German literature

German literature comprises those literary texts written in the German language. This includes literature written in Germany, the German parts of Switzerland and Belgium, South Tyrol in Italy and to a lesser extent works of the German diaspora. German literature of the modern period is in Standard German, but there are some currents of literature influenced to a greater or lesser degree by dialects. Medieval German literature is literature written in Germany, stretching from the Carolingian dynasty; the Old High German period is reckoned to run until about the mid-11th century. Middle High German starts in the 12th century; the Baroque period was one of the most fertile times in German literature. Modern literature in German begins with the authors of the Enlightenment; the Sensibility movement of the 1750s–1770s ended with Goethe's best-selling Die Leiden des jungen Werther. The Sturm und Drang and Weimar Classicism movements were led by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe and Friedrich Schiller. German Romanticism was the dominant movement of the late early 19th centuries.

Biedermeier refers to the literature, the visual arts and interior design in the period between the years 1815, the end of the Napoleonic Wars, 1848, the year of the European revolutions. Under the Nazi regime, some authors went into exile and others submitted to censorship; the Nobel Prize in Literature has been awarded to German language authors thirteen times, or the third most after English and French language authors, with winners including Thomas Mann, Hermann Hesse, Günter Grass. Periodization is not an exact science but the following list contains movements or time periods used in discussing German literature, it seems worth noting that the periods of medieval German literature span two or three centuries, those of early modern German literature span one century, those of modern German literature each span one or two decades. The closer one nears the present, the more debated the periodizations become. Medieval German literature Old High German literature Middle High German literature Late medieval / Renaissance Early Modern German literature Humanism and Protestant Reformation Baroque Enlightenment Modern German literature 18th- and 19th-century German literature Empfindsamkeit / Sensibility Sturm und Drang / Storm and Stress German Classicism Weimar Classicism or, depending on Schiller's or Goethe's death German Romanticism Biedermeier Young Germany Poetic Realism Naturalism 20th-century German literature 1900–1933 Fin de siècle Symbolism Expressionism Dada New Objectivity 1933–1945 National Socialist literature Exile literature 1945–1989 By country Federal Republic of Germany German Democratic Republic Austria Switzerland Other By thematic or group Post-war literature Group 47 Holocaust literature Contemporary German literature Medieval German literature refers to literature written in Germany, stretching from the Carolingian dynasty.

The Old High German period is reckoned to run until about the mid-11th century, though the boundary to Early Middle High German is not clear-cut. The most famous work in OHG is the Hildebrandslied, a short piece of Germanic alliterative heroic verse which besides the Muspilli is the sole survivor of what must have been a vast oral tradition. Another important work, in the northern dialect of Old Saxon, is a life of Christ in the style of a heroic epic known as the Heliand. Middle High German proper runs from the beginning of the 12th century, in the second half of the 12th century, there was a sudden intensification of activity, leading to a 60-year "golden age" of medieval German literature referred to as the mittelhochdeutsche Blütezeit; this was the period of the blossoming of MHG lyric poetry Minnesang. One of the most important of these poets was Walther von der Vogelweide; the same sixty years saw the composition of the most important courtly romances. These are written in rhyming couplets, again draw on French models such as Chrétien de Troyes, many of them relating Arthurian material, for example, Parzival by Wolfram von Eschenbach.

The third literary movement of these years was a new revamping of the heroic tradition, in which the ancient Germanic oral tradition can still be discerned, but tamed and Christianized and adapted for the court. These high medieval heroic epics are written in rhymed strophes, not the alliterative verse of Germanic prehistory; the Middle High German period is conventionally taken to end in 1350, while the Early New High German is taken to begin with the German Renaissance, after the invention of movable type in the mid-15th century. Therefore, the literature of the late 14th and the early 15th century falls, as it were, in the cracks between Middle a

Emma Marrone

Emmanuela "Emma" Marrone, known professionally as Emma, is an Italian pop singer, records producer and TV personality. After working with several bands, she won the Italian talent show Amici di Maria De Filippi in March 2010, signed a contract with record label Universal Music. Since 2010 she has released 6 solo studio albums, 1 extended play and 28 singles, peaking the Italian Singles Chart fourth time and the Italian Albums Chart three times and solding more than 1,4 milions records in Italy. On 18 February 2012, she won the Sanremo Music Festival 2012 with her song "Non è l'inferno" and she represented Italy in the Eurovision Song Contest 2014 with the song "La mia città", finishing 21st, she has worked with international artist like Thirty Seconds to Mars and Álvaro Soler, italian artists and songwriter such as Elisa, Alessandra Amoroso, Modà, Fabrizio Moro, Vasco Rossi, Giuliano Sangiorgi and Roberto Casalino. Marrone figured as a songwriter and producer for other artists like Elodie and Antonino.

In 2013 and 2015, Marrone was selected as the artistic director of one of the teams in Amici di Maria De Filippi, which gave her two Italian Television Direction Awards, acted in several italian TV series and films, including Gabriele Muccino's film Gli anni più belli in 2020. She received several italians and internationals awards and nominations including three MTV Italian Music Awards, one TRL Awards and was nominated at the MTV Europe Music Award and the World Music Awards. Born in Florence, she spent her early childhood in Sesto Fiorentino. At the age of four, she moved with her family to Aradeo in the province of Lecce, from where her parents came, she acquired her passion for music from her father Rosario, a guitarist in a band from Aradeo called "Karadreon", formed when Marrone was about 10 years old, which performed in festivals and clubs. She was in a band called H2O, she graduated from classical high school. She was a saleswoman for three years. Marrone started her professional musical career in 2003, when she took part in the second Italian edition of Popstars.

The group released a successful single in 2003 called "Stile", on the Universal label. In 2006 the group recorded the soundtrack of the cartoon W. I. T. C. H. and released a dance-pop album, called LS3. The band broke up. In 2007, she formed another alternative rock group, M. J. U. R.. The group won a contract with Dracma Records, recorded an album between August and September 2007, released the album Mjur in January 2008, with ten tracks written and composed by its members. Between 2007 and 2009, she was in the band Anonimo Soul with her uncle Emidio Marrone, performing soul and funk; until 2009 she played with H20, a band in which her father Rosario Marrone was a member. In 2009, she took part in another talent show for Canale 5, Amici di Maria De Filippi, won this competition. In March 2010, through Universal Music she released her first EP, successful in Italy, peaking at number one for two weeks on the Italian Albums Chart. In the same month, her first single was released, "Calore", which peaked at number one for two weeks and was certified platinum.

The EP was certified triple platinum for its sales in Italy and was the second best-selling album of 2010 in Italy. In Switzerland it peaked at number 85. On 28 May 2010, she took part in the Wind Music Awards, was awarded the prize for the multiplatinum CD EP Oltre by her idol Gianna Nannini. In June 2010, she began her first summer-long tour: the Ahi ce sta passu tour, she toured throughout Italy with her band. In the same month, she took part in the Amici Tour 2010 with all the contestants of the talent show. In July 2010, the second single from Oltre was released: "Un sogno a costo zero". After the tour, she released the video for the third single "Sembra strano". In the summer of 2010, Marrone received the award for Best Female Vocalist of the Year 2010 at the Venice Music Awards. On 24 September 2010, a new single called. On 19 October her second solo record was released through Universal, A me piace così, which debuted at number 2 on the Italian singles chart, while in Switzerland peaked at number 50.

On 19 November 2010, the second single from the album, "Cullami", was released. On 30 November 2010, a special edition of the album was released which included both the albums Oltre and A me piace così, with two new songs: "L'Amore Che Ho" and " The Dock of the Bay". In February 2011, she was nominated for the TRL Awards 2011 in the category Best Talent Show Artist. Marrone participated in the Sanremo Music Festival 2011 with the group Modà with the song "Arriverà", finishing in second place, behind Roberto Vecchioni; the track "Arriverà" debuted at the top of the Italian singles chart. In conjunction with her participation, the Sanremo Edition of the album was released, it featured a new cover, "Arriverà" and two new songs, "Io son per te l'amore" and "Per sempre". On 15 March 2011, Marrone opened the only Italian date of Taylor Swift's tour. On 15 April 2011, the song "Io son per te l'amore" was released as a single. On 29 May 2011, she opened the final of the Italian Cup 2010–2011 at the Stadio Olimpico in Rome, singing the Italian national anthem.

In summer 2011, Emma embarked on her second tour, A me piace cosi Tour 2011. In the same period she opened two concerts for three concerts for Gianna Nannini. In the summer of 2011, she was awarded the Wind Music Awards 2011 for sal


Ziracuaretiro is a municipality in the Mexican state of Michoacán. Ziracuaretiro is located on the central part of the state at 121 km from the state capital of Morelia, it has a territory of 159.93 km² bordering with Tingambato, Santa Clara and Uruapan municipalities, the meaning of the name is: "the place where the warmth ends and the cold starts" It has an average altitude of 1,380 meters above the sea level and it has a tropical climate in summer and the temperature ranges between 8.0 and 37.0 Celsius degrees. The ecosystem is dominated by mixed forest with species such as pine and oak, tropical deciduous forest, with species such as cedar and lysiloma acapulcensis. Typical fauna includes deer, fox, crow, badger, coyote and peckerwood. Ziracuaretiro means: "the place where the warmth ends and the cold starts", it was settled years before the arrival of the Spanish people, because of the nature and for the ease to plant fruits. Don Vasco de Quiroga planted 5 different species of bananas which were taken from the island of Santo Domingo.

The current municipality was formed in 1922