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German Army (1935–1945)

The German Army was the land forces component of the Wehrmacht, the regular German Armed Forces, from 1935 until it ceased to exist in 1945 and formally dissolved in August 1946. During World War II, a total of about 13.6 million soldiers served in the German Army. Army personnel were made up of conscripts. Only 17 months after Adolf Hitler announced publicly the German rearmament program, the army reached its projected goal of 36 divisions. During the autumn of 1937, two more corps were formed. In 1938 four additional corps were formed with the inclusion of the five divisions of the Austrian Army after the Anschluss in March. During the period of its expansion under Hitler, the German Army continued to develop concepts pioneered during World War I, combining ground and air assets into combined arms forces. Coupled with operational and tactical methods such as encirclements and "battle of annihilation", the German military managed quick victories in the two initial years of World War II, a new style of warfare described as Blitzkrieg for its speed and destructive power.

The Oberkommando des Heeres was Germany's Army High Command from 1936 to 1945. In theory, the Oberkommando der Wehrmacht served as the military General Staff for the German Reich's armed forces, coordinating the Wehrmacht operations. In practice, the OKW acted in a subordinate role as Hitler's personal military staff, translating his ideas into military plans and orders, issuing them to the three services. However, as the war progressed the OKW found itself exercising increasing amounts of direct command authority over military units in the west; this created such a situation that by 1942 the OKW was the de facto command of Western Theatre forces while the Army High Command was the same on the Eastern Front. The Abwehr was the army intelligence organization from 1921 to 1944; the term Abwehr had been created just after World War I as an ostensible concession to Allied demands that Germany's intelligence activities be for defensive purposes only. After 4 February 1938, the name Abwehr was changed to the Overseas Department/Office in Defence of the Armed Forces High Command.

Nazi Germany used the system of military districts to relieve field commanders of as much administrative work as possible and to provide a regular flow of trained recruits and supplies to the field forces. The method OKW adopted was to separate the Field Army from the Home Command and to entrust the responsibilities of training, conscription and equipment to Home Command; the German Army was structured in Army groups consisting of several armies that were relocated, restructured or renamed in the course of the war. Forces of allied states, as well as units made up of non-Germans, were assigned to German units. For Operation Barbarossa in 1941, the Army forces were assigned to three strategic campaign groupings: Army Group North with Leningrad as its campaign objective Army Group Centre with Smolensk as its campaign objective Army Group South with Kiev as its campaign objectiveBelow the army group level forces included field armies – panzer groups, which became army level formations themselves and divisions.

The army used the German term Kampfgruppe. These provisional combat groupings ranged from an army corps size such as Army Detachment Kempf to commands composed of several companies and platoons, they were named for their commanding officers. The German operational doctrine emphasized sweeping pincer and lateral movements meant to destroy the enemy forces as as possible; this approach, referred to as Blitzkrieg, was an operational doctrine instrumental in the success of the offensives in Poland and France. Blitzkrieg has been considered by many historians as having its roots in precepts developed by Fuller, Liddel-Hart and von Seeckt, having ancient prototypes practiced by Alexander, Genghis Khan and Napoleon. Recent studies of the Battle of France suggest that the actions of either Rommel or Guderian or both of them, ignoring orders of superiors who had never foreseen such spectacular successes and thus prepared much more prudent plans, were conflated into a purposeful doctrine and created the first archetype of Blitzkrieg, which gained a fearsome reputation that dominated the Allied leaders' minds.

Thus'Blitzkrieg' was recognised after the fact, while it became adopted by the Wehrmacht, it never became the official doctrine nor got used to its full potential because only a small part of the Wehrmacht was trained for it and key leaders at the highest levels either focused on only certain aspects or did not understand what it was. The military strength of the German Army was managed through mission-based tactics, an proverbial discipline. Once an operation began, whether offensive or defensive, speed in response to changing circumstances was considered more important than careful planning and coordination of new plans. In public opinion, the German military was and is sometimes seen as a high-tech army, since new technologies that were introduced before and during World War II influenced its development of tactical doctrine; these technologies were featured by Nazi propaganda, but were only available in small numbers or late in the war, as overall supplies of raw materials and armaments became l

Liwa al-Haqq (Homs)

Liwa al-Haqq was an armed Islamist insurgent group, active during the Syrian Civil War in the Homs region. On 11 August 2012, a group of Islamist-leaning brigades in Homs formed Liwa al-Haqq, which went on to become in the next year one of the most prominent fighting groups in the area. Important sub-units include Kataeb Atbaa al-Rasoul and Katibat al-Ansar. In December 2012, Liwa al-Haqq joined with other insurgent groups to form the Syrian Islamic Front umbrella organization, in November 2013 the SIF was dissolved and Liwa al-Haqq, Ansar al-Sham and Ahrar al-Sham joined the broader Islamic Front alliance. By April 2014, Liwa al-Haqq had been weakened in the wake of advances made by the Syrian military in the Homs region, it merged with Ahrar al-Sham in December 2014. List of armed groups in the Syrian Civil War Liwa al-Haqq on Twitter

Freuet Euch des Lebens

Freuet Euch des Lebens, op. 340, is a Viennese Waltz composed by Johann Strauss II. It was written for the Vienna Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde, premiered at the new Musikverein building in Vienna in 1870. Waltz 1 The advent of the Vienna New Year's Concertis. 1947 – Josef Krips 1962 – Willi Boskovsky 1974 – Willi Boskovsky 1988 – Claudio Abbado 1997 – Riccardo Muti 2008 – Georges Prêtre 2012 – Mariss Jansons 2020 – Andris Nelsons Freut euch des Lebens: Scores at the International Music Score Library Project