Gerard Manley Hopkins was an English poet and Jesuit priest, whose posthumous fame established him among the leading Victorian poets. His manipulation of prosody – his concept of sprung rhythm and use of imagery – established him as an innovative writer of verse. Two of his major themes were religion. Only after his death did Robert Bridges begin to publish a few of Hopkins's mature poems in anthologies, hoping to prepare the way for wider acceptance of his style. By 1930 his work was recognised as being among the most original literary accomplishments of his century, it had a marked influence on such leading 20th-century poets as T. S. Eliot, Dylan Thomas, W. H. Auden, Stephen Spender and Cecil Day-Lewis. Gerard Manley Hopkins was born in Stratford, Essex, as the eldest of nine children to Manley and Catherine Hopkins, née Smith, he was christened at the Anglican church of Stratford. His father founded a marine insurance firm and at one time served as Hawaiian consul-general in London, he was for a time churchwarden at St John-at-Hampstead.
His grandfather was the physician John Simm Smith, a university colleague of John Keats, close friend of the eccentric philanthropist Ann Thwaytes. As a poet, Hopkins's father published works including A Philosopher's Stone and Other Poems, Pietas Metrica, Spicelegium Poeticum, A Gathering of Verses by Manley Hopkins, he wrote one novel. Catherine Hopkins was the daughter of a London physician fond of music and of reading German philosophy and the novels of Dickens. Both parents were religious high-church Anglicans. Catherine's sister, Maria Smith Giberne, taught her nephew Gerard to sketch; the interest was supported by his uncle, Edward Smith, his great-uncle Richard James Lane, a professional artist, many other family members. Hopkins's first ambition was to be a painter, he would continue to sketch throughout his life, inspired as an adult by the work of John Ruskin and the Pre-Raphaelites. Hopkins became a skilled draughtsman, found his early training in visual art supported his work as a poet.
His siblings were inspired by language and the creative arts. Milicent joined an Anglican sisterhood in 1878. Kate would go on to help Hopkins publish the first edition of his poetry. Hopkins's youngest sister Grace set many of his poems to music. Lionel became a world-famous expert on colloquial Chinese. Arthur and Everard were both successful artists. Cyril was to join his father's insurance firm. Manley Hopkins moved his family to Hampstead in 1852, near where John Keats had lived thirty years before and close to the wide green spaces of Hampstead Heath; when he was ten years old, Gerard was sent to board at Highgate School. While studying Keats's poetry, he wrote his earliest extant poem. Here he practised early attempts at asceticism, he once argued that most people drank more liquids than they needed and bet that he could go without drinking for a week. He persisted until his tongue was black and he collapsed at drill. On another occasion, he abstained from salt for a week. Among his teachers at Highgate was Richard Watson Dixon, who became an enduring friend and correspondent, among the older pupils Hopkins recalls in his boarding house was the poet Philip Stanhope Worsley, who won the Newdigate Prize.
Hopkins studied classics at Oxford. He began his time in Oxford as a keen socialite and prolific poet, but he seems to have alarmed himself with the changes in his behaviour that resulted. At Oxford he forged a lifelong friendship with Robert Bridges, which would be of importance in his development as a poet and in establishing his posthumous acclaim. Hopkins was impressed with the work of Christina Rossetti and she became one of his greatest contemporary influences, meeting him in 1864. During this time he studied with the eminent writer and critic Walter Pater, who tutored him in 1866 and remained a friend until Hopkins left Oxford in September 1879. In a journal entry dated 6 November 1865, Hopkins declared an ascetic intention for his life and work. "On this day by God's grace I resolved to give up all beauty until I had His leave for it." On 18 January 1866, Hopkins composed The Habit of Perfection. On 23 January, he included poetry in the list of things to be given up for Lent. In July, he decided to become a Roman Catholic and travelled to Birmingham in September to consult the leader of the Oxford converts, John Henry Newman.
Newman received him into the Roman Catholic Church on 21 October 1866. The decision to convert estranged him from a number of his acquaintances. After his graduation in 1867, Hopkins was provided by Newman with a teaching post at the Oratory in Birmingham. While there he began to study the violin. On 5 May 1868 Hopkins "resolved to be a religious." Less than a week he made a bonfire of his poems and gave up poetry entirely for seven years. He felt the call to enter the ministry and decided to become a Jesuit, he paused to first visit Switzerland, which forbade Jesuits to enter. Hopkins began his Jesuit novitiate at Manresa House, Roehampton, in September 1868. Two years he moved to St Mary's Hall, for his philosophical studies, taking vows of poverty and obedience on 8 September 1870, he felt. However, on reading Duns Scotus in 1872, he saw that the two need not co
Into the Rainbow is a fantasy adventure film directed by Norman Stone, starring Willow Shields and Maria Grazia Cucinotta. The film is a co-production between New Zealand, it received a Gala Screening at the SCAD Savannah Film Festival on 4 November 2017 and was Opening Night film of the Asia Pacific Film Festival in Auckland on 28 October 2017. The film was shot 3D. Two troubled teenage girls and Grace, discover an incredible natural phenomenon and find themselves transported inside a super-powered rainbow to China. Due to this, they disturbed nature's balance and are chased down by an obsessed scientist and her mysterious international organization. Using Rachel's connection to the energy of the rainbow and with help from their new friend Xiao Cheng, they must race against time to restore nature's balance before catastrophic storms destroy the entire Pacific and threaten the world. Willow Shields as Rachel Maria Grazia Cucinotta as Julia Bianchi Leo Wu as Xiao Cheng Jacqueline Joe as Grace Joe Chen as Lian Archie Kao as Song Christy Chung as Mei Emmett Skilton as Tom Williams Tania Nolan as Lindsay Bruce Hopkins as Major Chelsie Preston Crayford as Susan Peter Feeney as Scientist Colin Moy as Ben Tessa Rao as Koia Sophie McIntosh as Koia's girl Sylvia Rands as Gini Talia Pua as Sea Shore customer Scarlett Sills as young Rachel The film was shot in Qingdao and Auckland, New Zealand.
The film was shown at the TIFF Kids International Film Festival during April 2017. The film will receive its U. S. Premiere with a Gala Screening at the Savannah Film Festival on 4 November 2017. Into the Rainbow on IMDb
Edmundo Dante Lévano La Rosa known as César Lévano was a Peruvian intellectual, writer and poet. He was director of the Peruvian newspaper Perfil, which became a weekly newspaper, was a retired professor at the National University of San Marcos. Guided by the example of Delfín Lévano, his father, Manuel Caracciolo Lévano, his grandfather, his father and his grandfather, self-taught journalists, like him. The inclination for journalism was acquired as a child when, at the age of nine, he started selling newspapers. In 1945 he launched into political militancy in the Communist Youth, where he edited the magazine Estrella Roja, he founded in La Oroya the newspaper El Metalúrgico, organ of the Metallurgical Workers Union of a corporation of Cerro de Pasco. For much of his life he suffered imprisonment for defending his ideas, he was held for several years in the Sixth, the Panóptico, the criminal island El Frontón during the military governments of Manuel A. Odría and Francisco Morales Bermúdez. In 2002, he was decorated by the Peruvian Government with the Order of Merit for Distinguished Services in the Grade of Grand Cross.
In 2005, he was recognized by the Constitutional Court for his defense of Human rights. In 2011, she received the Annual Human Rights Award from the National Coordinator of Human rights. In 2014 he assumed the management of Diario UNO called "La Primera", resigned in September 2018 due to lack of payments. Lévano La Rosa was a professor at the National University of San Marcos, a position he held since 1980, he was, in turn, director of the School of Communications of said center of studies and journalistic director of the newspaper Perfil. César Lévano was the author of a repertoire of waltzes, yaravíes, huainos and a flamenco rumba, several of these compositions, in collaboration with maestros such as Manuel Acosta Ojeda and the composer and pianist Víctor Merino
Henrique Henriques was a Portuguese Jesuit priest and missionary who spent most of his life in missionary activities in South India. After his initial years in Goa he moved to Tamil Nadu where he mastered Tamil and wrote several books including a dictionary, he is considered to be the first European Tamil scholar. He believed that books of religious doctrines should be in local languages and to this end he wrote books in Tamil, his efforts made Tamil the first non-European language to be printed in moveable type. Hence he is sometimes called The Father of the Tamil Press. After his death his mortal remains were buried in Our Lady of Snows Basilica in India. Henriques was born in 1520 in Portugal, he had to leave as he was of Jewish ancestry. He studied Canon Law at the University of Coimbra till 1545, he entered the newly founded Society of Jesus on 7 October 1545, in Coimbra and departed for India in 1546. Henriques lived in Goa until 1557 and moved to the Pearl Fishery Coast or Tuticorin, under orders of St. Francis Xavier, where he worked as a missionary from 1547 to 1549.
In 1549, after the death of Antonio Criminali, he was elected superior of this mission, a post which he held till 1576. His progress in the development of the community and his concerns about the problems in the mission are explicit from the regular reports he wrote to his Superior General. Henriques felt that the mission could only be successful through the use of local languages. To this end he arranged for the printing of books on Christian doctrine in Tamil. Apart from being the first to produce a Tamil-Portuguese Dictionary, he set up the first Tamil press and printed books in Tamil script; the first such book printed in Tamil script was Thambiran Vanakkam, a 16-page translation of the Portuguese "Doctrina Christam", printed at Quilon. It was followed by Kirisithiyaani Vanakkam; these were works of catechism, containing the basic prayers of Catholicism. Before this'Cartilha', a Tamil prayer book printed using Latin script, was printed in Lisbon by command of the Portuguese king and financed by the Paravars of Tuticorin who helped with scholarly assistance.
He printed Flos Sanctorum in Tamil. This book contains the lives of Saints. By his efforts, Tamil became the first non-European language to be printed on a printing press. Hence, he is sometimes referred to as Father of the Tamil pressHenriques is the first known European Tamil scholar; some of his works in the Malabar language are no longer extant, including a work on grammar, a dictionary, a booklet for confession and a religious history from the Creation to the Ascension. Henriques died at Punnaikayal, Tamil Nadu on 22 February 1600. According to The Jesuit Annual Letter for 1601 His mortal remains were buried in Our Lady of Snows Basilica in Tuticorin, Tamil Nadu. Printing in Goa Printing in Tamil language Statue of Our Lady of Miracles, Jaffna patao S, Rajamanickam. "Padre Henrique Henriques, the Father of the Tamil Press". Second International Tamil Conference Seminar. International Association of Tamil Research, Madras. Retrieved 27 January 2009. Anderson, Gerald. Biographical Dictionary of Christian Missions.
Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. P. 288. ISBN 978-0-8028-4680-8. Perera, Simon Gregory. Jesuits in Ceylon. Asian Educational Services. Pp. 156. ISBN 978-81-206-1843-5. Various authors. Encyclopaedia of Indian literature vol. 2. Sahitya Akademi. P. 1669. ISBN 978-81-260-1194-0. Mandal, Ranita. Muhammad Shahidullah & His Contribution To Bengali Linguistics. PhD Thesis, University of Calcutta. Pp. Chapter 3. Kalyanasundaram, K. "Literary Contributions of select list of Tamil Scholars from Overseas". TamilLibrary.org. Retrieved 27 January 2009
Forced conversion is adoption of a different religion or irreligion under duress. Someone, forced to convert may continue, with the beliefs and practices held, while outwardly behaving as a convert. Crypto-Jews, crypto-Christians, crypto-Muslims and crypto-Pagans are historical examples of the latter. In general, anthropologists have shown that the relationship between religion and politics is complex when viewed over the expanse of human history. While religious leaders and the state have different aims, both are concerned with power and order. Throughout history, leaders of religious and political institutions have cooperated, opposed one another, or attempted to co-opt each other, for purposes which are both noble and base, they have implemented programs with a wide range of driving values, from compassion, aimed at alleviating current suffering to brutal change, aimed at achieving long-term goals, for the benefit of groups ranging from small cliques to all of humanity; the relationship is far from simple.
But religion has been used coercively, it has used coercion. Christianity was a minority religion during much of the middle Roman Classical Period, the early Christians were persecuted during that time; when Constantine I converted to Christianity, it became the dominant religion of the Roman Empire. Under the reign of Constantine I, Christian heretics were being persecuted. In the view of many historians, the Constantinian shift turned Christianity from a persecuted religion into one capable of persecution and sometimes eager to persecute. On 27 February 380, together with Gratian and Valentinian II, Theodosius I issued the decree Cunctos populos, the so-called Edict of Thessalonica, recorded in the Codex Theodosianus xvi.1.2. This declared Trinitarian Nicene Christianity to be the only legitimate imperial religion and the only one entitled to call itself Catholic. Other Christians he described as "foolish madmen", he ended official state support for the traditional polytheist religions and customs.
The Codex Theodosianus was a compilation of the laws of the Roman Empire under the Christian emperors since 312. A commission was established by Theodosius II and his co-emperor Valentinian III on 26 March 429 and the compilation was published by a constitution of 15 February 438, it went into force in the eastern and western parts of the empire on 1 January 439. It is Our will that all the peoples who are ruled by the administration of Our Clemency shall practice that religion which the divine Peter the Apostle transmitted to the Romans.... The rest, whom We adjudge demented and insane, shall sustain the infamy of heretical dogmas, their meeting places shall not receive the name of churches, they shall be smitten first by divine vengeance and secondly by the retribution of Our own initiative. Forced conversions of Jews were carried out with the support of rulers during Late Antiquity and the early Middle Ages in Gaul, the Iberian peninsula and in the Byzantine empire. During the Saxon Wars, King of the Franks, forcibly converted the Saxons from their native Germanic paganism by way of warfare, law upon conquest.
Examples are the Massacre of Verden in 782, when Charlemagne had 4,500 captive Saxons massacred for rebelling, the Capitulatio de partibus Saxoniae, a law imposed on conquered Saxons in 785, after another rebellion and destruction of churches and killing of missionary priests and monks, that prescribed death to those who refused to convert to Christianity. Forced conversion that occurred after the seventh century took place during riots and massacres carried out by mobs and clergy without support of the rulers. In contrast, royal persecutions of Jews from the late eleventh century onward took the form of expulsions, with some exceptions, such as conversions of Jews in southern Italy of the 13th century, which were carried out by Dominican Inquisitors but instigated by King Charles II of Naples. Jews were forced to convert to Christianity by the Crusaders in Lorraine, on the Lower Rhine, in Bavaria and Bohemia, in Mainz and in Worms. Pope Innocent III pronounced in 1201 that if one agreed to be baptized to avoid torture and intimidation, one could be compelled to outwardly observe Christianity: hose who are immersed though reluctant, do belong to ecclesiastical jurisdiction at least by reason of the sacrament, might therefore be reasonably compelled to observe the rules of the Christian Faith.
It is, to be sure, contrary to the Christian Faith that anyone, unwilling and wholly opposed to it should be compelled to adopt and observe Christianity. For this reason a valid distinction is made by some between kinds of unwilling ones and kinds of compelled ones, thus one, drawn to Christianity by violence, through fear and through torture, receives the sacrament of Baptism in order to avoid loss, he does receive the impress of Christianity, may be forced to observe the Christian Faith as one who expressed a conditional willingness though speaking, he was unwilling... During the Northern Crusades against the pagan Balts and Slavs of northern Europe, forced conversions were a used tactic, which received papal sanction; these tactics were first adopted during the Wendish Crusade, but became more widespread during the Livonian Crusade and Prussian Crusade, in which tactics included the killing of hostages and the devastation of the lands of tribes that had not yet subm
Richa Chadda is an Indian Bollywood actress who works in Hindi films. After debuting with a small role in the comedy film Oye Lucky! Lucky Oye!, she worked as a supporting actress in several films. Her major breakthrough was a supporting role in the film noir gangster saga Gangs of Wasseypur, where her role as the bellicose and foul-tongued wife of a gangster earned her a Filmfare award, her sole foray into mainstream cinema has been as a supporting character in Goliyon Ki Rasleela Ram-Leela. In 2015, Chadda made her debut in a leading role with the drama Masaan, playing a girl caught after indulging in casual sex; the film got a standing ovation. The film has been cited as a milestone in Chadda's career and through it she is said to have created a niche for herself in the Hindi film industry. Chadda has worked in theatre, essaying the role of a married Delhi-based woman in Trivial Disasters. In May 2016, Chadda revealed in an interview to NDTV that she had suffered from bulimia for several years, that she had recovered after seeking professional help from a clinical psychiatrist.
Attributing her eating disorder to patriarchy and the prevalence of the'male gaze' in the field of entertainment, she exhorted other women to go public with their own eating and mental disorders and called for the destruction of'ways of thinking' which oppressed women. In May 2016, Richa was seen in the biopic Sarbjit, where she essayed the role of Sukhpreet Kaur, Sarbjit's wife. While the film didn't do so well at the box office and received mixed reviews from critics, Richa was singled out for her performance and garnered her second Filmfare nomination for Best Supporting Actress, she continued to receive universal success with her portrayal of Bholi Punjaban in 2017 comedy Fukrey Returns, which proved to be a major critical and commercial success. She was born on 18 December 1986 in Punjab, her father owns a management firm and her mother, is a professor at PGDAV College of Delhi University, who has authored two books and works with Gandhi Smriti. Chadda was brought up in India. After completing her schooling from Sardar Patel Vidyalaya in 2002, she took a Diploma in Social Communication Media from St. Stephen's College, Delhi.
Chadda was in a relationship with her French boyfriend Franck Gastambide whom she met at the Cannes Film Festival in 2015. She broke up with him in 2016 and during the same year she started dating her Fukrey co-actor Ali Fazal, they are in a relationship. Chadda began her career as a model and she moved to theater, she has performed plays touring in Pakistan. She received her training under Barry John. Chadda made her acting debut in a supporting role as Dolly in Dibakar Banerjee-directed 2008 film Oye Lucky! Lucky Oye!. Rajeev Masand of CNN-IBN described her as a "revelation " in the film, she appeared in the 2010 comedy film Babloo as Fedora. Taran Adarsh reviewing for Bollywood Hungama stated that Chadda "stand out with confident portrayal" and Komal Nahta from Koimoi stated that she lend "fine support" in the film. In the meanwhile, a Kannada movie in which she had acted, titled Nirdoshi was released in 2010 after a delay of 3 years. In 2012, she played a pivotal role in Anurag Kashyap's crime drama Gangs of Wasseypur – Part 1.
The plot tells a story of power struggles and vengeance among three crime families. She stated in an interview; the film premiered at the 65th Cannes Film Festival and she was universally praised for her performance. Taran Adrash found Chadda "simply brilliant from the inception". Mansha Rastogi of Now Running said "Chadda brings a perfect blend of the strength and helplessness of a woman in the yesteryears", she reprised her role as Nagma Khatoon in the sequel Gangs of Wasseypur – Part 2. The film premiered in the Cannes Directors' Fortnight at the Cannes Film Festival with its prequel. According to Madhureeta Mukherjee of The Times of India "Chadda holds fort in the sequel too and poised, she's fab", Taran Adarsh stated she "fetches dignity to her character". Chadda received a Filmfare Award nomination in the Best Supporting Actress category and won the Filmfare Critics Award for Best Actress. Chadda's first release of 2013 came in the Mrighdeep Singh Lamba-directed coming of age comedy film Fukrey, in which she portrayed a tough-talking female don Bholi Punjaban.
Taran Adarsh wrote "Richa Chadda is in terrific form and from her introduction itself, the graph of the film steers Northwards". She appeared in one of the segments in the Anurag Kashyap-produced anthology film Shorts titled "Epilogue". Chadha and Shirvastav play a dysfunctional couple who seem unhappy with each other; the segment featuring Chadda, received mixed reviews from critics. Chadda next appeared in a supporting role as Rasila in Sanjay Leela Bhansali-directed drama film Goliyon Ki Raasleela Ram-Leela, an adaptation of the Shakespearean tragedy of Romeo and Juliet. Meena Iyer of The Times of India said "You have to applaud Richa Chadda... for being the talent ". Sukanya Verma of Rediff.com wrote "Richa Chadda doesn’t have a big role but she owns the scenes she walks in with her inbuilt fire". She received a nomination in IIFA Best Supporting Actress category for the role. Chadda next appeared in Navneet Behal-directed 2014 film Tamanchey in the role of a criminal. Chadda's role received mixed reviews.