existence and some of its properties from its position on his periodic table, called the element ekasilicon. Nearly two decades in 1886, Clemens Winkler found the new element along with silver and sulfur, in a rare mineral called argyrodite. Although the new element somewhat resembled arsenic and antimony in appearance, the combining ratios in compounds agreed with Mendeleev's predictions for a relative of silicon.
Winkler named the element after Germany. Today, germanium is mined from sphalerite, though germanium is recovered commercially from silver and copper ores. Elemental germanium is used as a semiconductor in various other electronic devices; the first decade of semiconductor electronics was based on germanium. Presently, the major end uses are fibre-optic systems, infrared optics, solar cell applications, light-emitting diodes. Germanium compounds are used for polymerization catalysts and have most found use in the production of nanowires; this element forms a large number of organogermanium compounds, such as tetraethylgermanium, useful in organometallic chemistry. Germanium is considered a technology-critical element. Germanium is not thought to be an essential element for any living organism; some complex organic germanium compounds are being investigated as possible pharmaceuticals, though none have yet proven successful. Similar to silicon and aluminium, natural germanium compounds tend to be insoluble in water and thus have little oral toxicity.
However, synthetic soluble germanium salts are nephrotoxic, synthetic chemically reactive germanium compounds with halogens and hydrogen are irritants and toxins. In his report on The Periodic Law of the Chemical Elements in 1869, the Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleev predicted the existence of several unknown chemical elements, including one that would fill a gap in the carbon family, located between silicon and tin; because of its position in his periodic table, Mendeleev called it ekasilicon, he estimated its atomic weight to be 70. In mid-1885, at a mine near Freiberg, Saxony, a new mineral was discovered and named argyrodite because of its high silver content; the chemist Clemens Winkler analyzed this new mineral, which proved to be a combination of silver, a new element. Winkler found it similar to antimony, he considered the new element to be eka-antimony, but was soon convinced that it was instead eka-silicon. Before Winkler published his results on the new element, he decided that he would name his element neptunium, since the recent discovery of planet Neptune in 1846 had been preceded by mathematical predictions of its existence.
However, the name "neptunium" had been given to another proposed chemical element. So instead, Winkler named the new element germanium in honor of his homeland. Argyrodite proved empirically to be Ag8GeS6; because this new element showed some similarities with the elements arsenic and antimony, its proper place in the periodic table was under consideration, but its similarities with Dmitri Mendeleev's predicted element "ekasilicon" confirmed that place on the periodic table. With further material from 500 kg of ore from the mines in Saxony, Winkler confirmed the chemical properties of the new element in 1887, he determined an atomic weight of 72.32 by analyzing pure germanium tetrachloride, while Lecoq de Boisbaudran deduced 72.3 by a comparison of the lines in the spark spectrum of the element. Winkler was able to prepare several new compounds of germanium, including fluorides, sulfides and tetraethylgermane, the first organogermane; the physical data from those compounds—which corresponded well with Mendeleev's predictions—made the discovery an important confirmation of Mendeleev's idea of element periodicity.
Here is a comparison between the prediction and Winkler's data: Until the late 1930s, germanium was thought to be a poorly conducting metal. Germanium did not become economically significant until after 1945 when its properties as an electronic semiconductor were recognized. During World War II, small amounts of germanium were used in some special electronic devices diodes; the first major use was the point-contact Schottky diodes for radar pulse detection during the War. The first silicon-germanium alloys were obtained in 1955. Before 1945, only a few hundred kilograms of germanium were produced in smelters each year, but by the end of the 1950s, the annual worldwide production had reached 40 metric tons; the development of the germanium transistor in 1948 opened the door to countless applications of solid state electronics. From 1950 through the early 1970s, this area provided an increasing market for germanium, but high-purity silicon began replacing germanium in transistors and rectifiers.
For example, the company that became Fairchild Semiconductor was founded in 1957 with the express purpose of producing silicon transist
Erodium is a genus of flowering plants in the botanical family Geraniaceae. The genus includes about 60 species, native to North Africa, The Middle East, Australia, they are perennials, annuals, or subshrubs, with five-petalled flowers in shades of white and purple, that resemble the better-known Geranium. American species are known as filarees or heron's bill, whereas Eurasian ones are called storksbills in English. Carl Linnaeus grouped in the same genus, the three similar genera Erodium and Pelargonium; the distinction between them was made by Charles Louis L'Héritier de Brutelle based on the number of stamens or anthers: five for Erodium, seven for Pelargonium, ten for Geranium. However, the three genera have the same characteristics in regard to their fruit, which resemble long bird beaks; that characteristic is the basis for the names: Geranium evokes the crane, Pelargonium the stork, Erodium the heron. In cultivation, erodiums are seen in rockeries or alpine gardens; the hybrid cultivar E. × variabile'Roseum', a compact, spreading perennial with rose-pink flowers in summer, has gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit.
Erodium species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including Pasture Day Moth. Wool alien Pink, A.. Gardening for the Million. Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation