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Gerolamo Cardano

Gerolamo Cardano was an Italian polymath, whose interests and proficiencies ranged from being a mathematician, biologist, chemist, astronomer, philosopher and gambler. He was one of the most influential mathematicians of the Renaissance, was one of the key figures in the foundation of probability and the earliest introducer of the binomial coefficients and the binomial theorem in the Western world, he wrote more than 200 works on science. Cardano invented and described several mechanical devices including the combination lock, the gimbal consisting of three concentric rings allowing a supported compass or gyroscope to rotate and the Cardan shaft with universal joints, which allows the transmission of rotary motion at various angles and is used in vehicles to this day, he made significant contributions to hypocycloids, published in De proportionibus, in 1570. The generating circles of these hypocycloids were named Cardano circles or cardanic circles and were used for the construction of the first high-speed printing presses.

Today, he is well known for his achievements in algebra. He made the first systematic use of negative numbers in Europe, published with attribution the solutions of other mathematicians for the cubic and quartic equations, acknowledged the existence of imaginary numbers, he was born in Pavia, the illegitimate child of Fazio Cardano, a mathematically gifted jurist and close personal friend of Leonardo da Vinci. In his autobiography, Cardano wrote that his mother, Chiara Micheri, had taken "various abortive medicines" to terminate the pregnancy, she was in labour for three days. Shortly before his birth, his mother had to move from Milan to Pavia to escape the Plague. After a depressing childhood, with frequent illnesses, including impotence, the rough upbringing by his overbearing father, in 1520, Cardano entered the University of Pavia against his father's wish, who wanted his son to undertake studies of law, but Girolamo felt more attracted to philosophy and science. During the Italian War of 1521-6, the authorities in Pavia were forced to close the university in 1524.

Cardano resumed his studies at the University of Padua, where he graduated with a doctorate in medicine in 1525. His eccentric and confrontational style did not earn him many friends and he had a difficult time finding work after his studies had ended. In 1525, Cardano applied to the College of Physicians in Milan, but was not admitted owing to his combative reputation and illegitimate birth. However, he was consulted by many members of the College of Physicians, because of his irrefutable intelligence. Cardano wanted to practise medicine in a large, rich city like Milan, but he was denied a licence to practise, so he settled for the town of Saccolongo, where he practised without a license. There, he married Lucia Banderini in 1531. Before her death in 1546, they had three children, Giovanni Battista and Aldo Urbano. Cardano wrote that those were the happiest days of his life. With the help of a few noblemen, Cardano obtained a teaching position in mathematics in Milan. Having received his medical licence, he practised mathematics and medicine treating a few influential patients in the process.

Because of this, he became one of the most sought-after doctors in Milan. In fact, by 1536, he was able to quit his teaching position, although he was still interested in mathematics, his notability in the medical field was such. Cardano wrote that he turned down offers from the kings of Denmark and France, the Queen of Scotland. Cardano was the first mathematician to make systematic use of negative numbers, he published with attribution the solution of Scipione del Ferro to the cubic equation and the solution of his student Lodovico Ferrari to the quartic equation in his 1545 book Ars Magna. The solution to one particular case of the cubic equation a x 3 + b x + c = 0, had been communicated to him in 1539 by Niccolò Fontana Tartaglia in the form of a poem, but Ferro's solution predated Fontana's. In his exposition, he acknowledged the existence of what are now called imaginary numbers, although he did not understand their properties, described for the first time by his Italian contemporary Rafael Bombelli.

In Opus novum de proportionibus he introduced the binomial theorem. Cardano was notoriously short of money and kept himself solvent by being an accomplished gambler and chess player, his book about games of chance, Liber de ludo aleae, written around 1564, but not published until 1663, contains the first systematic treatment of probability, as well as a section on effective cheating methods. He used the game of throwing dice to understand the basic concepts of probability, he demonstrated the efficacy of defining odds as the ratio of favourable to unfavourable outcomes. He was aware of the multiplication rule for independent events but was not certain about what values should be multiplied. Cardano's work with hypocycloids led him to the Cardan's Movement or Cardan Gear mechan

The Nighthawk Star

The Nighthawk Starよだかの星 is a popular Japanese children’s short story by Kenji Miyazawa, thought to have been written around 1921. It was a part of the Complete Works of Kenji Miyazawa, Vol. 5 published by Chikuma Bunko, updated to be a part of the Newly Collected Complete Works of Miyazawa Kenji, Vol. 8 published by Chikuma Shobo. The short story has been translated into English in different collections of Miyazawa’s short stories such as: Once and Forever, the Tales of Kenji Miyazawa, published by Kodansha International in 1998; the Nighthawk, a nightjar, is bullied and teased by the other birds for his appearance. He is described as an “ugly bird” with an evenly dotted face and legs so weak he can walk. A lark, not that beautiful thinks himself to be more superior to the Nighthawk. However, when it comes to the real Hawk, none of the other birds dare to insult him; the Hawk dislikes the fact Nighthawk has "hawk" in his name. He always threatens him and one night he confronts Nighthawk at his home demanding that he change his name.

Hawk recommends changing it to “ICHIZO” which he thinks is not that bad. However Nighthawk does not wish to by God, it is the one thing. Hawk leaves and states that if he does not place a tag around his neck with “ICHIZO” and inform all the birds of his new name he will kill him. Nighthawk sadly contemplates why all the birds dislike him so much – all just because of his appearance, he flies out to the clouds where some insects fly into his mouth awkwardly and realizes that he too, is killing them just as the hawk plans to kill him. He decides to fly far away, he bids farewell to his younger brother, the Kingfisher and asks him to convey his best wishes to their sister the Hummingbird. Nighthawk returns to his home crying; the next day he flies to the Sun asking to take him if his body is burned but the Sun replies that since he is a night bird it will be better to ask the stars during the evening. As Nightfall hits, Nighthawk flies to the skies and asks the star of the West, Orion, to take him but his request is ignored.

Nighthawk regains momentum and flies back to the sky. Next he asks the star of the Great Dog; however his request is rejected as well. Again he flies back up; this time he asks the star of the Great Bear. The Great Bear replies that he should cool off. Disappointed, nighthawk recovers and asks the star of the East, the Hawk to take him. Hawk replies that you need status and money to become a star. With no more energy left Nighthawk plummets to the ground but just one foot before reaching it, he skyrockets towards the sky. Midway through he croaks like the hawk, “kishi, kishi….”. Soon his body becomes cold, his breath frozen and the air thin, he does not know if he is falling or flying but he is in a peaceful state of mind. After sometime, Nighthawk opens his eyes and sees that he is glowing blue beside the star, Cassiopeia. Now nighthawk’s star glows on forever to this day. Determination and will power are the predominant themes occurring in the story, with non-violence and self-sacrifice underlying the outline of the story as well.

Live Film In 2012, a live movie based off the story was made under the same title Yodaka no Hoshi. Directed by Reiko Saito featuring Akiko Kikuchi. "Vanishing Starlight" A Maxi Single by the Japanese'Fantasy Rock Band' Sound Horizon. YouTube Also on YouTube multiple versions of stage plays and modern takes of the story can be found such as “Star or Yoda

David Nordyke

David H. Nordyke was an American educator who co-wrote the Charter School Bill for the U. S. state of Ohio. Born in Dayton, Nordyke earned a degree from the University of Dayton in English and secondary education, he took graduate courses at Xavier University in Cincinnati, he worked toward a doctoral degree at Miami University in Ohio. After teaching in public and parochial schools, Nordyke founded Harmony Community School in 1998, he died in the school in 2003 over winter break, but the school still worked to achieve Nordyke's vision and mission. Harmony Community School, was one of the largest charter high schools in the state of Ohio; the school's slogan was "One size fits few,", a shortened form of Nordyke's educational philosophy. It closed on December 31, 2008. Ohio has emerged in the top ten list for states with the most Charter schools; the issue has been politically divisive, with Republican lawmakers tending to side with Charter schools, Ohio teacher unions vehemently opposing the concept.

The current Ohio law pertaining to Charter schools can be found here. During his career, Nordyke became a lightning rod for controversy, engaging in publicized disputes with local politicians, oversight agencies, his own school board members, the local public library system. In 2001, David Nordyke's organization received $460,000 in public funds to cover the costs of salaries and the rental of a facility. However, after complaints from the local library system, the government officials learned that Nordyke had left the facility while owing $40,000 in back rent, had been secretly teaching the students at a local library without notifying his funding sources or the library itself. Despite calls from then-State Senator and current Cincinnati Mayor Mark Mallory to revoke the school's funding, Nordyke was able to secure a local warehouse to house the school and thus preserve its identity as a school. David Nordyke, 51, leader of charter school Wheeler, Lonnie. "The Harmony Connection: Top Prospects Draw Attention".

The Cincinnati Post. E. W. Scripps Company. P. C1. Senator Wants School Closed

2002 FINA Men's Water Polo World League

The 2002 FINA Men's Water Polo World League was the first edition of the annual event, organised by the world's governing body in aquatics, the FINA. After two preliminary rounds the Super Final was held in Patras, Greece from August 1 to August 4, 2002. From June 28 to July 28, 2002 Greece qualified for the Super Final as the host country. Only the top place earned qualification, taken by Spain. Three points were awarded for one point for a loss; the top two places, won by Hungary and Russia, earned qualification. Three points were awarded for one point for a loss. From August 1 to August 4 The top two placed teams in the round-robin advanced to the final against each other, while the two bottom placed teams played for the bronze medal; the Russia–Hungary game was declared a 0–5 loss for both teams. Three points were awarded for one point for a loss. August 4, 2002 August 4, 2002 Total goals: 1027 Total matches: 55 Goals per match: 18.7 Total of scorers: 105 FINA Sports123

R. Muthuraman

Radhakrishnan Devar Muthuraman popularly known as R. Muthuraman was an Indian film actor who predominantly appeared in Tamil language films, he was fondly called as Navarasa Thilagam. He acted in over a hundred films. Muthuraman's son Karthik is a popular Tamil actor and politician, his grandson Gautham Karthik is an actor who made his debut in Kadal. Muthuraman was born in Thanjavur to a family that had acting links, he was the son of an advocate and his uncle was a police officer. However, in his youth he was attracted towards the fine arts, he joined the field much in life, as he first became a government employee due to family pressure. In 1947, was acting in stage group called Vairam Nadaka Sabha along with Veteran Manorama, Kulatheivam Rajagopal etc, he was helped by a known philanthropist Sri KSBS Ganapathi from Thoothukudi to come in Cine field. Muthuraman was a stage actor in his early days, he joined veteran actor S. S. Rajendran's SSR Nataka Mandram and Seva Stage and acted in numerous dramas, including Manimagudam and Bharathiyar's poetic dramas.

He acted as a simpleton in Thenthoosi, a film that starred Gemini Ganesan in the lead role. He went to play a few major roles and many secondary roles in about 100 movies in the sixties and seventies. Although he was a player in an era dominated by stalwarts such as MGR, Sivaji Ganesan and Gemini Ganesan, he made a name and place for himself as a popular supporting actor; this handsome and mature actor was known as Navarasa Thilakam. He was paired with many heroines of the time including Devika and Jayalalithaa, but his most constant heroine with whom he was paired for a record of 19 times was Kanchana, he starred in many successful films, in co-hero roles in movies such as Kaadhalikka Neramillai and supporting roles in movies such as Server Sundaram. Muthuraman was married to Sulochana; the couple had four children, the youngest of whom, Karthik Muthuraman, became a popular actor in his own right. In October 1981, Muthuraman arrived at Ooty to attend the shooting for Ayiram Muthangal; when he was jogging as part of a routine exercise, he fainted due to a heart attack.

The film unit of Moondram Pirai called for a doctor. But the doctor declared Muthuraman dead on 16 October, he was 52 years old at the time of his death. R. Muthuraman on IMDb

Dirk (name)

Dirk is a Dutch and Low German given name, nickname or stage name, surname. It may refer to: Dirk I, Count of Holland Dirk II, Count of Holland Dirk III, Count of Holland Dirk IV, Count of Holland Dirk V, Count of Holland Dirk VI, Count of Holland Dirk VII, Count of Holland Dirk Bach, German actor Dirk Bauermann, German basketball coach Dirk Benedict, American actor Dirk Bikkembergs, Belgian fashion designer Dirk Blocker, American actor Dirk Bootsma, Dutch geneticist Dirk Brouwer, American astronomer Dirk Brossé, Belgian composer Dirk Bruinenberg, Dutch musician Dirk Coster, Dutch physicist Dirk Crabeth, Dutch artist Dirk Cussler, American writer Dirk Dirksen, American music promoter Dirk Elbers, German politician Dirk Fock, Dutch politician Dirk Frimout, Belgian astronaut and astrophysicist Dirk Gates, American businessman Dirk Hartog, Dutch sailor and explorer Dirk Hayhurst, American author Dirk Jan de Geer, Dutch politician and prime minister Dirk Jan Struik, Dutch mathematician and historian Dirk Johnson, American football player Dirk Kemp, South African football player Dirk Kempthorne, American politician Dirk Koetter, American football coach Dirk Kuyt, Dutch football player Dirk Mädrich, German basketball player Dirk Mudge, Namibian politician Dirk Müller, Dutch sculptor Dirk Müller, German cyclist Dirk Müller, German race car driver Dirk Nannes, Australian cricket player Dirk Niebel, German politician Dirk Nowitzki, German basketball player Dirk Polder, Dutch physicist Dirk Schlächter, German bassist Dirk Stikker, Dutch politician and diplomat Dirk Stoop, Dutch painter Dirk Valkenburg, Dutch painter Dirk van Erp, American coppersmith Dirk van Braeckel, Belgian car designer Dirk de Waard, Dutch geologist Dirk Willems, Dutch Anabaptist martyr and pacifist Dirk Wilutzky, German film maker Dirk Bogarde, stage name of British actor Derek van den Bogaerde Stewart "Dirk" Fischer, American composer and musician Richard Dirk Gringhuis, American artist and illustrator Derrick Dirk Meyer, American businessman Gerald Dirk West, American editorial cartoonist and journalist Dirk from Veristablium, nickname of Derek Muller Robert Dirk, Canadian ice hockey player Dirk the Daring, the main character in the video game Dragon's Lair Dirk Dagger, the main character in the video game Dirk Dagger and the Fallen Idol Dirk Diggler, the main character in Boogie Nights played by Mark Wahlberg Dirk Gently, the main character in Dirk Gently's Holistic Detective Agency by Douglas Adams Dirk McQuickly, the equivalent of Paul McCartney in The Beatles parody band The Rutles Dirk Pitt, the main character in novels by Clive Cussler Dirk Strider, a character from the webcomic Homestuck Dirk Struan, the main character in James Clavell's 1966 novel Tai-Pan Dirk, a main character on Disney Channel's Bizaardvark All pages with titles beginning with Dirk All pages with titles containing Dirk Dirk Dirks