The Brandenburg Gate is an 18th-century neoclassical monument in Berlin, built on the orders of Prussian king Frederick William II after the successful restoration of order during the early Batavian Revolution. One of the best-known landmarks of Germany, it was built on the site of a former city gate that marked the start of the road from Berlin to the town of Brandenburg an der Havel, which used to be capital of the Margraviate of Brandenburg, it is located in the western part of the city centre of Berlin within Mitte, at the junction of Unter den Linden and Ebertstraße west of the Pariser Platz. One block to the north stands the Reichstag building; the gate is the monumental entry to Unter den Linden, the renowned boulevard of linden trees, which led directly to the royal City Palace of the Prussian monarchs. Throughout its existence, the Brandenburg Gate was a site for major historical events and is today considered not only as a symbol of the tumultuous history of Europe and Germany, but of European unity and peace.
In the time of Frederick William, shortly after the Thirty Years' War and a century before the gate was constructed, Berlin was a small walled city within a star fort with several named gates: Spandauer Tor, St. Georgen Tor, Stralower Tor, Cöpenicker Tor, Neues Tor, Leipziger Tor. Relative peace, a policy of religious tolerance, status as capital of the Kingdom of Prussia facilitated the growth of the city; the Brandenburg Gate was not part of the old Berlin Fortress, but one of eighteen gates within the Berlin Customs Wall, erected in the 1730s, including the old fortified city and many of its suburbs. The new gate was commissioned by Frederick William II of Prussia to represent peace; the Gate was designed by Carl Gotthard Langhans, the Court Superintendent of Buildings, built between 1788 and 1791, replacing the earlier simple guardhouses which flanked the original gate in the Customs Wall. The gate consists of six to each side, forming five passageways. Citizens were allowed to use only the outermost two on each side.
Atop the gate is a Quadriga, a chariot drawn by four horses, sculpted by Johann Gottfried Schadow. The new gate was named the Peace Gate and the goddess is Victoria, the goddess of victory; the gate's design is based upon the Propylaea, the gateway to the Acropolis in Athens, is consistent with Berlin's history of architectural classicism. The gate was the first element of "Athens on the River Spree" by architect Langhans; the Brandenburg Gate has played different political roles in German history. After the 1806 Prussian defeat at the Battle of Jena-Auerstedt, Napoleon was the first to use the Brandenburg Gate for a triumphal procession, took its Quadriga to Paris. After Napoleon's defeat in 1814 and the Prussian occupation of Paris by General Ernst von Pfuel, the Quadriga was restored to Berlin, it was now redesigned by Karl Friedrich Schinkel for the new role of the Brandenburg Gate as a Prussian triumphal arch. The Quadriga faces east, as it did when it was installed in 1793. Only the royal family was allowed to pass through the central archway, as well as members of the Pfuel family, from 1814 to 1919.
The Kaiser granted this honour to the family in gratitude to Ernst von Pfuel, who had overseen the return of the Quadriga to the top of the gate. In addition, the central archway was used by the coaches of ambassadors on the single occasion of their presenting their letters of credence to council; when the Nazis ascended to power, they used the gate as a party symbol. The gate survived World War II and was one of the damaged structures still standing in the Pariser Platz ruins in 1945; the gate was badly damaged with holes in the columns from nearby explosions. One horse's head from the original quadriga survived, is today kept in the collection of the Märkisches Museum. Following Germany's surrender and the end of the war, the governments of East Berlin and West Berlin restored it in a joint effort; the holes were visible for many years following the war. Vehicles and pedestrians could travel through the gate, located in East Berlin, until the Berlin Wall was built, 13 August 1961. Brandenburg Gate border crossing was closed on 14 August 1961.
West Berliners gathered on the western side of the gate to demonstrate against the Berlin Wall, among them West Berlin's governing Mayor Willy Brandt, who had spontaneously returned from a federal election campaigning tour in West Germany earlier on the same day. It was closed throughout the Berlin Wall period until 22 December 1989; when the Revolutions of 1989 occurred and the wall was demolished, the gate symbolized freedom and the desire to unify the city of Berlin. Thousands of people gathered at the wall to celebrate its fall on 9 November 1989. On 22 December 1989, the Brandenburg Gate border crossing was reopened when Helmut Kohl, the West German chancellor, walked through to be greeted by Hans Modrow, the East German prime minister. Demolition of the rest of the wall around the area took place the following year. During 1990, the quadriga was removed from the gate as part of renovation work carried out by the East German authorities following the fall of the wall in November 1989. Germany was reunified in October 1990.
The Brandenburg Gate was refurbished on 21 December 2000, at a cost of six million euros. It was once again opened on
The pfennig or penny is a former German coin or note, official currency from the 9th century until the introduction of the euro in 2002. While a valuable coin during the Middle Ages, it lost its value through the years and was the minor coin of the Mark currencies in the German Reich and East Germany, the reunified Germany until the introduction of the euro. Pfennig was the name of the subunit of the Danzig mark and the Danzig gulden in the Free City of Danzig; the pfennig is etymologically related to the English penny, the Swedish penning, model for the Finnish penni, the Polish fenig, the Lithuanian word for money pinigai and the pfenig of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The etymology of all of these is not clear, but seems to rely on the way coins were minted during the Middle Ages: the base material were thin flat metal discs; the value was embossed from one side - like coin. In some German countries, coins had similar but different names, as pfenning, pending and penny; this was for better handling due to different currencies used simultaneously.
As a currency sign a variation of the minuscule letter ‘d’ for ‘denarius’ in German Kurrent script was modified so the terminal end of the minuscule Kurrent ‘d’, that trailed at the top of the ascender in an anticlockwise loop, was instead brought down behind the right of the ascender, to form a descender, that hooked clockwise, thus making it a distinct symbol, different from any of the other Kurrent letters in its own right: ₰. The pfennig symbol has nearly fallen out of use since the 1950s, with the demise and eventual abolition of the Reichsmark with its Reichspfennig, to say nothing of the abolition of Kurrent by the National Socialists on 3 January 1941, thus making it cryptic as familiarity with Kurrent script has decreased since that time; the symbol is encoded in Unicode at U+20B0 ₰ GERMAN PENNY SIGN. In the 8th century Charlemagne declared. A single coin had a mass of 1.7 grams after the coinage reform of circa 790. Until the 13th century, the pfennig was made from real silver, thus of high value.
From the 12th century on, the German King was no longer able to enforce the regalia to mint coins, so many towns and local lords made their own coins. Less valuable metals and less metal per coin was used, so different pfennigs had different values. Within a few decades, two parallel denominations had developed: high-value Weißpfennige with over 50 percent of silver and low-value Schwarzpfennige with a high content of copper and little silver or no silver at all; some renowned coins made of copper are the Häller or Haller pfennig of Schwäbisch Hall, some centuries called Heller, minted throughout the country, the Kreuzer, minted in Austria and some regions of Upper Germany. By the late 17th century, the pfennigs had lost most of their value; the last pfennig coins containing traces of silver are rarities minted in 1805. The Mark gold currency, introduced in 1871 as currency of the newly founded German Reich, was divided as 1 Mark = 100 Pfennig; this partition was retained through all German currencies until 2001.
The last West German one- and two-pfennig coins were steel with a copper coating. The five- and ten-pfennig coins were steel with a brass coating; the latter was called a Groschen, while the five-pfennig coin, half a groschen, was regionally referred to as the Sechser, deriving from the former duodecimal division of the groschen. All four coins had their value imprinted on an oak on the reverse; the coins of the Mark der DDR were made of aluminium, except for the 20 pfennigs coin, made of an aluminium copper alloy. After the introduction of the euro, some older, Germans tend to use the term pfennig instead of cent for the copper-coloured coins; the pfennig ligature is defined and coded in Unicode as follows: Bracteate Penny Denier, the French penny
Mecklenburg-Vorpommern known by its anglicized name Mecklenburg-West Pomerania, is a state of Germany. Of the country's 16 states, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern ranks 14th in population, 6th in area, 16th in population density. Schwerin is the state capital and Rostock is the largest city. Other major cities include Neubrandenburg, Greifswald, Wismar and Güstrow; the state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern was established in 1945 after World War II through the merger of the historic regions of Mecklenburg and the Prussian Western Pomerania by the Soviet military administration in Allied-occupied Germany. Mecklenburg-Vorpommern became part of the German Democratic Republic in 1947, but was dissolved in 1952 during administrative reforms and its territory divided into the districts of Rostock and Neubrandenburg. Mecklenburg-Vorpommern was re-established in 1990 following German reunification, became one of the Federal Republic of Germany's new states. Mecklenburg-Vorpommern's coastline on the Baltic Sea features many holiday resorts and much unspoilt nature, including the islands such as Rügen and Usedom, as well as the Mecklenburg Lake District, making the state one of Germany's leading tourist destinations.
Three of Germany's fourteen national parks, as well as several hundred nature conservation areas, are in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. The University of Rostock, established in 1419, the University of Greifswald, established in 1456, are among the oldest universities in Europe. Mecklenburg-Vorpommern was the site of the 33rd G8 summit in 2007. Due to its lengthy name, the state is abbreviated as MV or shortened to MeckPomm. In English, it is sometimes translated as "Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania" or "Mecklenburg-Cispomerania". Inhabitants are called either Mecklenburger or Pomeranians, the combined form is never used; the full name in German is pronounced. Sometimes, Mecklenburg is pronounced; this is. Mecklenburg however is within the historical Low German language area, the "c" appeared in its name during the period of transition to Standard, High German usage; the introduction of the "c" is explained as follows: Either the "c" signals the stretched pronunciation of the preceding "e", or it signals the pronunciation of the subsequent "k" as an occlusive to prevent it from falsely being rendered as a fricative following a Low German trend.
Another explanation is that the "c" comes from a mannerism in High German officialese of writing unnecessary letters, a so-called Letternhäufelung. In the aftermath of the Second World War and German reunification in 1990, the state was constituted from the historic region of Mecklenburg and Western Pomerania, both of which had long and rich independent histories. Human settlement in the area of modern Mecklenburg and Vorpommern began after the Ice Age, about 10,000 BC. About two thousand years ago, Germanic peoples were recorded in the area. Most of them left during the Migration Period, heading towards Spain and France, leaving the area deserted. In the 6th century Polabian Slavs populated the area. While Mecklenburg was settled by the Obotrites, Vorpommern was settled by the Rani. Along the coast and Slavs established trade posts like Reric and Menzlin. In the 12th century and Vorpommern were conquered by Henry the Lion and incorporated into the Duchy of Saxony, joining the Holy Roman Empire in the 1180s.
Parts of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern was settled with Germans in the Ostsiedlung process, starting in the 12th century. In the late 12th century, Henry the Lion, Duke of the Saxons, conquered the Obotrites, subjugated its Nikloting dynasty, Christianized its people. In the course of time, German monks, nobility and traders arrived to settle here. After the 12th century, the territory remained stable and independent of its neighbours. Mecklenburg first became a duchy of the Holy Roman Empire in 1348. Though partitioned and re-partitioned within the same dynasty, Mecklenburg always shared a common history and identity; the states of Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Mecklenburg-Strelitz became Grand Duchies in 1815, in 1870 they voluntarily joined the new German Empire, while retaining their own internal autonomy. After the First World War and the abdication of the German Kaiser, the monarchies of the duchies were abolished and republican governments of both Mecklenburg states were established, until the Nazi government merged the two states into a unified state of Mecklenburg, a meaningless administrative decision under the centralised regime.
Vorpommern Fore-Pomerania, is the smaller, western part of the former Prussian Province of Pomerania. In the Middle Ages, the area was ruled by the Pomeranian dukes as part of the Duchy of Pomerania. Pomerania was under Swedish rule after the Peace of Westphalia from 1648 until 1815 as Swedish Pomerania. Pomerania became a province of Prussia in 1815 and remained so until 1945. In May 1945, the armies of the Soviet Union and the Western allies met east of Schwerin. Following the Potsdam Agreement, the Western allies handed over Mecklenburg to the Soviets. Mecklenburg-West Pomerania was established on 9 July 1945, by order No. 5 of Red Army Marshal Georgy Zhuko
The Holsten Gate is a city gate marking off the western boundary of the old center of the Hanseatic city of Lübeck. Built in 1464, the Brick Gothic construction is one of the relics of Lübeck's medieval city fortifications and one of two remaining city gates, the other being the Citadel Gate. Known for its two-round towers and arched entrance, it is regarded today as a symbol of the city. Together with the old city centre of Lübeck it has been a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1987; the Holsten Gate is composed of a north tower and a central building. It has four floors, except for the ground floor of the central block, where the gate's passageway is located; the side facing west is called the "field side", the side facing the city the "city side". The two towers and the central block appear as one construction. On the field side, the three units can be differentiated. Here the two towers form semicircles which at their widest point extend 3.5 metres beyond the central block. The towers have conical roofs.
The passageway once had two gates on the field side. A portcullis installed in 1934 does not correspond to the original security installations. Instead, there was once a so-called "pipe organ" at this location, with individual bars which could be lowered separately rather than together as a set, thus it was possible to first lower all but one or two rods, leaving a small gap for their own men to slip through later. There is an inscription over the passageway on both the field side. On the city side it reads, "SPQL" and is framed by the years 1477 and 1871, the former being the supposed date of construction, the latter being the date of the gate's restoration and the founding of the German Reich; this inscription was modeled on stands for Senatus populusque Lubecensis. It was, affixed only in 1871. There was no inscription at this location, it would have been pointless, since the view of the lower parts of the Holsten Gate from the city side was obscured by high walls. There is another inscription on the field side.
The text is "concordia domi foris pax". This inscription is from 1871 and is a shortened form of the text, on the foregate: "Concordia domi et pax foris sane res est omnium pulcherrima". Functionally, the field and the city side have different designs. While the city side is richly decorated with windows, this would be inappropriate on the field side considering the possibility of combat situations. On the field side there are accordingly only a few small windows. In addition, the walls are interspersed with embrasures; the wall thickness on the field side is greater than on the city side: 3.5 metres compared to less than 1 metre. The reasoning during construction may have been to be able to destroy the gate from the city side in an emergency, so that it would not fall into enemy hands as a bulwark; the loopholes and the openings of the gun chambers are directed toward the field side. In each tower there were three gun chambers, one each on the ground and second floors; those on the ground floor have not been preserved.
Since the building has subsided over the centuries, they are now 50 centimetres below ground level, below the new flooring. On the first upper storey there are, in addition to the aforementioned chambers, two slits for small guns which were above and between the three chambers. There are small openings on the third upper storey with forward- and downward-directed slits for firing small arms; the central block has no loopholes. The windows above the passage were designed for dousing invaders with pitch or boiling water; the most striking nonfunctional embellishments are two so-called terracotta stripes which encircle the building. These consist of individual tiles; each tile bears one of three different ornaments: either an arrangement of four heraldic lilies, a symmetrical lattice, or a representation of four thistle leaves. There is no apparent order to these recurring symbols, but each group of eight tiles is always followed by a tile with a different design, it bears either the Lübeck heraldic eagle or a stylized tree.
These shields are flanked by two male figures. The terracotta stripes were repaired during restoration work between 1865 and 1870. Only three of the original tiles are preserved as museum specimens; the new tiles approximate the former design. For example, the design of the heraldic eagle motif is by no means a reflection of the original; the pediment was not faithfully restored, but this is not the fault of the restorers, since in the 19th century it had long been gone and its original appearance was unknown. An old view on an altarpiece in the Lübeck fortress monastery shows a Holsten Gate with five pediment towers, but since this picture shows the Holstentor Gate in the middle of a fantasy landscape of mountains and forests the credibility of the representation is disputed. Today, three towers crown the pediment, it was constructed with red bricks. Both tower interiors have the same design; the ground floor and first upper story have the highest ceilings, while the floors above are much lower.
Two narrow s
Dresden is the capital city and, after Leipzig, the second-largest city of the Free State of Saxony in Germany. It is situated near the border with the Czech Republic. Dresden has a long history as the capital and royal residence for the Electors and Kings of Saxony, who for centuries furnished the city with cultural and artistic splendor, was once by personal union the family seat of Polish monarchs; the city was known as the Jewel Box, because of its baroque and rococo city centre. The controversial American and British bombing of Dresden in World War II towards the end of the war killed 25,000 people, many of whom were civilians, destroyed the entire city centre. After the war restoration work has helped to reconstruct parts of the historic inner city, including the Katholische Hofkirche, the Zwinger and the famous Semper Oper. Since German reunification in 1990 Dresden is again a cultural and political centre of Germany and Europe; the Dresden University of Technology is one of the 10 largest universities in Germany and part of the German Universities Excellence Initiative.
The economy of Dresden and its agglomeration is one of the most dynamic in Germany and ranks first in Saxony. It is dominated by high-tech branches called “Silicon Saxony”; the city is one of the most visited in Germany with 4.3 million overnight stays per year. The royal buildings are among the most impressive buildings in Europe. Main sights are the nearby National Park of Saxon Switzerland, the Ore Mountains and the countryside around Elbe Valley and Moritzburg Castle; the most prominent building in the city of Dresden is the Frauenkirche. Built in the 18th century, the church was destroyed during World War II; the remaining ruins were left for 50 years as a war memorial, before being rebuilt between 1994 and 2005. Dresden has nearly 560,000 inhabitants, the agglomeration is the largest in Saxony with 780,000 inhabitants. According to the Hamburgische Weltwirtschaftsinstitut and Berenberg Bank in 2017, Dresden has the fourth best prospects for the future of all cities in Germany. Although Dresden is a recent city of Germanic origin followed by settlement of Slavic people, the area had been settled in the Neolithic era by Linear Pottery culture tribes ca. 7500 BC.
Dresden's founding and early growth is associated with the eastward expansion of Germanic peoples, mining in the nearby Ore Mountains, the establishment of the Margraviate of Meissen. Its name etymologically derives from meaning people of the forest. Dresden evolved into the capital of Saxony. Around the late 12th century, a Slavic settlement called Drežďany had developed on the southern bank. Another settlement existed on the northern bank, it was known as Antiqua Dresdin by 1350, as Altendresden, both "old Dresden". Dietrich, Margrave of Meissen, chose Dresden as his interim residence in 1206, as documented in a record calling the place "Civitas Dresdene". After 1270, Dresden became the capital of the margraviate, it was given to Friedrich Clem after death of Henry the Illustrious in 1288. It was taken by the Margraviate of Brandenburg in 1316 and was restored to the Wettin dynasty after the death of Valdemar the Great in 1319. From 1485, it was the seat of the dukes of Saxony, from 1547 the electors as well.
The Elector and ruler of Saxony Frederick Augustus I became King Augustus II the Strong of Poland in 1697. He gathered many of the best musicians and painters from all over Europe to the newly named Royal-Polish Residential City of Dresden, his reign marked the beginning of Dresden's emergence as a leading European city for technology and art. During the reign of Kings Augustus II the Strong and Augustus III of Poland most of the city's baroque landmarks were built; these include the Zwinger Royal Palace, the Japanese Palace, the Taschenbergpalais, the Pillnitz Castle and the two landmark churches: the Catholic Hofkirche and the Lutheran Frauenkirche. In addition significant art collections and museums were founded. Notable examples include the Dresden Porcelain Collection, the Collection of Prints and Photographs, the Grünes Gewölbe and the Mathematisch-Physikalischer Salon. In 1726 there was a riot for two days after a Protestant clergyman was killed by a soldier who had converted from Catholicism.
In 1729, by decree of King Augustus II the first Polish Military Academy was founded in Dresden. In 1730, it was relocated to Warsaw. Dresden suffered heavy destruction in the Seven Years' War, following its capture by Prussian forces, its subsequent re-capture, a failed Prussian siege in 1760. Friedrich Schiller wrote his Ode to Joy for the Dresden Masonic lodge in 1785. During the decline of Poland Dresden was site of preparations for the Polish Kościuszko Uprising; the city of Dresden had a distinctive silhouette, captured in famous paintings by Bernardo Bellotto and by Norwegian painter Johan Christian Dahl. Between 1806 and 1918 the city was the capital of the Kingdom of Saxony. During the Napoleonic Wars the French emperor made it a base of operations, winning there the famous Battle of Dresden on 27 August 1813. Following the November Uprising many Poles, including writers Juliusz Słowacki, Stefan Florian Garczyński, Klementyna Hoffmanowa and composer Frédéric Chopin, fled from the Russian Partition of Poland to Dresden.
National poet Adam Mickiewicz stayed several months in Dresden, starting in March 1832. He wrote the poetic drama Dziady, P
Ludwigskirche in Old Saarbrücken, Germany, is a Lutheran baroque-style church. It is the symbol of the city and is considered to be one of the most important Protestant churches in Germany, along with the Dresden Frauenkirche and the St. Michael's Church, Hamburg. Ludwigskirche and the surrounding Ludwigsplatz were designed as a "complete work of art", in the sense of a baroque place royale, by Friedrich Joachim Stengel on the commission of Prince William Henry. Construction was begun in 1762. After the death of William Henry in 1768, work on it was stopped due to lack of funds; the church was completed in 1775 by his son, it was named after him. The consecration of the church took place on August 25, 1775, with a church service and a cantata composed for the occasion. In 1885-1887 and in 1906-1911, the church underwent restoration. During the Second World War, Ludwigskirche was completely destroyed. After a bombing on October 5, 1944, only the surrounding walls remained. Rebuilding began in 1949, however it has still not been completed.
The main reason for this long delay was the fierce dispute, which lasted from the 1950s into the 1970s, about whether the baroque interior, lost, should be reconstructed according to the original plans. At first, it had been agreed to restore the exterior, with a modern interior, but this plan was abandoned. After the reconstruction of the "Fürstenstuhl" in 2009, the interior is more or less complete, but more than half of the balustrade figures on the outside are still lacking as well as the exterior finish; the ground plan is shaped somewhat like a Greek cross. There are niches on the outside; the stone balustrades were decorated with 28 figures by Bingh, depicting the apostles and other Biblical people. The interior of the church is decorated with ornamental stucco; each of the four arms of the cross has a gallery supported by two to four caryatids. The floor is made of sandstone. Special features of the interior are the arrangement of the church by and large along the width of the church, on the one hand, the placement of the altar and organ over each other, on the other hand.
The arrangement with the altar and organ is rather unusual for a Lutheran church, but it had been used by Stengel in some of his earlier buildings. Stengel designed not only the overall plan of the church and the surrounding palaces, from the handles for the doors to the overall grounds, but he fit the church and the square into the two main viewing axes of the city's layout. One of these axes, from the "Alten Kirche" in the city district of St. Johann, through the Wilhelm-Heinrich-Straße of today and the main entrance, up to the altar, is still visible today; the other axis points over the exit, which faces the Saarland state chancellery today, toward the former royal summer residences on Ludwigsberg, the so-called Ludwigspark. The restoration of the original white paint on the exterior is still being disputed. Whether it was lost during the 19th century or during the air raid 1945 is not clear, but it would be important for fitting the church into the surrounding buildings of the square, but it has become quite a strange idea to many local residents in the past decades.
The square surrounding the church, was an integral part of Stengel's concept from the beginning. The original plan provided for a long, rectangular square, with four differently designed types of noble city palaces along the long sides and two large public buildings on the ends. During construction, this concept was changed, so that the building on the east was split in two, in favor of a view toward St. Johann. Only the western building was kept; the remains of the Gymnasium, damaged by the great bombing in 1944, was torn down in 1945. It stood where the upper plateau of the stairs is today. In the lines of palaces planned for the long sides of the square, the four smallest buildings on the corners of the square were never erected – which made it possible to have a street running between the orphanage and the church, which detracts from the impression of the square as much as the trees there. In contrast to, the place that Stengel intentionally left open for the view toward Ludwigsberg, today occupied by the state chancellery.
Until 1944 there has been an organ of the company Stumm with 37 stops. The modern organ case is a reconstruction of the historical case; the current organ was built in 1982 by Rudolf von Beckerath / Hamburg. It has got three keyboards; the tracker action and the couplers are mechanically. The organ has got the following stoplist: Couplers: II/I, III/I, III/II, I/P, II/P, III/P Plenum, Tutti, 10-fache Setzeranlage In 1965, Ludwigskirche was depicted on the series of stamps, Hauptstädte der Länder der Bundesrepublik Deutschland; as the symbol of the Saarland state capital of Saarbrücken, Ludwigskirche is shown on the German 2 euro commemorative coin in 2009. Foreign language guidebooks describe Ludwigskirche as "église St. Louis" or "St. Louis church". However, it is not dedicated to Saint Louis, but named