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German bombing of Rotterdam

The German bombing of Rotterdam known as the Rotterdam Blitz, was the aerial bombardment of Rotterdam by the Luftwaffe on 14 May 1940, during the German invasion of the Netherlands in World War II. The objective was to support the German troops fighting in the city, break Dutch resistance and force the Dutch army to surrender; the entire historic city centre was destroyed, nearly 900 people were killed, as well as making 85,000 more homeless. The psychological and physical success of the raid, from the German perspective, led the Oberkommando der Luftwaffe to threaten to destroy the city of Utrecht if the Dutch command did not surrender; the Dutch surrendered in the late afternoon of 14 May, signing the capitulation early the next morning. During the Second World War, the Netherlands' strategic location between Great Britain and Germany made it ideal for the basing of German air and naval forces to be used in attacks on the British Isles; the Netherlands had opted for neutrality throughout the First World War and had planned to do the same for the Second World War.

It had refused armaments from France, making the case that they wanted no association with either side. While armament production was increased after the invasion of Denmark in April 1940, the Netherlands possessed only 35 modern wheeled armoured fighting vehicles, five tracked armoured fighting vehicles, 135 aircraft, 280,000 soldiers, while Germany had 159 tanks, 1,200 modern aircraft, around 150,000 soldiers at their disposal for the Dutch theatre alone. With a significant military advantage, the German leadership intended to expedite the conquest of the country by first taking control of key military and strategic targets, such as airfields and roads, using these to gain control of the remainder of the country. An invasion of the Netherlands was first made reference to on 9 October 1939, when Hitler ordered that "Preparations should be made for offensive action on the northern flank of the Western Front crossing the area of Luxembourg and the Netherlands." This attack was to be carried out as and as forcefully as possible.

Hitler ordered German intelligence officers to capture Dutch army uniforms and use them to gain detailed information on Dutch defensive preparations. The Wehrmacht launched its invasion of the Netherlands in the early hours of 10 May 1940; the attack started with the Luftwaffe crossing through Dutch airspace, giving the impression that Britain was the ultimate target. Instead, the aircraft turned around over the North Sea and returned to attack from the west, dropping paratroopers at Valkenburg and Ockenburg airfields, near the Dutch seat of government and the Royal Palace in The Hague, starting the Battle for the Hague. While Germany had planned to take control swiftly using this strategy, the assault on The Hague failed. However, bridges were taken at the Moerdijk and Rotterdam, allowing armoured forces to enter the core region of the Fortress Holland on 13 May; the situation in Rotterdam on the morning of 13 May 1940 was a stalemate as it had been over the previous three days. Dutch garrison forces under Colonel P.

W. Scharroo held the north bank of the Nieuwe Maas river, which runs through the city and prevented the Germans from crossing. A Dutch counterattack led by a Dutch marine company had failed to recapture the Willemsbrug traffic bridge, the key crossing. Several efforts by the Dutch Army Aviation Brigade to destroy the bridge failed. On the Morning of 14 May, Hitler issued his "Weisung" Nr. 11. Concerning the Dutch theatre of operations he says the following: The resistance capability of the Dutch army has proved to be stronger than expected. Political as well as military reasons demand, it is the task of the army to capture the Fortress Holland by committing enough forces from the south, combined with an attack on the east front. In addition to that the air force must, while weakening the forces that up till now have supported the 6th Army, facilitate the rapid fall of the Fortress Holland. General Schmidt had planned a combined assault the next day, 14 May, using tanks of the 9th Panzer supported by flame throwers, SS troops and combat engineers.

The airlanding troops were to make an amphibious crossing of the river upstream and a flank attack through the Kralingen district. The attack was to be preceded by artillery bombardment, while Gen. Schmidt had requested the support of the Luftwaffe in the form of a Gruppe of Junkers Ju 87 dive-bombers for a precision raid. Schmidt's request for air support reached Berlin, staff of Luftflotte 2. Instead of precision bombers, Schmidt got carpet bombing by Heinkel He 111 bombers besides a Gruppe of Stukas focussing on some strategic targets; the carpet bombing had been ordered by Hermann Göring. Schmidt used the threat of destruction of the city to attempt to force Colonel Scharroo to surrender the city. Rotterdam, the largest industrial target in the Netherlands and of major strategic importance to the Germans, was to be bombed. Scharroo stretched out negotiations; the start of the air raid had been set for 13:20. Schmidt postponed a second ultimatum to 16:20. However, just as the Dutch negotiator was crossing the Willemsbrug to relay this information, the drone of bombers was heard: a total of 90 bombers from Kampfgeschwader 54 were sent over the city.

Student radioed to postpone the planned attack. When the message reached KG 54's command post, the Kommodore, Oberst Walter Lac

801st Air Division

The 801st Air Division is an inactive United States Air Force organization. It was assigned to Strategic Air Command's Eighth Air Force at Lockbourne Air Force Base, where it was inactivated on 15 March 1965. Through most of its existence the division controlled strategic reconnaissance and electronic warfare wings flying Boeing B-47 Stratojets and based at Lockbourne. In 1964, one of its wings became an air refueling wing; when its second wing was inactivated as the B-47 was withdrawn from the United States Air Force inventory, only one SAC wing remained at Lockbourne and the division was inactivated as well. The 801st Air Division was activated at Lockbourne Air Force Base, Ohio in 1952 when Strategic Air Command departed from the wing base organization system and created air divisions as the headquarters on bases with two operational wings; the division assumed command of the 26th and 91st Strategic Reconnaissance Wings and the 801st Air Base Group. The 26th wing was activated the same day as the division but remained unmanned until January 1953.

The division drew its cadre from the 37th Air Division, which had controlled SAC reconnaissance wings at Lockbourne and Lake Charles Air Force Bases. The division trained and maintained a force capable of conducting worldwide reconnaissance and electronic countermeasures operations, its reconnaissance units operated their Boeing RB-47 Stratojets through operational detachments providing reconnaissance support for other United States Air Force establishments. These detachments were located in various areas, including England, Morocco and Greenland, it trained subordinate units in air-to-air refueling techniques. In May 1953 the 100th Air Refueling Squadron moved to Lockbourne from Turner Air Force Base and was assigned to the division, although it was attached to the 91st wing; the Boeing KB-29 Superfortresses of the 91st Air Refueling Squadron were transferred to the 100th, while the 91st converted to Boeing KC-97 Stratotankers. Once its training was completed, the 100th returned to Turner in November.

In January 1955 the 70th Strategic Reconnaissance Wing was activated at Little Rock Air Force Base, Arkansas. However, Little Rock was not ready to receive the wing's RB-47 aircraft, so the wing was deployed to Lockbourne and attached to the 801st until construction at Little Rock was completed; the 70th wing trained and received its initial manning during this period and did not become operational before moving its operations to Little Rock in October. In 1956 the 4025th Strategic Reconnaissance Squadron, Light was activated at Lockbourne and assigned directly to the division; this squadron was to be SAC's first high altitude reconnaissance unit and was equipped with Martin RB-57D Canberras. In May 1956 the squadron moved to Turner Air Force Base, Georgia where it was assigned to the newly organized 4080th Strategic Reconnaissance Wing. In November 1957 the 91st wing was inactivated; the following month, the 376th Bombardment Wing moved to Lockbourne from Barksdale Air Force Base, Louisiana.

Although designated as a bombardment wing, the 376th's primary mission was electronic warfare. The 91st wing's 91st Air Refueling Squadron remained active and was transferred to the 376th wing upon its arrival at Lockbourne, it was assigned directly to the 801st during the three-week gap between the inactivation of the 91st and the transfer of the 376th. In April of the following year, as Barksdale converted from B-47s to Boeing B-52 Stratofortresses, Barksdale's other wing, the 301st Bombardment Wing, moved to Lockbourne. Shortly thereafter, the 26th wing inactivated; this completed the division's transition from reconnaissance to electronic warfare, like the 376th wing, the 301st was an electronic warfare wing despite its designation. In July 1962, SAC assigned it to the 801st; the squadron renamed the 4363d Post Attack Command Control Squadron, was one of four that provided airborne communications relay to SAC aircraft, enhancing survivability in the event of a nuclear attack. The squadron did not become operational until November 1962 and was attached to the 376th wing the entire time it was assigned to the division.

In June 1963 the squadron began to keep a portion of its aircraft on alert. The 4363d was inactivated a little less than three years in March 1965 when the Post-Attack Command and Control System was transferred to air refueling units flying Boeing EC-135Cs and located at bases with SAC auxiliary command posts. In April 1963 the transformation of the division's air refueling force began when the first Boeing KC-135A Stratotanker arrived to equip the 91st Air Refueling Squadron. In May 1964, the squadron was detached from the 376th wing to the 301st; the following month it was assigned and the three EB-47 squadrons of that wing were inactivated. Which became the 301st Air Refueling Wing. At the same time, the 305th Air Refueling Squadron, stationed at McGuire Air Force Base, New Jersey, was assigned to the division; the 801st participated in numerous tactical exercises such as Big Blast, Deep River, Sky Shield, Purple Mood. The division was inactivated in March 1965 when the 376th wing was inactivated as part of the retirement of the B-47, reducing the SAC presence at Lockbourne to a single wing, the 301st, which assumed host base responsibility for Lockbourne until the base transferred to Tactical Air Command in July.

Constituted as 801st Air Division on 9 May 1952Activated on 28 May 1952 Discontinued and inactivated on 15 March 1965 Second Air Force, 28 May 1952 Eighth Air Force, 1 July 1955 – 15 March 1965 Lockbourne Air Force Base, Ohio, 28 May 1952 – 15 March 1965 Wings 26th Strategic Reconnaissance Wing, 28 May 1952 – 1 July 1958 70th Strategic Reconnaissance W

Callot Soeurs

Callot Soeurs was one of the leading fashion design houses of the 1910s and 1920s. Callot Soeurs opened in 1895 at rue Taitbout in Paris, France, it was operated by the four Callot sisters: Marie Callot Gerber, Marthe Callot Bertrand, Regina Callot Tennyson-Chantrell and Joséphine Callot Crimont. The eldest sister, was trained in dressmaking, having earlier worked for Raudnitz and Co. prominent Parisian dressmakers, they were all taught by their mother, a lacemaker. The sisters began working with antique ribbons to enhance blouses and lingerie, their success led to an expansion into other clothing. In 1897, Joséphine committed suicide. In 1900, they were featured at the Paris World's Fair; that year, they did two million francs in sales. By 1901, they doubled their sales. Callot Soeurs's day dresses were well-received at the 1915 Universal Exhibition in San Francisco. In 1916, Henri Bendel was the largest buyer of Callot Soeurs in New York City; that same year, American Vogue dubbed the sisters the Three Fates, declared them "foremost among the powers that rule the destinies of a woman's life and increase the income of France."

During World War I, American support was vital to the continued success of Callot Soeurs. While European sales fell, American buyers would order between 800 pieces every July. In response to the proliferation of knockoffs in the 1910s and 1920s, Callot Soeurs placed advertisements in The New York Times listing the official retailers of their designs. In 1919, Callot Soeurs moved to larger premises at 9-11 Avenue Matignon. In 1920, Marthe Callot Bertrand died and the widowed Regina Callot Tennyson-Chantrell retired to care for her son. Marie Callot Gerber single-handedly ran the house for the next seven years. In the 1920s, Callot Soeurs established branches in Nice, Buenos Aires, London. A January 1922 article in Ladies' Home Journal claimed that "Callot has more rich clients than any other establishment in the world, they come from South America, from South Africa, as far east as Japan."In 1926, the American designer Elizabeth Hawes, while working in Paris wore Callot Soeurs. Hawes insisted that people should wear what they liked, not what was considered fashionable, although some American buyers at that time considering Callot Soeurs' dresses out of date and unfashionable, she wore their "simple clothes with wonderful embroidery" that lasted her for several years.

Callot Soeurs's greatest American supporter was Rita de Acosta Lydig who ordered dozens of dresses at a time. According to her sister Mercedes de Acosta, "Rita designed most of her own clothes and they were made for her by Callot Soeurs." Rita was such a fashion plate that when she learned her husband was having an affair with a poorly dressed woman, she sent the mistress to Callot Soeurs for new clothing. Rita wore a silver Callot Soeurs dress when she posed for Giovanni Boldini in 1911. Marie Callot Gerber died in 1927, her obituary in Le Figaro commented: "One of the most beautiful figures of the Parisian luxury business has now disappeared."In 1928, Pierre Gerber, Marie Callot Gerber's son, took over the business but could not survive in the competitive market and, in 1937, the House of Callot Soeurs closed and was absorbed into the House of Calvet. However, World War II made matters difficult in France. To what happened with the House of Vionnet in 1939, Calvet and the Callot label closed in 1952.

The couturier Madeleine Vionnet was head seamstress at Callot. It was here, she explained. It is because of them that I have been able to make Rolls-Royces." Marie-Louise Bruyère was another designer. Callot Soeurs clothing was known for its exotic detail, they were among the first designers to use silver lamé to make dresses. Twenty-one Callot Soeurs dresses are preserved in the Acton Art Collection at New York University's Villa La Pietra in Florence. Additional dresses are held by the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Philadelphia Museum of Art, the Museum at FIT, Palais Galliera, the Victoria and Albert Museum, The Kyoto Costume Institute, LACMA, the Indianapolis Museum of Art and the Ulster Museum, Belfast Callot Soeurs at Chicago History Museum Digital Collections Marie, Marthe and Joséphine Callot at FMD Dresses by the Callot sisters at the Philadelphia Museum of Art Hatcher, Jessamyn. "Twenty-one dresses". The New Yorker. Condé Nast. Retrieved 23 March 2015

Christian Friedrich Koch

Christian Friedrich Koch was a German jurist. Koch was born in Mohrin, Prussian Neumark. Koch started an apprenticeship as a tailor and worked at the same time as a copyist at the local court of Mohrin, he worked at the Oberlandesgericht of Soldin and the local court of Reppen. Koch passed his Abitur and studied under Savigny until 1825, his first publication in 1826 led to numerous appointments. He studied French law in Cologne and Aachen and was appointed justice of the supreme court at Marienwerder, he was appointed director of the law courts, successively, at Kulm and Halle. His last appointment was as director of the court of justice of the principality at Neisse. In 1848, he was summoned to Berlin to draft the new code of civil procedure, he retired in 1854 and died in Neisse, Imperial Germany in 1872. Koch reconstructed the entire Prussian jurisprudence, upon the theory and practice of which his work exerted great influence. Koch bequeathed the major part of his assets of about 300,000 Mark to his hometown to build an orphanage.

Versuch einer systematischen Darstellung der Lehre vom Besitz nach preussischem Recht Das Recht der Forderungen nach gemeinem und preussischem Recht Lehrbuch des preussischen Privatrechts Das preussische Erbrecht aus dem gemeinen deutschen Recht entwickelt Das preussische Zivilprozessrecht Kommentar zum Allgemeinen Landrecht He was founder of the Schlesisches Archiv für die praktische Rechtwissenschaft. Behrend, J. F. Christian Friedrich Koch

Long Season

Long Season is the sixth studio album by Japanese dub band Fishmans, first released on October 25, 1996 in Japan by Polydor Records on Digipak. It's a single 35 minute composition based on released single "Season" and was recorded in July 1996. An idea developed from a chat between the band, they wanted to create a one-song album instead of the standard track by track album like previous efforts, so based on the single “Season” several sessions were had, the band and ZAK came up with ideas at Waikiki Beach and made detailed edits. There were episodes in which ZAK would "shed blood from his eyes" because of viewing the monitor for too long; the group brought many guest musicians into the studio for the recording of the record. Frequent collaborator Honzi would join them again for the LP, as well as K-pop singer MariMari, a musician Fishmans would appear alongside upon in the coming years; this would be the first album Michigo "Darts" Sekiguchi would appear in Fishmans' catalog as a guest guitarist, who would go on to play with them until their final concert.

Vocalist UA contributes hearty feminine vocals to the album. The album consists of one 35-minute-long composition, split up into five parts on multiple issues.. All tracks are written by Shinji Sato. All tracks are written by Shinji Sato. All tracks are written by Shinji Sato. Credits adapted from the album's liner notes. Fishmans – production, arrangement Shinji Sato – vocal, lyrics, composition Yuzuru Kashiwabara – bass Kin-ichi Motegidrums Honzi – keyboards, accordion, Organette20, chorus Michio "Darts" Sekiguchi – guitar, chorus Asa-Changpercussion Taito Sato – guitar UA – chorus MariMari – chorus Masaki Morimoto – whistle Butchy – chorus Naoko Ohmiya – chorus Yoshiko Ohmiya – chorus ZAK – production, recording, mixing TAK – recording Yuka Koizumi – mastering Toshiya Sano – artists and repertoire Naoko Nozawa – artist promotion Katsuyoshi Kinase – marketing promotion Akiko Ueta – artist management Ichiro Asatsuma – executive producer Yoshiyuki Okuda – executive producer Tadataka Watanabe – executive producer Phonic – art direction, design Ayako Mogi – photography Crion Yamamoto – photography Junko Ishiwata – styling

Alice S. Whittemore

Alice Segers Whittemore is an American epidemiologist and biostatistician who studies the effects of genetics and lifestyle on cancer, after an earlier career as a pure mathematician studying group theory. She works as a professor of health research and policy and of biomedical data science at Stanford University, has served as president of the International Biometric Society. Whittemore studied pure mathematics, her bachelor's degree is from Marymount Manhattan College, she completed a Ph. D. in 1967 from the City University of New York with a dissertation on Frattini subgroups supervised by Gilbert Baumslag. As a professor of mathematics at Hunter College, she became interested in epidemiology and statistics, took a fellowship to New York University to accomplish that shift of interests, under the mentorship of Joseph Keller. Keller and Whittemore married and moved together to Stanford in 1978. There Whittemore became a professor in the Department of Health Policy, she was chief of epidemiology there from 1997 to 2001, became co-chair of the department.

Keller died in 2016. One of Whittemore's studies found a link between fertility drugs and ovarian cancer strong among women who were treated with the drugs but failed to conceive. In 1992, Whittemore was elected as a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, she is a fellow of the American Statistical Association, a member of the National Academy of Medicine. In 2004, she won the Janet L. Norwood Award for outstanding achievement by a woman in the statistical sciences. In 2010, the Statistics in Epidemiology section of the American Statistical Association gave her their Nathan Mantel Lifetime Achievement Award, she was the recipient of the Committee of Presidents of Statistical Societies Florence Nightingale David Award in 2005 and R. A. Fisher Lectureship in 2016 "for her fundamental contributions to biostatistics and epidemiology, covering a wide range of topics from environmental risk assessment to genetic linkage analysis, genetic association studies and cancer epidemiology.

Whittemore, A. S.. Whittemore, Alice S.. Whittemore, A. S.. Whittemore, A. S.. S. population-based case-control studies of ovarian cancer", The American Journal of Human Genetics, 60: 496–504, PMC 1712497, PMID 9042908. Manolio, Teri A.. "Finding the missing heritability of complex diseases", Nature, 461: 747–753, Bibcode:2009Natur.461..747M, doi:10.1038/nature08494, PMC 2831613, PMID 19812666. Home page "Alice S. Whittemore: An Oral History," Stanford Historical Society Oral History Program, 2015