SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Germanisation

Germanisation, or Germanization, is the spread of the German language and culture. It was a central plank of German conservative thinking in the 19th and 20th centuries, during a period when conservatism and ethno-nationalism went hand-in-hand. In linguistics, Germanisation occurs when a word from the German language is adopted into a foreign language. Under the policies of states such as the Teutonic Order, the German Empire, Nazi Germany, non-Germans were prohibited from using their native language, had their traditions and culture suppressed. In addition and settlers were used to upset the population balance. During the Nazi era Germanisation turned into a policy of ethnic cleansing and into the genocide of some non-German ethnic groups. There are different forms and degrees of the expansion of the German language and of elements of German culture. There are examples of complete assimilation into German culture, as happened with the pagan Slavs in the Diocese of Bamberg in the 11th century.

An example of the eclectic adoption of German culture is the field of law in Imperial and present-day Japan, organised according to the model of the German Empire. Germanisation took place by cultural contact, by political decision of the adopting party, or by force. In Slavic countries, the term Germanisation is understood to mean the process of acculturation of Slavic- and Baltic-language speakers – after conquest by or cultural contact with Germans in the early Middle Ages. In East Prussia, forced resettlement of the "Old" or "Baltic" Prussians by the Teutonic Order as well as acculturation by immigrants from various European countries – Poles and Germans – contributed to the eventual extinction of the Prussian language in the 17th century. Since the flight and expulsion of Germans from Central and Eastern Europe at the end of and after World War II, the process of Germanisation has been stopped or reversed in most of these territories. Another form of Germanisation is the forceful imposition of German culture and people upon non-German people, Slavs in particular.

Early Germanisation went along with the Ostsiedlung during the Middle Ages in Hanoverian Wendland, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern and other areas inhabited by Slavic tribes – Polabian Slavs such as Obotrites and Sorbs. Early forms of Germanisation were recorded by German monks in manuscripts such as Chronicon Slavorum; the proto-Slovene language was spoken in a much larger territory than modern Slovenia, which included most of the present-day Austrian states of Carinthia and Styria, as well as East Tyrol, the Val Pusteria in South Tyrol, some parts of Upper and Lower Austria. By the 15th century most of these areas had been Germanised; the northern border of Slovene-speaking territory stabilised on a line from north of Klagenfurt to south of Villach and east of Hermagor in Carinthia, while in Styria it followed the current Austrian-Slovenian border. This linguistic border remained unchanged until the late 19th century, when a second process of Germanisation took place in Carinthia. In Tyrol there was a Germanisation of the Ladino-Romantsch of the Venosta Valley by Austria in the 16th century.

The rise of nationalism in the late 18th and 19th centuries in Bohemia, Silesia, Pomerania and Slovenia led to an increased sense of "pride" in national cultures. However, centuries of cultural dominance by the Germans left a German mark on those societies. From the high Middle Ages until the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in 1918 German had a strong impact on the Slovene language and many Germanisms are preserved in contemporary colloquial Slovene. In the German colonies, the policy of imposing German as the official language led to the development of German-based pidgins and German-based creole languages, such as Unserdeutsch. Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II, a leader influenced by the Enlightenment, sought to centralise control of the empire and to rule it as an enlightened despot, he decreed. Hungarians perceived Joseph's language reform as German cultural hegemony, they reacted by insisting on the right to use their own tongue; as a result, Hungarian lesser nobles sparked a renaissance of the Hungarian culture.

The lesser nobles questioned the loyalty of the magnates, of whom less than half were ethnic Hungarians, many of these had become French- and German-speaking courtiers. The Hungarian national revival subsequently triggered similar movements among the Slovak, Romanian and Croatian minorities within the Kingdom of Hungary. Germanisation in Prussia occurred in several stages; the Old Prussians a Baltic ethnic group, were Germanised by the Teutonic Knights. Germanisation efforts were pursued by Frederick the Great in territories of partitioned Poland. There was an easing of Germanisation policy in the period 1815–30, followed by an intensification of Germanisation and a persecution of Poles in the Grand Duchy of Posen in 1830–41. Germanisation ceased during the period of 1841–49 and restarted during years 1849–70. Bismarck intensified Germanisation during his Kulturkampf against Polish people. There was a slight easing of the persecution of Poles during 1890–94

Delta method

In statistics, the delta method is a result concerning the approximate probability distribution for a function of an asymptotically normal statistical estimator from knowledge of the limiting variance of that estimator. The delta method was derived from propagation of error, the idea behind was known in the early 19th century, its statistical application can be traced as far back as 1928 by T. L. Kelley. A formal description of the method was presented by J. L. Doob in 1935. Robert Dorfman described a version of it in 1938. While the delta method generalizes to a multivariate setting, careful motivation of the technique is more demonstrated in univariate terms. If there is a sequence of random variables Xn satisfying n → D N, where θ and σ2 are finite valued constants and → D denotes convergence in distribution n → D N for any function g satisfying the property that g′ exists and is non-zero valued. Demonstration of this result is straightforward under the assumption that g′ is continuous. To begin, we use the mean value theorem: g = g + g ′, where θ ~ lies between Xn and θ.

Note that since X n → P θ and X n < θ ~ < θ, it must be that θ ~ → P θ and since g′ is continuous, applying the continuous mapping theorem yields g ′ → P g ′, where → P denotes convergence in probability. Rearranging the terms and multiplying by n gives n = g ′ n. Since n → D N by assumption, it follows from appeal to Slutsky's theorem that n → D N; this concludes the proof. Alternatively, one can add one more step at the end, to obtain the order of approximation: n = g ′ n = n [ g ′ + g ′ (

Percy Lee Gassaway

Percy Lee Gassaway was an American politician and a U. S. Representative from Oklahoma. Born in Waco, McLennan County, Gassaway was the son of Rev. B. F. and Elizabeth Scoggins Gassaway. He moved to Fort Sill, with his parents in 1899. A few years the Gassaway family returned to Texas and purchased the Sinclair Ranch in Lipscomb County, he attended the public schools in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. He married Laura Weaver, they had a daughter. Following a divorce, Gassaway lived for a time in Mexico. Upon his return to the United States, he married Linnie Weeks, the couple had two sons and a daughter; the marriage ended in divorce. In 1915 Gassaway moved to Coalgate, where he worked in a pool hall. George Trice, an eminent Oklahoma lawyer, took an interest in the young man and encouraged him to study law. Gassaway was employed as a clerk in a law office while he completed a law course and was admitted to the bar in 1918. During this time he married Loreta Rogers. In 1920 Gassaway married Lillian Fooshee.

The couple lived on a ranch near Coalgate. He commenced practice in Coalgate, Oklahoma as well as ranching. Gassaway was appointed county judge of Coal County, Oklahoma, in 1923, elected in 1924, served until 1926, he served as district judge of the twenty-sixth judicial district from 1926 to 1934. Elected as a Democrat to the Seventy-fourth Congress, Gassaway served from January 3, 1935 to January 3, 1937, he was an unsuccessful candidate for renomination in 1936, resumed the practice of law and engaged as a rancher near Coalgate, Oklahoma. Gassaway died in Coalgate, Coal County, Oklahoma, on May 15, 1937, he is interred at Coalgate Cemetery in Coalgate. United States Congress. "Percy Lee Gassaway". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Percy L. Gassaway Collection and Photograph Collection at the Carl Albert Center Percy Lee Gassaway at Find a Grave Gassaway, Henry Griffith Jr. Gassaway: a history and genealogy of the descendants of Col Nicholas Gassaway, Birmingham, MI 1935 Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture - Gassaway, Percy