Truus Schröder-Schräder was a Dutch socialite and trained pharmacist, involved with avant-garde artists and architects of the De Stijl movement. Gerrit Rietveld and she built a house for her and her three children — the Rietveld Schröder House —, today a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Truus Schröder-Schräder was born in Deventer in the east of the Netherlands in 1889, her father owned her mother died when she was four. Her father remarried two years and Truus did not get along with her stepmother. Truus was sent to a convent boarding school in Amersfoort. After leaving school she was trained as a pharmacist. In 1911, she married Frits Schröder, a lawyer, eleven years her elder but came from a similar prosperous Catholic background. Truus had three children: two girls, they lived in a spacious apartment in Utrecht, on the first floor of a large building in the Biltstraat where Mr. Schröder had his offices; the marriage turned to be a confrontation of two worlds where both conflicted ideas about social status and the upbringing of children.
Truus's husband let her change one room of their home to her liking and, where her partnership with designed Gerrit Rietveld started. Truus’ room was designed by Rietveld and it was clear to her friends that it did not show the social status of Truus, but she was content with it. In her mid 30s, Truus had to raise her children on her own. While she still lived in Biltstraat where she had lived with her husband, Truus found it necessary to leave her home in Biltstraat and look for a more convenient house She had definite ideas in what she wanted. Truus had always been interested in the arts and in 1924, she commissioned the Rietveld Schröder House; the architect that would work for the building of this house was Gerrit Rietveld. While Truus had no experience or training as an architect or designer she had a clear vision in the way that she wanted to live her life and her surroundings Truus along with Gerrit Rietveld designed much of the equipment and built in furniture for the house together.
Truus was credited as joint designer for the Rietveld Schröder House, but this fact has been long forgotten after he became well known as an architect. This partnership between Truus and Gerrit proved. Truus and Gerrit became lovers and he lived with Truus at the Rietveld Schröder House towards the end of his life. For Truus Schröder, the Rietveld Schröder House was a declaration of how an independent modern woman intended to live her life, she was a woman of an determined character who took delight in provoking her more conventional contemporaries. Truus was a content with her life at the Rietveld Schröder House, where she lived there for more than 60 years. In 1982, Lenneke Buller and Frank Den Oudsten recorded an interview with Truus Schröder; the interview was conducted on two separate days: May 12 and May 14, where she would talk about her life in the Rietveld Schröder House with Rietveld. In this interview Truus talked about the modernist ideas that interested her where she said, "I hardly met any people who had a feeling for what was modern.
It was through my sister that ideas came from the outside" Truus had been much part of the restoration of the Rietveld Schröder House, where she would pick the architect, Bertus Mulder, who had worked with Gerrit Rietveld. Truus was an independent woman, she loved her home in Utrecht and she remained living there until her death in 1985 at the age of 95. She enjoyed her home and the way she phrased it was, "the luxury of frugality"Truus' daughter, Han Schröder, became a notable architect and educator, she was one of the first registered female architects in the Netherlands and taught interior decoration in the United States. Schröder-Schräder collaborated with Gerrit Rietveld on the following projects: Rietveld-Schroder House Glass Radio Cabinet Hanging Glass Cabinet Project for Standardized Housing and the interiors for the Birza House Van Urk House and the Desk Houses on Erasmuslaan Vreeburg Cinema and Movable Summer Houses Ekano interiors in Haarlem
Delft University of Technology
Delft University of Technology known as TU Delft, is the largest and oldest Dutch public technological university, located in Delft, Netherlands. It counts as one of the best universities for engineering and technology worldwide seen within the top 20, it is considered the best university of technology in the Netherlands. With eight faculties and numerous research institutes, it hosts over 19,000 students, more than 2,900 scientists, more than 2,100 support and management staff; the university was established on 8 January 1842 by William II of the Netherlands as a Royal Academy, with the main purpose of training civil servants for the Dutch East Indies. The school expanded its research and education curriculum, becoming first a Polytechnic School in 1864, Institute of Technology in 1905, gaining full university rights, changing its name to Delft University of Technology in 1986. Dutch Nobel laureates Jacobus Henricus van't Hoff, Heike Kamerlingh Onnes, Simon van der Meer have been associated with TU Delft.
TU Delft is a member of several university federations including the IDEA League, CESAER, UNITECH International, 4TU. Delft University of Technology was founded on 8 January 1842 by William II of the Netherlands as Royal Academy for the education of civilian engineers, for serving both nation and industry, of apprentices for trade. One of the purposes of the academy was to educate civil servants for the colonies of the Dutch East India Company; the first director of the academy was Antoine Lipkens, constructor of the first Dutch optical telegraph, called as Lipkens. Royal Academy had its first building located at Oude Delft 95 in Delft. On 23 May 1863 an Act was passed imposing regulations on technical education in the Netherlands, bringing it under the rules of secondary education. On 20 June 1864, Royal Academy in Delft was disbanded by a Royal Decree, giving a way to a Polytechnic School of Delft; the newly formed school educated engineers of various fields and architects, so much needed during the rapid industrialization period in the 19th century.
Yet another Act, passed on 22 May 1905, changed the name of the school to Technical College of Delft, emphasizing the academic quality of the education. Polytechnic was allowed to award academic degrees; the number of students reached 450 around that time. The official opening of the new school was attended by Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands on 10 July 1905. First dean of the newly established College was ir. J. Kraus, hydraulic engineer. In 1905, the first doctoral degree was awarded. From 1924 until the construction of the new campus in 1966 the ceremonies were held in the Saint Hippolytus Chapel. Corporate rights were granted to the College on 7 June 1956. Most of the university buildings during that time were located within Delft city centre, with some of the buildings set on the side of the river Schie, in the Wippolder district. Student organizations grew together with the university; the first to be established on 22 March 1848 is the Delftsch Studenten Corps housed in the distinctive Sociëteit Phoenix on the Phoenixstraat.
This was followed by the KSV Sanctus Virgilius. In 1917 Proof Garden for Technical Plantation was established by Gerrit van Iterson, which today is known as Botanical Garden of TU Delft. In that period a first female professor, Toos Korvezee, was appointed. After the end of World War II, TU Delft increased its rapid academic expansion. Studium Generale was established at all universities in the Netherlands, including TU Delft, to promote a free and accessible knowledge related to culture, technology and science; because of the increasing number of students, in 1974 the first Reception Week for First Year Students was established, which became a TU Delft tradition since then. Since 2006 all buildings of the university are located outside of the historical city center of Delft; the new building of Material Sciences department was sold demolished in 2007 to give place for a newly built building of the Haagse Hogeschool. Closer cooperation between TU Delft and Dutch universities of applied sciences resulted in physical transition of some of the institutes from outside to Delft.
In September 2009 many institutes of applied sciences from the Hague region as well as Institute of Applied Sciences in Rijswijk, transferred to Delft, close to the location of the university, at the square between Rotterdamseweg and Leeghwaterstraat. In 2007 the three Dutch technical universities, TU Delft, TU Eindhoven and University of Twente, established a federation, called 3TU. On 13 May 2008, the building of the Faculty of Architecture was destroyed by fire caused by a short circuit in a coffee machine due to a ruptured water pipe. Luckily, the architecture library, containing several thousands of books and maps, as well as many architecture models, including chairs by Gerrit Rietveld and Le Corbusier, were saved; the Faculty of Architecture is housed in the university's former main building. Through the course of the years the logo of the TU Delft changed a number of times, along with its official name; the current logo is based on the three university colors cyan and white. The letter "T" bears a stylized flame on top, referring to the flame that Prometheus brought from Mount Olympus to the people, against the will of Zeus.
Because of this, Prometheus is sometimes considered as the first engineer, is an important sym
Johanna Erna Else Schröder was a Dutch architect and educator. After becoming one of the first women to practice architecture in the Netherlands, she spent an extended period in the United States teaching interior design. Schröder lived in the Schröder House in Utrecht, the Netherlands, together with her mother, Truus Schröder-Schräder, an interior decorator; the house with moving walls was designed in 1924 by Gerrit Thomas Rietveld who became a friend of Schröder's and an important influence on her future work. While a teenager, she worked on furniture design with both Rietveld and with Gerard van de Groenekan. In 1936, she attended the Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich, graduating as an architect in 1940, she spent the years of the Second World War in Portugal working for the Red Cross and in the United Kingdom. In 1946, she returned to the Netherlands where she worked at Amsterdam's Modern Art Museum until 1949. Thereafter she worked with Rietveld on housing projects, schools and the Sonsbeek Sculpture Pavilion.
In 1954, Schröder opened her own office in the Netherlands as one of just two registered women architects among some 3,000 men. Key designs included the Gaastra House in Zeist, a centre for rejected children in Ellecom, an auditorium for the Social Work Academy, Kessler House, a recreation building for employees working in the steel industry. After emigrating to the United States in 1963, she taught interior design at Adelphi University and the Parsons School of Design before being appointed professor at the New York Institute of Technology. From 1972 to 1987, Schröder was the architect responsible for the restoration of Schröder House in Utrecht, now a museum. Two of her designs are in the collection of the New York Museum of Modern Art. From 1981 she taught at the Virginia Commonwealth University in Richmond, Virginia until her retirement as professor emerita in 1988. Schröder died in March 1992 at the Boerhaave Clinic in Amsterdam. Http://spec.lib.vt.edu/iawaspec/schroder/schroder.htm Business card Passeerdersgracht Business card Kromme Waal
The Zig Zag-chair is a chair designed by Gerrit Rietveld in 1934. It is a minimalistic design without legs, made by 4 flat wooden tiles that are merged in a Z-shape using Dovetail joints, it was designed for Rietveld's Rietveld Schröder House in Utrecht and is now produced by the Italian manufacturer Cassina S.p. A.. Red and Blue Chair About the Zig Zag-chair on www.bonluxat.com, read 2012-01-09 About the Zig Zag-chair on www.modernfurnituredesigners.interiordezine.com, read 2012-01-09 The Zig-zag chair on The Museum of Modern Arts webpage
Red and Blue Chair
The Red and Blue Chair is a chair designed in 1917 by Gerrit Rietveld. It represents one of the first explorations by the De Stijl art movement in three dimensions; the original chair was constructed of unstained beech wood and was not painted until the early 1920s. Fellow member of De Stijl and architect, Bart van der Leck, saw his original model and suggested that he add bright colours, he built the new model of thinner wood and painted it black with areas of primary colors attributed to De Stijl movement. The effect of this color scheme made the chair seem to disappear against the black walls and floor of the Schröder House, where it was placed; the areas of color appeared to float, giving it an transparent structure. An original example is on display at the Brooklyn Museum in New York City. In Rietveld's instructions on how to build the chair, he informs the craftsperson to print the following verse from Der Aesthet by Christian Morgenstern underneath the seat: Wenn Ich sitze, möchte Ich nicht sitzen, wie Mein Sitzfleisch möchte sondern wie Mein Sitzgeist sich, säße er, den Stuhl sich flöchte."When I sit, I do not want / to sit like my seat-flesh likes / but rather like my seat-mind would, / if he were sitting, weave the chair for himself."The Museum of Modern Art, which houses the chair in its permanent collection, a gift from Philip Johnson, states that the red and yellow colors were added around 1923.
A version of the chair resides at the High Museum of Art, Atlanta. It features several Rietveld joints; the Red and Blue Chair was reported to be on loan to the Delft University of Technology Faculty of Architecture as part of an exhibition. On May 13, 2008, a fire destroyed the entire building, but the Red and Blue Chair was saved by firefighters. A version of the chair was sold by Christies in 2011 for €10,625. Zig-Zag Chair Blueprints: Red & Blue Chair Building plan plans in PDF with dimensions in mm Gerrit Rietveld's Red and Blue Chair & What I Learned about Rest and Motion in Myself, by Anthony Romeo Museum of Modern Art
De Stijl, Dutch for "The Style" known as Neoplasticism, was a Dutch art movement founded in 1917 in Leiden. De Stijl consisted of architects. In a narrower sense, the term De Stijl is used to refer to a body of work from 1917 to 1931 founded in the Netherlands. Proponents of De Stijl advocated pure abstraction and universality by a reduction to the essentials of form and colour. De Stijl is the name of a journal, published by the Dutch painter, designer and critic Theo van Doesburg that served to propagate the group's theories. Along with van Doesburg, the group's principal members were the painters Piet Mondrian, Vilmos Huszár, Bart van der Leck, the architects Gerrit Rietveld, Robert van't Hoff, J. J. P. Oud; the artistic philosophy that formed a basis for the group's work is known as Neoplasticism—the new plastic art. According to Theo van Doesburg in the introduction of the magazine "De Stijl" 1917 no.1, the "De Stijl"-movement was a reaction to the "Modern Baroque" of the Amsterdam School movement with the magazine "Wendingen".
Mondrian sets forth the delimitations of Neoplasticism in his essay "Neo-Plasticism in Pictorial Art". He writes, "this new plastic idea will ignore the particulars of appearance, to say, natural form and colour. On the contrary, it should find its expression in the abstraction of form and colour, to say, in the straight line and the defined primary colour". With these constraints, his art allows only primary colours and non-colours, only squares and rectangles, only straight and horizontal or vertical lines; the De Stijl movement posited the fundamental principle of the geometry of the straight line, the square, the rectangle, combined with a strong asymmetricality. The name De Stijl is derived from Gottfried Semper's Der Stil in den technischen und tektonischen Künsten oder Praktische Ästhetik, which Curl suggests was mistakenly believed to advocate materialism and functionalism; the "plastic vision" of De Stijl artists called Neo-Plasticism, saw itself as reaching beyond the changing appearance of natural things to bring an audience into intimate contact with an immutable core of reality, a reality, not so much a visible fact as an underlying spiritual vision.
In general, De Stijl proposed ultimate simplicity and abstraction, both in architecture and painting, by using only straight horizontal and vertical lines and rectangular forms. Furthermore, their formal vocabulary was limited to the primary colours, red and blue, the three primary values, black and grey; the works attained aesthetic balance by the use of opposition. This element of the movement embodies the second meaning of stijl: "a post, jamb or support". In many of the group's three-dimensional works and horizontal lines are positioned in layers or planes that do not intersect, thereby allowing each element to exist independently and unobstructed by other elements; this feature can be found in the Red and Blue Chair. De Stijl was influenced by Cubist painting as well as by the mysticism and the ideas about "ideal" geometric forms in the neoplatonic philosophy of mathematician M. H. J. Schoenmaekers; the De Stijl movement was influenced by Neopositivism. The works of De Stijl would influence the Bauhaus style and the international style of architecture as well as clothing and interior design.
However, it did not follow the general guidelines of an "-ism", nor did it adhere to the principles of art schools like the Bauhaus. In music, De Stijl was an influence only on the work of composer Jakob van Domselaer, a close friend of Mondrian. Between 1913 and 1916, he composed his Proeven van Stijlkunst, inspired by Mondrian's paintings; this minimalistic—and, at the time, revolutionary—music defined "horizontal" and "vertical" musical elements and aimed at balancing those two principles. Van Domselaer was unknown in his lifetime, did not play a significant role within De Stijl. From the flurry of new art movements that followed the Impressionist revolutionary new perception of painting, Cubism arose in the early 20th century as an important and influential new direction. In the Netherlands, there was interest in this "new art". However, because the Netherlands remained neutral in World War I, Dutch artists were not able to leave the country after 1914 and were thus isolated from the international art world—and in particular, from Paris, its centre then.
During that period, Theo van Doesburg started looking for other artists to set up a journal and start an art movement. Van Doesburg was a writer and critic, more successful writing about art than working as an independent artist. Quite adept at making new contacts due to his flamboyant personality and outgoing nature, he had many useful connections in the art world. Around 1915, Van Doesburg started meeting the artists who would become the founders of the journal, he first met Piet Mondrian at an exhibition in Stedelijk Museum Amsterdam. Mondrian, who had moved to Paris in 1912, had be
Rietveld Schröder House
The Rietveld Schröder House in Utrecht was built in 1924 by Dutch architect Gerrit Rietveld for Mrs. Truus Schröder-Schräder and her three children, she commissioned the house to be designed preferably without walls. Both Rietveld and Schröder espoused progressive ideals that included "a fierce commitment to a new openness about relationships within their own families and to truth in their emotional lives. Bourgeois notions of respectability and propriety, with their emphasis on discipline and containment would be eliminated through architectural design that countered each of these aspects in a conscious and systematic way." Rietveld worked side by side with Schröder-Schräder to create the house. He sketched the first possible design for the building, she envisioned a house, free from association and could create a connection between the inside and outside. The house is one of the best known examples of De Stijl-architecture and arguably the only true De Stijl building. Mrs. Schröder lived in the house until her death in 1985.
The house was restored by Bertus Mulder and now is a museum open for visits, run by the Centraal Museum. It is a listed monument since 1976 and UNESCO World Heritage Site since 2000; the Rietveld Schröder House constitutes both inside and outside a radical break with all architecture before it. The two-story house is situated in Utrecht, at the end of a terrace, but it makes no attempt to relate to its neighbouring buildings, it faces a motorway built in the 1960s. Inside there is no static accumulation of a dynamic, changeable open zone; the ground floor can still be termed traditional. The living area upstairs, stated as being an attic to satisfy the fire regulations of the planning authorities, in fact forms a large open zone except for a separate toilet and a bathroom. Rietveld wanted to leave the upper level. Mrs Schröder, felt that as living space it should be usable in either form, open or subdivided; this was achieved with a system of revolving panels. Mrs Schröder used these panels to open up the space of the second floor to allow more of an open area for her and her 3 children, leaving the option of closing or separating the rooms when desired.
A sliding wall between the living area and the son's room blocks a cupboard as well as a light switch. Therefore, a circular opening was made within the sliding wall; when partitioned in, the living level comprises three bedrooms and living room. In-between this and the open state is a wide variety of possible permutations, each providing its own spatial experience; the facades are a collage of planes and lines whose components are purposely detached from, seem to glide past, one another. This enabled the provision of several balconies. Like Rietveld's Red and Blue Chair, each component has its own form and colour. Colours were chosen. There is little distinction between exterior space; the rectilinear lines and planes flow from outside to inside, with the same colour palette and surfaces. The windows are hinged so that they can only open 90 degrees to the wall, preserving strict design standards about intersecting planes, further blurring the delineation of inside and out. Rietveld wanted to construct the house out of concrete.
It turned out. The foundations and the balconies were the only parts of the building that were made out of concrete; the walls were made of plaster. The window frames and doors were made from wood as well as the floors, which were supported by wooden beams. To support the building, steel girders with wire mesh were used; the World Heritage Committee inscribed the Rietveld Schröder House on the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites on 2 December 2000, during the 24th session in Cairns, Australia. The committee decided to apply criterion i and ii, said about the house: The Rietveld Schröderhuis in Utrecht is an icon of the Modern Movement in architecture and an outstanding expression of human creative genius in its purity of ideas and concepts as developed by the De Stijl movement. With its radical approach to design and the use of space, the Rietveld Schröderhuis occupies a seminal position in the development of architecture in the modern age. Only few years after construction of this building Polish architect Stanisław Brukalski built his own house in Warsaw in 1929 inspired by Rietveld Schröderhuis which he visited.
His Polish example of modern house was awarded bronze medal in Paris expo in 1937. The house was honored in two euro coins issued by the Royal Dutch Mint in 2013. Website Rietveld Schröder House Rietveld Schröder House at the UNESCO World Heritage Centre Video tour of Schroder House Galinsky page, with photos Visit site in 360° panophotography