Germaine de Staël

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Germaine de Staël
Madame de Staël.jpg
Madame de Staël by François Gérard (1810)
Born Anne-Louise Germaine Necker
(1766-04-22)22 April 1766
in Paris, France
Died 14 July 1817(1817-07-14) (aged 51)
in Paris, during the Bourbon Restoration
Cause of death Cerebral hemorrhage
Nationality French
Notable work Delphine, Corinne, De l'Allemagne
Spouse(s) Erik Magnus Staël von Holstein (m. 1786–1802); Albert Jean Michel de Rocca (m. 1811–1817);
School Romanticism
Main interests
parliamentarism, representative government and constitutionalism
Notable ideas
Literary salons

Anne Louise Germaine de Staël-Holstein (French: [stal]; née Necker; 22 April 1766 – 14 July 1817), commonly known as Madame de Staël, was a French woman of letters of Swiss origin whose lifetime overlapped with the events of the French Revolution and the Napoleonic era. Known as a witty and brilliant conversationalist, often dressed in flashy and revealing outfits, she participated actively in the political and intellectual life of her times, she was present at the first opening of the Estates General and at the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen.[1] Her intellectual collaboration with Benjamin Constant between 1795 and 1811 made them one of the most celebrated intellectual couples of their time, they discovered sooner than others the tyrannical character and designs of Napoleon.[2] For ten years she lived as an exile under the Reign of Terror and under Napoleonic persecution; in 1814 one of her contemporaries observed that "there are three great powers struggling against Napoleon for the soul of Europe: England, Russia, and Madame de Staël".[3] Her works, both novels and travel literature, with emphasis on passion, individuality and oppositional politics made their mark on European Romanticism.


Germaine (or Minette) was the only child of the prominent Swiss banker and statesman Jacques Necker, who was the Director-General of Finance under King Louis XVI of France. Her mother was Suzanne Curchod, also of Swiss birth, who hosted in Rue de la Chaussée-d'Antin one of the most popular salons of Paris.[4] Mme Necker wanted to educate her daughter according to the principles of Jean-Jacques Rousseau and to endow her with the intellectual education and Calvinist discipline instilled in her by her own Protestant pastor father,[5] she habitually brought Germaine as a young child to sit at her feet in her salon, where the guests took pleasure in stimulating the brilliant child. (Figures such as the Comte de Buffon, Jean-François Marmontel, Melchior Grimm, Edward Gibbon, the Abbé Raynal, and Jean-François de la Harpe were frequent visitors.) At the age of thirteen she read Montesquieu, Shakespeare, Rousseau and Dante.[6] This exposure occasioned a nervous breakdown in adolescence, but the seeds of a literary vocation had been sown.

Judging from the information by Craiutu "Necker is remembered today for taking the unprecedented step in 1781 of making public the country’s budget, a novelty in an absolute monarchy where the state of finances had always been kept a secret."[7] Leading to his dismissal, the family eventually took up residence in 1784 at Château Coppet, an estate her father purchased on Lake Geneva, the family returned to the Paris region in 1785, and Mlle Necker continued to write miscellaneous works, including the three-act romantic drama Sophie (1786) and the five-act tragedy, Jeanne Grey (1787).


Germaine Necker by Carmontelle

Germaine's parents became impatient for her to marry a protestant. One of the candidates was Edward Gibbon, also William Pitt the Younger considered marrying her, the Comte de Guibert, a cold-hearted fop of some talent, certainly paid her attention.[4] Finally a marriage was arranged with Baron Erik Magnus Staël von Holstein, an attaché of the Swedish legation to France, the marriage took place on 14 January 1786 in the Swedish embassy at Rue du Bac; Germaine was 20, her husband 37. On the whole, the marriage seems to have been acceptable to both parties, although neither seems to have had any or little affection for the other, the baron, a gambler, obtained great benefits as he was confirmed as lifetime ambassador to Paris, although his wife was almost certainly the more effective envoy.[8]

Revolutionary activities[edit]

The meeting of the Estates General on 5 May 1789 at Versailles
Hôtel de Salm-Dyck

In 1788, she appeared as an author under her own name with Letters on the works and character of J.J. Rousseau.[9] This fervid panegyric, written for a limited number of friends - in which she accused his housekeeper Therese Levasseur having being unfaithful - she demonstrated evident talent, but little in the way of critical discernment. De Stael was at this time enthusiastic for a mixture of the ideas promoted by Rousseau and Montesquieu in politics, she joined the meetings of the Estates-General in Versailles on 4 and 5 May 1789, where she met with the young Mathieu de Montmorency. Her father had instigated the assembling, doubling the amount of deputies from the Third Estate, his speech lasted for hours, and while those present expected a reforming policy to save the nation from bankruptcy, he gave them many financial data. This approach had serious repercussions on Necker's reputation leading to his resignation on 11 July, and prompted the storming of the Bastille; in 1790 her parents left France in unpopularity and disgrace after a second dismissal from royal service. Accompanied by her husband Erik Magnus, her parents escaped to Switzerland by travelling first to Brussels. Necker had lost a fortune introducing assignats, invested in the public treasury;[10] in January 1791 she went back to Paris.

The increasing disturbances caused by the Revolution made her privileges as the consort of an ambassador very important safeguards. Germaine helt a salon in the Swedish embassy on 97 Rue du Bac (Hôtel de Ségur, later Hôtel de Salm-Dyck), where she gave "coalition dinners", that were frequented by moderates as Talleyrand, Narbonne, monarchists (Feuillants) as Barnave, Lameth and his brother, the Comte de Clermont-Tonnerre, and Malouet, the poet Abbé Delille, the Minister Plenipotentiary to France Gouverneur Morris, the leftish Barras and the Condorcets. "The issue of leadership, or rather lack of it, was central to Staël's preoccupations at this stage of her political reflection. (In her later works she often returned to the idea that the French Revolution has been characterized by a surprising absence of eminent personalities".[11] The death of Comte de Mirabeau she experienced as a sign of great political disorientation and uncertainty, he was the only man with necessary charisma, energy, and prestige to keep revolutionary movement on the path of constitutional reform.[12]) After the French legislative election, 1791 was held, and the French Constitution of 1791 was announced in the National Assembly, she resigned from a political career and decided not to be re-eligible. "Fine arts and letters will occupy my leisure."[13] Though, in the succession of comte de Montmorin, minister of Foreign Affairs and the appointment of her friend Louis, comte de Narbonne-Lara as minister of War she played an important role and became the center of the stage;[14] in 1792 the French Legislative Assembly saw an unprecedented turnover of ministers (six ministers of the interior, seven ministers of foreign affairs, and nine ministers of war.)[15] On 10 August 1792 De Staël offered Malouet a plan to escape for the royal family,[16] and she helped De Narbonne to hide under the altar in the chapel of the Swedish embassy, and to flee to England.[17][18][19]

On the 2nd of September, the day before the September massacres of 1792 she fled, accompanied by Louis Pierre Manuel and Tallien, her carriage was stopped and the crowd forced her to go to the Paris town hall, where Robespierre seated.[20] Her own account of her escape is, as usual, so florid that it provokes the question whether she was really in any danger.

Salons at Coppet and Paris[edit]

Château de Coppet
In 1797 Constant and De Staël lived in the remains of the Abbey of Herivaux.

After her flight from Paris, she moved to Rolle, and Nyon, since October surrounded by Mathieu de Montmorency, and Arnail François, Marquis de Jaucourt.[21] Early 1793, she made a long visit to England and reestablished connections with Émigres as Talleyrand, and her lover, the Comte de Narbonne, she met Horace Walpole and Edward Gibbon, she became friend with James Mackintosh, and she often visited Lord Sheffield (it is not yet known why) and Lord Loughborough, the new Lord Chancellor.[22] She lived openly with Narbonne, which caused some scandal, according to Fanny Burney, with whom she corresponded in those days. Fanny's father urged his daughter to avoid De Staël and the group of French refugees.[23] De Stael was not favorably impressed by the conditions of women in English society.[24]

In the summer of 1793, she returned to Coppet Castle and wrote a pamphlet on the queen's execution, called "Reflections on the Trial", for De Staël France had to follow England's example from absolute to limited royalty.[25] Late 1793 her parents moved to Beaulieu Castle. Germaine, living nearby in Jouxtens-Mézery with a group of émigres, was visited by Adolph Ribbing in July 1993.[26][27] Ribbing was living near Geneva in exile, after being sentenced for taking part in a conspiracy to murder the Swedish king Gustav III. Under his influence she converted to Republicanism[28] In september 1794 she met with the divorced Benjamin Constant through Isabelle de Charriere; in May 1795 she moved with her new friend and colleague to Paris. (The fall of Maximilien Robespierre opened the way back to Paris.) De Staël had rejected the idea of the right of resistance - which had been introduced by the French Constitution of 1793, but removed from the Constitution of 1795.[29] She then published Sur l'influence des passions ("On the influence of passions"); in 1796 a book which attracted the attention of the German authors Schiller and Goethe.[30]

She reopened her salon and for a time was conspicuous in the motley and eccentric society of the mid 1790s, it was during these years that Mme de Staël was of chief political importance. After the 13 Vendémiaire the Comité de salut public ordered her to leave the country after accusations of conspiracy, and locked up Constant for one night,[31] the couple moved to Ormesson-sur-Marne where they were lived with Montmorency. In Summer 1796 Constant founded "Cercle constitutionnel" in Luzarches; De Staël supported him.[32] In 1797 she was involved in the appointment of Talleyrand as minister of Foreign Affairs,[33] she completed the initial part of her first most substantial contribution to political and constitutional theory, "Of present circumstances that can end the Revolution, and of the principles that must found the republic of France".[34] On 6 December 1797 or 3 January 1798 she met with Napoleon and made clear she did not agree with his planned French invasion of Switzerland, but he was not interested in her point of view.

Conflict with Napoleon[edit]

Bonaparte in 1803 by François Gérard

Both personal and political reasons threw her into opposition to Napoleon Bonaparte, the first consul after the French Directory, for Napoleon J.J. Rousseau was the cause of the French Revolution; for De Stael Napoleon started to resemble Machiavelli.[35] It culminated when Jacques Necker had published his "Last Views on Politics and Finance" and De Staël "De la littérature considérée dans ses rapports avec les institutions sociales" in which she first theorised her philosophical approach to Europe.[36] Napoleon started a campaign against these two publications and did not like her cultural determinism and generalizations, he said about her, according to the Memoirs of Madame de Rémusat, that she "teaches people to think who never thought before, or who had forgotten how to think."[37] It became pretty clear that the first man in France and the De Stael were not likely to get on together;[38] in January 1800 Benjamin Constant was appointed by Napoleon as a member of the Tribunat, but acted pretty soon as the first consul's enemy. Two years later the first consul forced him to withdraw because of his speeches and his connections with Mme de Staël, (as well as 15 other libertinists); in April 1802 she moved to Coppet. De Staël published the novel Delphine, in which the femme incomprise (misunderstood woman) living in Paris between 1789 and 1792, is confronted with conservative ideas; in this tragic novel, influenced by Goethe's The Sorrows of Young Werther and Rousseau's Julie, ou la nouvelle Héloïse, she reflects on the discussions on divorce in the National Assembly before the Concordat of 1801, the arrests and the September Massacres, and the fate of the émigrés. The main characters have traits of flippant Benjamin Constant and Talleyrand, depicted as an old woman, herself as the heroine with the liberalist view of the Italian politician Melzi d'Eril?[39] When Constant moved to Maffliers in September 1803 De Staël went to see him and let Napoleon know she would be wise and careful. Immediately the house became very popular among her friends, but Napoleon suspected a conspiracy. Besides her protection of Jean Gabriel Peltier - who wished the death of Napoleon - influenced his decision on 13 October 1803 to exile her without a trial,[40] for ten years De Stael was not allowed to settle within a distance of 40 leagues (almost 200km) from Paris. On 23 October she left for Germany, in the hope to be able to return as soon as possible.

German travels[edit]

Weimar around 1800 by Georg Melchior Kraus
François Gérard (1770–1837), Carnavalet Museum. Mme. de Staël as her character Corinne (posthumously)
Château de Chaumont

With her children and Constant she journeyed by Metz and Frankfurt, met with Kant's translator Charles de Villers, they arrived mid December in Weimar, where she stayed for two and a half months at the court of Karl August, Grand Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach. She was constantly moving, talking and asking questions,[41] the interchange of ideas and their conversation with the literary, and philosophical Goethe, Schiller, and Wieland, would later inspire De Staël to write a book recounting her travels in Germany. Goethe became ill and had little time to see her. An irritated Schiller felt relieved when she left, but also Constant decided to return to Switzerland. De Staël travelled to Berlin, where she made the acquaintance of August Schlegel, giving lectures on literature; in the false hope to become her lover she appointed him as the private teacher of her children. (Like De Montmorency he was one of her intimates at Coppet til the end of her life.) On 18 April they left Berlin when the news of her father's death reached her. Constant decided to return to Weimar and assisted her.

On 19 May she arrived in Coppet, and found herself its wealthy and independent mistress, but her sorrow for her father was deep and certainly sincere, she spent the summer at the chateau arranging her father's writings, and published an essay on his private life. In July Constant wrote: "Strange woman! She exerts over everything around her a kind of inexplicable but very real power. If she could govern herself, she might have governed the world."[42] In December 1804 she journeyed to Italy, accompanied by her children, Schlegel and the historian Sismondi, who wrote Madame de Stael was easily bored if she had to pay attention to things, she was not judged for her moral behaviour and met with Vincenzo Monti in Milan. "Her visit to Italy helped her to further develop her theory of the difference between northern and southern societies..."[43]

She returned to Coppet in June 1805, and spent nearly a year in writing her next book Corinne, whose protagonist was inspired by the Italian poet Diodata Saluzzo Roero.[44] Madame Récamier, banned by Napoleon, like De Staël, and Prince Augustus of Prussia belonged to the "groupe de Coppet", [45] like Prosper de Barante and Chateaubriand. In 1807 Corinne, ou L'Italie, a picaresque novel with a female anti-hero appeared. The publication was taken as a reminder of her existence, and Napoleon sent her back to Coppet, she stayed there as usual for the summer. Her house became according to Stendhal "the general headquarters of European though" and debating club against Napoleon, where cosmopolitanism was preached and practiced. Talking seemed everybody's chief business, each day the table was laid for about thirty guests. One of them was Charles Victor de Bonstetten, another the (obscure) Danish poet Friederike Brun whom she invited to live with her.

For a time she had lived with Constant in Auxerre (1806), Rouen (1807), Aubergenville (Meulan) (1807), met with Friedrich Schlegel and his wife Dorothea Veith, who translated "Corinne" into German. Late 1807 she set out for Vienna and met with Maurice O'Donnell, she was again at Coppet in the summer of 1808 (in which year Benjamin Constant broke with her, subsequently marrying Charlotte von Hardenberg). De Staël set to work at her book on Germany, a country that did not exist until after the Congress of Vienna, in which she explained and praised German literature and philosophy so indirectly criticizing Napoleon,[46] the use of the word Romanticism was invented by Friedrich Schlegel, but spread more widely in France by its persistent use by Madame de Staël.[47]

De Staël settled in Chaumont-sur-Loire (1810). Then she bought Château de Chaumont, but was not allowed to live there, and moved on to Fossé and Vendôme, she was determined to publish De l'Allemagne in France. Straining under censorship, she wrote to the emperor a provoking and perhaps undignified letter. (Sismondi did accuse her of a lack of tact.) Napoleon, angry and humiliated by Staël’s defiant refusal to remove some offending passages, emphatically forbade the publication of the book because it was according to Anne Jean Marie René Savary “un-French.”[48] In October 1810 De Staël was exiled again and had to leave France within three days, she retired once more to Coppet, but Schlegel was ordered to leave the country as an enemy of the French literature. She found consolation in a wounded officer named Albert de Rocca, twenty-three years her junior, whom she married privately, either in 1811 or just before she died.

Eastern Europe[edit]

De Staël in 1812 by Vladimir Borovikovsky

The operations of the imperial police in regard to Mme de Staël are rather obscure, she was at first left undisturbed, but by degrees the chateau itself became taboo, and her visitors found themselves punished heavily. François-Emmanuel Guignard, Mathieu de Montmorency and Mme Récamier were exiled for the crime of seeing her. She remained at home during the winter of 1811, planning to escape to England or Sweden, on 23 May 1812 she left Coppet almost secretly, and journeyed through Bern, Innsbruck and Salzburg on her way to Vienna. There she obtained an Austrian passport to the frontier, and after some fears and trouble, receiving a Russian passport in Brody (Galicia), she at last escaped from Napoleon.[49]

During Napoleon's invasion of Russia De Stael, two children, Rocca and Schlegel journeyed through Ukraine, and Imperial Russia, she met with Fyodor Rostopchin, the governor of Moscow. They left the city only a few weeks before Napoleon arrived. Til the end of September they stayed in Saint Petersburg, and she met with the Imperial couple and general Kutuzov, who would sent her letters from the battlefield of Tarutino,[50] she spent eight months in Stockholm and wrote "Ten Year's Exile". She never finished the manuscript as she set out for England; Schlegel was appointed as the secretary of general Bernadotte. In London she received a brilliant reception, she met with Lord Byron on the first evening (27 May). "She preached English politics to the first of our English Whig politicians - the day after her arrival in England- and preached politics no less to our Tory politicians the day after."[51] In the autumn an English translation of her book De l'Allemagne, in which she reflected on nationalism and suggested a re-consideration of strict and sometimes artificial national and cultural boundaries was published in London by John Murray,[52] she supported Bernadotte as the new ruler of France, who would introduce constitutional monarchy.[53] Her stay was saddened by the death of her second son Albert, who had entered the Swedish army and fell in a duel brought on by gambling, she undertook her Considérations sur la révolution française, and when Louis XVIII had been crowned (Bourbon Restauration) she returned to Paris in May 1814. Again her salon became a major attraction for Parisians and foreigners. Constant argued with De Staël, who had asked him to pay his debts when their daughter Albertine married.


When news came of Napoleon's landing on the Côte d'Azur in February 1815, she fled to Coppet at once, but a story is current of her having approved of Napoleon's return. There is no direct evidence of it, but the conduct of her close ally Benjamin Constant may be quoted in its support, and it is certain that she had no affection for the Bourbons; in October, after the Battle of Waterloo, she set out for Italy, not only for the sake of her own health but for that of her second husband, Rocca, who was suffering from tuberculosis.

The whole family returned to Coppet in June, and Lord Byron who had left London in great trouble and would never return, now frequently visited Mme. de Staël. For Byron she was Europe's greatest living writer, but ...with her pen behind her ears and her mouth full of ink"." "Byron was particularly critical of Staël's self-dramatizing tendencies..."[54] Byron was a supporter of Napoleon, but for De Stael "Bonaparte was not only a man, but a system..." "Napoleon imposed standards of homogeneity on Europe—French taste, literature, art and legal systems—which Staël saw as inimical to this cosmopolitan point of view."[55] For Byron she was "... sometimes right and often wrong about Italy and England- but almost always true in delineating the heart, which is of but of one nation of no country or rather of all."[56]

Despite her increasing ill-health she returned to Paris for the winter of 1816–17, and her salon was much frequented.[49] A warm friendship sprang up between Mme. de Staël and the Duke of Wellington, whom she had first met in 1814, and she used her influence with him to have the size of the Army of Occupation greatly reduced.[57] But she had already become confined to her house in 40 rue des Mathurins, paralyzed either on 5 January or on 21 February, she died on 14 July; Rocca survived her by little more than six months.[49] Her deathbed conversion to Roman Catholicism surprised many, including Wellington, who remarked that while he knew that she was greatly afraid of death, he had thought her incapable of believing in the afterlife.[58]

Albertine Necker de Saussure, married to her cousin, wrote a biography, in 1821 published as part of the collected works. Auguste Comte included Madame de Staël in his Calendar of Great Men. In a book with the same name, Comte's disciple Frederic Harrison wrote about Staël and her works: "In Delphine a woman, for the first time since the Revolution, reopened the romance of the heart which was in vogue in the century preceding. Comte would daily recite the sentence from Delphine, 'There is nothing real in the world but love.' (Pos. Pol. iv. 44). Our thoughts and our acts, he said, can only give us happiness through results: and results are not often in our own control. Feeling is entirely within our power; and it gives us a direct source of happiness, which nothing outside can take away." Her works, Harrison wrote, "precede the works of Scott, Byron, Mary Shelley, and partly of Chateaubriand, their historical importance is great in the development of modern Romanticism, of the romance of the heart, the delight in nature, and in the art, antiquities, and history of Europe."


Louis-Marie de Narbonne
Benjamin Constant

Besides two short-lived daughters Gustava Sofia Magdalena (born 1787) and Gustava Hedvig (born 1789) she had two sons Auguste (1790–1827), Albert (1792–1813), and a daughter Hedvig Gustava Albertina (1797–1838), who married Victor, 3rd duc de Broglie,[38] the paternity of some children is uncertain;[59] it is possible not Erik Magnus Staël von Holstein, but Louis, comte de Narbonne-Lara was the father of Ludvig August and Albert, and Benjamin Constant the father of Albertine. (After 1802 Mathieu de Montmorency became the legal guardian of her children.) With Albert de Rocca she had one son, Louis-Alphonse de Rocca (1812–1842), who would marry Marie-Louise-Antoinette de Rambuteau, daughter of Claude-Philibert Barthelot de Rambuteau.

Cultural references[edit]

  • Mme de Staël has been referred to on at least two occasions in the writings of Judith Martin, writing as syndicated etiquette columnist Miss Manners.
  • Mme de Staël is mentioned in The Passion, by Jeanette Winterson.
  • Republican activist Victor Gold quoted Madame de Staël when characterizing American Vice President Dick Cheney, "Men do not change, they unmask themselves."
  • De Stael is credited in Tolstoy's epilogue to War and Peace as a factor of the 'influential forces' which historians say led to the movement of humanity in that era.[60]
  • Mme de Staël is quoted by Meadow Soprano in Season 2, Episode 7 of The Sopranos when she tells her parents, 'Madam de Staël says, in life one must choose between boredom and suffering.' The popular wrestling compilation series Botchamania has referenced her on several occasions saying One must choose in life, between boredom and suffering which is normally followed by a humorous joke.
  • Mme de Stael is referenced in "I Want It All" from Baby by Maltby & Shire
  • Mme de Stael is used several times to characterize Mme de Grandet in Stendhal's Lucien Leuwen.
  • Mme de Stael is mentioned several times, always approvingly, by Russia's national poet, Alexander Pushkin.
  • Mme de Stael is frequently quoted by Ralph Waldo Emerson and she is credited with introducing him to recent German thought.[61]
  • Mme de Staël is referenced by Charlotte Brontë in her novel Villette.[62]


Delphine, 1803 edition.
De l'Allemagne
  • Journal de Jeunesse, 1785
  • Sophie ou les sentiments secrets, 1786 (published anonymously in 1790)
  • Jane Gray, 1787 (published in 1790)
  • Lettres sur les ouvrages et le caractère de J.-J. Rousseau, 1788 [2]
  • Éloge de M. de Guibert
  • À quels signes peut-on reconnaître quelle est l'opinion de la majorité de la nation?
  • Réflexions sur le procès de la Reine, 1793
  • Zulma : fragment d'un ouvrage, 1794
  • Réflexions sur la paix adressées à M. Pitt et aux Français, 1795
  • Réflexions sur la paix intérieure
  • Recueil de morceaux détachés (comprenant : Épître au malheur ou Adèle et Édouard, Essai sur les fictions et trois nouvelles : Mirza ou lettre d'un voyageur, Adélaïde et Théodore et Histoire de Pauline), 1795
  • De l'influence des passions sur le bonheur des individus et des nations, 1796 [3]
  • Des circonstances actuelles qui peuvent terminer la Révolution et des principes qui doivent fonder la République en France
  • De la littérature dans ses rapports avec les institutions sociales, 1799
  • Delphine, 1802
  • Vie privée de Mr. Necker, 1804
  • Épîtres sur Naples
  • Corinne, ou l'Italie, 1807
  • Agar dans le désert
  • Geneviève de Brabant
  • La Sunamite
  • Le capitaine Kernadec ou sept années en un jour (comédie en deux actes et en prose)
  • La signora Fantastici
  • Le mannequin (comédie)
  • Sapho
  • De l'Allemagne, 1810/1813
  • Réflexions sur le suicide, 1813
  • Morgan et trois nouvelles, 1813
  • De l'esprit des traductions
  • Considérations sur les principaux événements de la Révolution française, depuis son origine jusques et compris le 8 juillet 1815, 1818 (posthumously) [4]
  • Ten Years' Exile; or Memoirs... during the years 1810, 1811, 1812, and 1813 (now first published from the original manuscript by her son), 1821 (posthumously) [5]
  • Essais dramatiques, 1821
  • Oeuvres complètes 17 t., 1820-21

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Lord Byron and Germaine de Staël by Silvia Bordoni, The University of Nottingham 2005
  2. ^ Considerations on the Principal Events of the French Revolution ..., Band 2 by Madame de Staël, p. 46
  3. ^ Mémoires de Madame de Chastenay, 1771–1815
  4. ^ a b Saintsbury 1911, p. 750.
  5. ^ Casillo, R. (13 May 2006). "The Empire of Stereotypes: Germaine de Staël and the Idea of Italy". Springer – via Google Books. 
  6. ^
  7. ^ Stael and the French Revolution Introduction by Aurelian Craiutu
  8. ^ Napoleon's nemesis
  9. ^ Historical & literary memoirs and anecdotes by Friedrich Melchior Grimm and Denis Diderot, H. Colburn, 1815, p. 353.
  10. ^ Voltaire, Rousseau, Condorcet, Mirabeau, Madame Roland, Madame De Stael, p. 311. by Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley
  11. ^ Biancamaria Fontana : Germaine de Staël: A Political Portrait. (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2016, p. 29
  12. ^ B. Fontana, p. 30
  13. ^ B. Fontana, p. 33
  14. ^ B. Fontana, p. 37, 41, 44
  15. ^ B. Fontana, p. 49
  16. ^ "Mémoires de Malouet", p. 221
  17. ^ B. Fontana, p. 61
  18. ^ Mistress to an Age: A Life of Madame de Staël von J. Christopher Herold
  19. ^
  20. ^ Voltaire, Rousseau, Condorcet, Mirabeau, Madame Roland, Madame De Stael by Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley, p. 317
  21. ^ Selected Correspondence by Anne Louise Germaine de Staël
  22. ^ Lord Byron and Germaine de Staël by Silvia Bordoni, The University of Nottingham 2005
  23. ^ Lord Byron and Germaine de Staël by Silvia Bordoni, The University of Nottingham 2005
  24. ^ Lord Byron and Germaine de Staël by Silvia Bordoni, The University of Nottingham 2005
  25. ^ Fontana, p. 113
  26. ^
  27. ^ Selected Correspondence by Anne Louise Germaine de Staël
  28. ^ Selected Correspondence by Anne Louise Germaine de Staël
  29. ^ Fontana, p. 125
  30. ^ Olaf Müller: Madame de Staël und Weimar. Europäische Dimensionen einer Begegnung. In: Hellmut Th. Seemann (Hrsg.): Europa in Weimar. Visionen eines Kontinents. Jahrbuch der Klassik Stiftung Weimar 2008. Göttingen: Wallstein Verlag 2008, p. 29.
  31. ^ Fontana, p. 178
  32. ^ Fontana, p.159
  33. ^ Fontana, p. 159
  34. ^ Stael and the French Revolution Introduction by Aurelian Craiutu
  35. ^ Considerations on the Principal Events of the French Revolution ..., p. 90, 95-96, Band 2 by Madame de Staël
  36. ^ Considerations on the Principal Events of the French Revolution ..., Band 2 by Madame de Staël, p. 42
  37. ^ Memoirs of Madame de Remusat, trans. Cashel Hoey and John Lillie, p. 407.
  38. ^ a b Saintsbury 1911, p. 751.
  39. ^ From the Introduction to Madame de Staël (1987) Delphine. Edition critique par S. Balayé & L. Omacini. Librairie Droz S.A. Génève
  40. ^ "Un journaliste contre-révolutionnaire, Jean-Gabriel Peltier (1760–1825) – Etudes Révolutionnaires". 7 October 2011. Archived from the original on 3 December 2013. Retrieved 17 September 2013. 
  41. ^ Madame de Staël von Klaus -Werner Haupt
  42. ^ Mistress to an Age: A Life of Madame de Staël by J. Christopher Herold
  43. ^ Lord Byron and Germaine de Staël by Silvia Bordoni, The University of Nottingham 2005
  44. ^ Panizza, Letizia; Wood, Sharon. A History of Women's Writing in Italy. p. 144. 
  45. ^ Herold, J. Christopher. Mistress to an Age: A Life of Madame de Staël. Grove Press, 2002. p. 290. ISBN 0802138373
  46. ^ Olaf Müller: Madame de Staël und Weimar. Europäische Dimensionen einer Begegnung. In: Hellmut Th. Seemann (Hrsg.): Europa in Weimar. Visionen eines Kontinents. Jahrbuch der Klassik Stiftung Weimar 2008. Göttingen: Wallstein Verlag 2008, p. 29
  47. ^ Ferber, Michael (2010) Romanticism: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-956891-8.
  48. ^ Ten Years of Exile, pt. II, chap. i, 101–10 [1]
  49. ^ a b c Saintsbury 1911, p. 752.
  50. ^ The Complete Works of Leo Tolstoy
  51. ^ The Complete Miscellaneous Prose, p. 185. Ed. by Andrew Nicholson (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1991).
  52. ^ Lord Byron and Germaine de Staël by Silvia Bordoni, p. 4
  53. ^ A. Zamoyski () Rites of Peace, the faal of Napoleon & the Congress of Vienna, p. 105
  54. ^ Joanne Wilkes, Lord Byron and Madame de Staël: Born for Opposition. London: Ashgate, 1999. ISBN: 1-84014699-0.
  55. ^ Joanne Wilkes, Lord Byron and Madame de Staël: Born for Opposition. London: Ashgate, 1999. ISBN: 1-84014699-0.
  56. ^ Lord Byron and Germaine de Staël by Silvia Bordoni, p. 7
  57. ^ Longford, Elizabeth (1972) Wellington-Pillar of State, p.38. Weidenfeld and Nicholson. London.
  58. ^ Longford p.38
  59. ^ Angelica Goodden. Madame de Staël: the dangerous exile. Oxford University Press, 2008, p. 31.
  60. ^ Abramowitz, Michael (2 April 2007). "Rightist Indignation". Washington Post. Retrieved 30 June 2007. 
  61. ^ "Emerson - Roots - Madame DeStael". 
  62. ^


Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]