Landesstraßen are roads in Germany and Austria that are, as a rule, the responsibility of the respective German or Austrian federal state. The term may therefore be translated as "state road", they are roads that cross the boundary of a urban district. A Landesstraße is thus less important than a Bundesstraße or federal road, but more significant than a Kreisstraße or district road; the classification of a road as a Landesstraße is a legal matter. In the free states of Bavaria and Saxony – but not, however, in the Free State of Thuringia – Landesstraßen are known as Staatsstraßen; the abbreviation for a Landesstraße consists of a serial number. Staatsstraßen in Saxony are abbreviated using a capital S and the Staatsstraßen in Bavaria are prefixed with the letters St; the kilometrage is shown on white signs by the roadside with black letters, known as location signs, that replace the former kilometre stones. The beginning and end of a Landesstraße is specified using so-called hub numbers; that makes its location unambiguous, important for rapid assistance when there is an accident, for example.
The hub numbers are displayed on the upper part of the sign and indicate their direction. In the example in the photograph, therefore No. 6608 039 is left of the sign 6608 023 to the right. In the bottom right-hand corner of the sign can be seen the so-called Stationierungsrichtung or direction of signage, it runs in the example from right to left and indicates in which direction the road kilometres are counted. In Lower Saxony, this new system has been in place since 2007 and divides the Landestraßen into sections numbered 10, 20, etc; the location signs comprise two panels. The location panel displays the name of the state and county letters at the top, the road letter and number below; the classification panel shows the section number and direction of the start hub. The letters OD indicate a location post within a town or village and may be displayed in places other than on a white post. By the end of 2008 all the 8,000 kilometre posts on Lower Saxony's Landesstraßen had been replaced. In terms of their construction, Landesstraßen tend to be built to a lesser standard than Bundesstraßen and their cross-section is smaller.
In individual cases, the standard of construction may vary depending on when it was built and its importance as a route. However, Landesstraßen can be built as limited-access dual carriageways in densely populated areas. Due to the division of funding, the federal states try to get the more substantial Landesstraßen designated as Bundesstraßen, so that their subsequent improvement and maintenance is funded from the Federal budget; the Bundesstraßen are, intended as links between cities and radiate from them. It is not possible to have concentric roads, which link the satellite towns with one another, designated as Bundesstraßen, it is difficult to transfer responsibility for the short stub roads running from cities to nearby motorways to the Federal Authorities. Following German reunification the Bezirksstraßen of the GDR were classified as Landesstraßen without consideration for their condition; this leads to a wide range of road types falling within this category. On the one hand, there are inter-city roads.
On the other hand, due to the austere design of the country road network in the GDR there are today in the new federal states several unpaved roads and dirt tracks that are formally Landesstraßen. The upgrade of these roads is unlikely in view of the lack of their low importance. In Austria today all important roads, apart from autobahns and Schnellstraßen managed by the publicly owned ASFiNAG corporation, are called Landesstraßen. Since 2002 the former Bundesstraßen national highways are Landesstraßen, because they were placed under the responsibility of the federal states. Before 2002 there were two types of Bundesstraße: A white number an blue square sign identified the more common type that are at the same time priority roads, their vehicle users had the right of way by the blue sign. A black number on a yellow circular sign marks roads. Except in Vorarlberg, the former Bundesstraßen continue to be designated with the prefix B; the remaining Landesstraßen are prefixed with the letter L. On traffic signs the prefixes are not used, unlike the A and S.
Roads numbered with fewer digits are of more importance in the road network. The former designation of more important Landesstraßen in several states as Landeshauptstraßen is only seen now on road and street maps. Autobahn Bundesstraße Gemeindestraße Kreisstraße
Sandstone is a clastic sedimentary rock composed of sand-sized mineral particles or rock fragments. Most sandstone is composed of quartz or feldspar because they are the most resistant minerals to weathering processes at the Earth's surface, as seen in Bowen's reaction series. Like uncemented sand, sandstone may be any color due to impurities within the minerals, but the most common colors are tan, yellow, grey, pink and black. Since sandstone beds form visible cliffs and other topographic features, certain colors of sandstone have been identified with certain regions. Rock formations that are composed of sandstone allow the percolation of water and other fluids and are porous enough to store large quantities, making them valuable aquifers and petroleum reservoirs. Fine-grained aquifers, such as sandstones, are better able to filter out pollutants from the surface than are rocks with cracks and crevices, such as limestone or other rocks fractured by seismic activity. Quartz-bearing sandstone can be changed into quartzite through metamorphism related to tectonic compression within orogenic belts.
Sandstones are clastic in origin. They are formed from cemented grains that may either be fragments of a pre-existing rock or be mono-minerallic crystals; the cements binding these grains together are calcite and silica. Grain sizes in sands are defined within the range of 0.0625 mm to 2 mm. Clays and sediments with smaller grain sizes not visible with the naked eye, including siltstones and shales, are called argillaceous sediments; the formation of sandstone involves two principal stages. First, a layer or layers of sand accumulates as the result of sedimentation, either from water or from air. Sedimentation occurs by the sand settling out from suspension. Once it has accumulated, the sand becomes sandstone when it is compacted by the pressure of overlying deposits and cemented by the precipitation of minerals within the pore spaces between sand grains; the most common cementing materials are silica and calcium carbonate, which are derived either from dissolution or from alteration of the sand after it was buried.
Colors will be tan or yellow. A predominant additional colourant in the southwestern United States is iron oxide, which imparts reddish tints ranging from pink to dark red, with additional manganese imparting a purplish hue. Red sandstones are seen in the Southwest and West of Britain, as well as central Europe and Mongolia; the regularity of the latter favours use as a source for masonry, either as a primary building material or as a facing stone, over other forms of construction. The environment where it is deposited is crucial in determining the characteristics of the resulting sandstone, which, in finer detail, include its grain size and composition and, in more general detail, include the rock geometry and sedimentary structures. Principal environments of deposition may be split between terrestrial and marine, as illustrated by the following broad groupings: Terrestrial environmentsRivers Alluvial fans Glacial outwash Lakes Deserts Marine environmentsDeltas Beach and shoreface sands Tidal flats Offshore bars and sand waves Storm deposits Turbidites Framework grains are sand-sized detrital fragments that make up the bulk of a sandstone.
These grains can be classified into several different categories based on their mineral composition: Quartz framework grains are the dominant minerals in most clastic sedimentary rocks. These physical properties allow the quartz grains to survive multiple recycling events, while allowing the grains to display some degree of rounding. Quartz grains evolve from plutonic rock, which are felsic in origin and from older sandstones that have been recycled. Feldspathic framework grains are the second most abundant mineral in sandstones. Feldspar can be divided into two smaller subdivisions: plagioclase feldspars; the different types of feldspar can be distinguished under a petrographic microscope. Below is a description of the different types of feldspar. Alkali feldspar is a group of minerals in which the chemical composition of the mineral can range from KAlSi3O8 to NaAlSi3O8, this represents a complete solid solution. Plagioclase feldspar is a complex group of solid solution minerals that range in composition from NaAlSi3O8 to CaAl2Si2O8.
Lithic framework grains are pieces of ancient source rock that have yet to weather away to individual mineral grains, called lithic fragments or clasts. Lithic fragments can be any fine-grained or coarse-grained igneous, metamorphic, or sedimentary rock, although the most common lithic fragments found in sedimentary rocks are clasts of volcanic rocks. Accessory minerals are all other mineral grains in a sandstone. Common accessory minerals include micas, olivine and corundum. Many of these accessory grains are more dense than the silicates that
The Palatinate also Rhenish Palatinate, is a region in southwestern Germany. It occupies the southernmost quarter of the German federal state of Rhineland-Palatinate, covering an area of 5,451 square kilometres with about 1.4 million inhabitants. Its residents are known as Palatines; the Palatinate borders on Saarland in the west also comprising the state's Saarpfalz District. In the northwest, the Hunsrück mountain range forms the border with the Rhineland region; the eastern border with Hesse and the Baden region runs along the Upper Rhine river, while the left bank, with Mainz and Worms as well as the Selz basin around Alzey, belong to the Rhenish Hesse region. In the south, the German-French border separates the Palatinate from Alsace. One-third of the region is covered by the Palatinate Forest, including the Palatinate Forest Nature Park popular with hikers. With about 1,771 km2 it is Germany's largest contiguous forested area, is part of the Franco-German Palatinate Forest-North Vosges Biosphere Reserve.
The western and northern part of the Palatinate is densely mountainous. Its highest mountain is the Donnersberg with a height of 687 m, situated in the North Palatine Uplands near Kirchheimbolanden. Most of the major Palatinate towns lie in the lower eastern part of the Upper Rhine Plain down to the River Rhine. Here the German Wine Route passes through the Palatinate wine region, it is one of the greatest wine-producing regions in Germany, in the last two decades has become well known for its numerous prizewinning white and reds of highest quality produced by a number of talented young winemakers. Major rivers include the Upper Rhine tributaries Lauter and Speyerbach, as well as Schwarzbach and Glan in the west; the Electoral Palatinate and several other territories were part of the Palatinate, but today belong to other German territories. The Palatinate is divided into four non-administrative sub-regions, comprising the following rural districts and independent towns and cities: North Palatinate, i.e. the sparsely inhabited North Palatine Uplands, made up of Donnersbergkreis, including the small towns of Eisenberg, Kirchheimbolanden and Rockenhausen Anterior Palatinate between Upper Rhine and the Haardt range of the Palatinate Forest Bad Dürkheim Rhein-Pfalz-Kreis and the towns and cities of Frankenthal, Neustadt an der Weinstraße and Speyer South Palatinate.
Germersheim Südliche Weinstraße and the town of Landau West Palatinate up to the western part of the North Palatine Uplands Kaiserslautern Kusel Südwestpfalz and the towns of Kaiserslautern and Zweibrücken. Like most of Europe, the Palatinate is part of the oceanic climate zone influenced by the Atlantic, with an average annual temperature of about 10 degrees Celsius. Wet air from the prevailing westerly and southwesterly winds leads to precipitation in the Mittelgebirge ranges, while it warms up on its way further down to the Rhine Valley. Here the temperate weather permits the cultivating of almond and fig trees, stone pines, Mediterranean Cypress and some banana species; the lower hilly regions are known for their extended chestnut forests, sometimes referred to as "German Tuscany" in tourist advertising. A Celtic region, this area was conquered by the Roman Empire under Emperor Augustus in about 12 BCE, whereafter it was part of the Germania Superior province. During the decay of the Empire, Alamanni tribes settled here.
From 511 onwards the area belonged to the eastern part of Frankish Austrasia, that—as Rhenish Franconia—became part of East Francia according to the 843 Treaty of Verdun. From the Middle Ages until 1792, the Palatinate was divided into 45 secular and ecclesiastical territories, some of which were small; the largest and most important of these was the Electorate of the Palatinate, a number of Franconian territories on both sides of the Rhine held by the Counts palatine of Lotharingia. By the late 12th century, the Count palatine had achieved the status of a Prince-elector, becoming one of the seven higher nobles with the privilege of electing the Emperor, as confirmed by the Golden Bull of 1356. In 1214 the Bavarian House of Wittelsbach was enfeoffed with these estates, which they ruled until 1918, together with the collateral branch of Palatinate-Zweibrücken from 1410, they lost control with the reunification with Bavaria under Elector Charles Theodore in 1777. The major ecclesiastical territory in the region was the Bishopric of Speyer.
The Imperial city of Landau joined the Alsacien Décapole in 1521 to preserve its status. It was seized by France after the Thirty Years' War. Other larger regional entities included the Prince-Bishopric of Speyer; the Prince-Bishopric held possessions on both sides of the Rhine. For centuries, the Electoral Palatinate and Bavaria maintained dynastic links because both were ruled by members of the Wittelsbach family. In 1794 the Left Bank of the Rhine, including the Palatinate, was occupied by French revolutionary troops; as a result of the Treaty of Campo Formio, the First French Republic annexed the region. In 1798 they introduced a new administrative system with the establishment of departments; the area of the Palatinate became the Département of Mont Tonnerre, laying the cornerstone of its regional identity today
Bundesstraße, abbreviated B, is the denotation for German and Austrian national highways. Germany's Bundesstraßen network has a total length of about 40,000 km. German Bundesstraßen are labelled with rectangular yellow signs with black numerals, as opposed to the white-on-blue markers of the Autobahn controlled-access highways. Bundesstraßen, like autobahns, are maintained by the federal agency of the Transport Ministry. In the German highway system they rank below autobahns, but above the Landesstraßen and Kreisstraßen maintained by the federal states and the districts respectively; the numbering was implemented by law in 1932 and has overall been retained up to today, except for those roads located in the former eastern territories of Germany. One distinguishing characteristic between German Bundesstraßen and Autobahnen is that there is a general 100 km/h speed limit on federal highways out of built-up areas, as opposed to the advisory speed limit of 130 km/h in unmarked sections of the autobahns.
However, a number of Bundesstraßen have been extended as expressways. Many of these have speed limits of 100–120 km/h, others have only an advisory speed limit like autobahns. Most sections of the federal highways are only single carriageway with one lane for each direction and no hard shoulder pull-out area; the closest equivalent in the United States would be the U. S. highway system. In contrast to Germany, according to a 2002 amendment of the Austrian federal road act, Bundesstraßen is the official term referring only to autobahns and limited-access roads; the administration of all other former federal highways has passed to the federal states. Therefore classified as Landesstraßen, they are still colloquially called Bundesstraßen and have retained their "B" designation, followed by the number and a name, they are per se priority roads. Before 2002 there has been a further category of Bundesstraßen with circular yellow sign and black number that shows that this road has no fixed priority. A few yellow signs lived longer than 2002.
List of federal highways in Germany Media related to Bundesstraßen at Wikimedia Commons
Edenkoben is a municipality in the Südliche Weinstraße district, in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. It lies halfway between Landau and Neustadt an der Weinstraße. Edenkoben is one of the towns situated along the German Wine Route. Edenkoben is the seat of the Verbandsgemeinde Edenkoben; this part of the Rhineland passed to Bavaria at 1815 following the Congress of Vienna, which reallocated many of the territories that had comprised Napoleon's empire. Like several towns in the area, Edenkoben has both a Protestant church. Edenkoben's status as an administrative and cultural centre for the surrounding villages is reflected in the presence of several high-grade schools; the little town has a considerable cultivation and trade in wine. Outside the primary sector, industries include the manufacture of automotive exhaust systems and of doors. In former times there was a sulphur-spring here called Kurbrunnen. Edenkoben is overlooked, on its west side, by the imposing Friedensdenkmal, from the top of which visitors can enjoy a fine view across to the Rhine.
Constructed to celebrate German unity in the aftermath of the Franco-Prussian War, the memorial was renamed Friedensdenkmal after 1945, when celebration of German military victories fell out of fashion in Europe: at the time of writing the Friedensdenkmal contains a small restaurant. The inscription on the Unification / Peace memorial reflects the determination of the German government in 1871 to downplay the extent to which the Treaty of Frankfurt resulted from military victory by Prussia. Given the frequency with which the German-speaking Rhenish provinces had been devastated by French armies in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, it was in this region easy to emphasize the defensive nature of German unification. Johann Adam Hartmann, emigrated to the Americas at the age of 16 Friedrich Arnold, professor of medicine Eugen von Lommel, physicist Heinrich Göring and diplomat Theodor Meyer, judge Friedrich Auerbach, 1894 to 1898 operation manager at Edenkoben Blaukali factory Franz Weidenreich, professor of medicine and anthropologist Richard Schneider-Edenkoben, writer and screenwriter Ralf Fücks, politician This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed..
"Edenkoben". Encyclopædia Britannica. 8. Cambridge University Press. P. 924
Bad Bergzabern is a municipality in the Südliche Weinstraße district, on the German Wine Route in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. It is situated near the border with France, on the south-eastern edge of the Palatinate forest 15 kilometres southwest of Landau. Bad Bergzabern is the seat of the Verbandsgemeinde Bad Bergzabern. Bad Bergzabern has a tradition as a holiday destination and contains various half-timbered houses from the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Of particular note from an earlier century is the Gasthaus Zum Engel, described as the most beautiful renaissance building in the entire region. In the sixteenth century local scholars were keen to assert that the town had been founded under the Romans, sources from this period refer to the medieval Latin name as "Tabernae Montanus". Although the area was indeed under the control of the Roman empire two thousand years ago, evidence does not support the notion that Bad Bergzabern had its own origins so far back. In 1676, during the Franco-Dutch War, the French under Louis XIV infamously laid waste the Palatinate region as part of a scheme to enlarge France.
Much of Bad Bergzabern was destroyed in the process. One of the few buildings that did survive the French king's torching of the town was the local duke's administrative office, which became the Gasthaus zum Engel. Reconstruction began in the eighteenth century under Duke of Zweibrücken; the work involved stone buildings in the newly fashionable baroque style and included a residential Schloss for the duke. The project was directed by the architect Jonas Erikson Sundahl who shared the duke's own Swedish provenance. Friedrich Julius Marx, wrote a short history of Bergzabern „Oratio de Tabernis Montanis“; the overlordship of the dukes of Duke of Zweibrücken ended with the French Revolution. On 10 November 1792 the townsfolk applied for incorporation within the new French Republic. A generation former French frontiers were restored after the fall of Napoleon and under the terms of the Second Peace of Paris the whole region came under the control of the Wittelsbach kings of Bavaria. 1871-1987: Census results: Konrad Hubert and composer Tabernaemontanus and professor Johann Wolff, lawyer and historian Johann Wilhelm Petersen, librarian Georg Weber and historian Karl Culmann, civil engineer, structural engineer Konrad Knoll, sculptor Ludwig Döderlein and professor Oskar Bolza, mathematician Hans Hoffmann, politician Kurt Beck, politician, 1994-2013 Prime Minister of Rhineland-Palatinate 1994-2013 Oliver Stang, football player Media related to Bad Bergzabern at Wikimedia Commons
The Palatinate Forest, sometimes called the Palatine Forest, is a low-mountain region in southwestern Germany, located in the Palatinate in the state of Rhineland-Palatinate. The forest is a designated nature park covering 1,771 km2 and its highest elevation is the Kalmit. Together with the northern part of the adjacent Vosges Mountains in France it forms the UNESCO-designated Palatinate Forest-North Vosges Biosphere Reserve, one of the biggest forests in Europe; the Palatinate Forest, together with the Vosges south of the French border, from which it has no morphological separation, is part of a single central upland region of about 8,000 km2 in area, that runs from the Börrstadt Basin to the Burgundian Gate and which forms the western boundary of the Upper Rhine Plain. This landscape forms, in turn, the eastern part of the extensive eastern scarplands of France, which, on German soil, take in large parts of the Palatinate and the Saarland. With older and younger strata; the low mountain range of the Palatinate Forest is continued northward by the extensive hilly landscape of the North Palatine Uplands, whose highest point is the volcanic Donnersberg.
In the south it is continued by the northern part of the Vosges Mountains in France. The eastern end of the forest is adjacent to the Palatinate wine growing region. Here the German Wine Route stretches through the undulating area that lies between the Palatinate Forest and the Upper Rhine valley; the hill country between the Haardt mountains and the Upper Rhine Plain, where Palatine wine is grown, is known as the Weinstraße. The German Wine Road runs through this area. West of Kaiserslautern is the marshy lowland of Landstuhl; the Palatinate Forest can be divided into three areas. The Northern Palatinate Forest, bounded by the extensive northern Palatine hill landscape and reaching southwards to a line from Kaiserslautern to Bad Duerkheim The Middle Palatinate Forest from the stream Isenach and the line Kaiserslautern - Bad Duerkheim to the Queich stream and the line from Pirmasens to Landau The Southern Palatinate Forest, the so-called Wasgau, from the Queich stream and the line from Pirmasens to Landau to the French borderline in the south.
The Palatinate Forest is a major natural region within the Palatine-Saarland Scarplands and runs south as far as the Col de Saverne, i.e. far into French territory, where it continues as the Vosges ridge. This goes unrecognized as a result of the French border; the important subdivisions of these bunter sandstone mountains were drawn up in the 1950s and 1960s in the Handbook of the Natural Region Divisions of Germany and 1:200,000 map sheets by the German Federal Institute for Regional Studies. Despite that, some deviation in the names used by the handbook has prevailed; the most important subordinate landscapes are listed with the aid of a map. Palatinate Forest Lower Palatinate Forest Otterberg Forest Stumpfwald Queitersberg, its use was extended when, in 1902, the Palatinate Forest Club was founded, Fritz Claus, one of the pioneers of the PWV, in particular, strove to promote the name. A more precise, scientifically-based definition of the Palatinate Forest as an independent natural region was introduced in 1911 by Daniel Häberle, a Palatine geographer and local historian.
Prior to 1850, there was no overall name for the Palatine's bunter sandstone mountains Historical territorial factors, rather than geographical ones, governed perceptions at the time. By contrast, the Celts and Romans viewed the entire mountain range west of the Rhine as a single unit, making no distinction between different parts of the region that, today, is the Palatinate Forest and the Vosges; the range was named after the Celtic forest god Vosegus and is recorded in many Roman manuscripts as "silva vosegus" or "mons vosegus". It was from this linguistic root that, during the Middle Ages, the name Vosges emerged in the French-speaking area and Wasgen or Wasgenwald also Wasgau, in the German-speaking region. So while the term Wasgen continued, for a long time, to refer to the entire range on the west bank of the Rhine, at the beginning of the 20th century, it became restricted to the Alsatian part of the sandstone mountains, whilst the term Pfälzerwald