Subprefectures in France
In France, a subprefecture is the administrative center of a departmental arrondissement that does not contain the prefecture for its department. The term applies to the building that houses the administrative headquarters for an arrondissement; the civil servant in charge of a subprefecture is the subprefect, assisted by a general secretary. Between May 1982 and February 1988, subprefects were known instead by the title commissaire adjoint de la République. Where the administration of an arrondissement is carried out from a prefecture, the general secretary to the prefect carries out duties equivalent to those of the subprefect; the municipal arrondissements of Paris and Marseille are divisions of the city rather than the prefecture, so are not arrondissements in the same sense. List of subprefectures of France List of arrondissements of France
Côtes de Gascogne
Côtes de Gascogne is a wine-growing district in Gascony producing principally white wine. It is located in the département of the Gers in the former Midi-Pyrénées region, it belongs to the wine region South West France; the designation Côtes de Gascogne is used for a Vin de Pays produced in the Armagnac area. The decree of 13 September 1968 created the difference between a Vin de Pays and simpler table wine, the so-called Vin de table; the designation Côtes de Gascogne obliges the producers to respect the stricter rules and production standards, which were adopted with the decree of 25 January 1982. The Association of Producers of the Vins de Pays Côtes de Gascogne was founded on 15 March 1979, it protects the interests of the members, determines the production standards and ensures respect of these rules. The association counts on this moment 1,400 wine farmers. Of them, 1,300 are members of cooperative cellars, the so-called caves coopératives; the most famous producers are Château de Tariquet, Domaine de Joÿ, Uby...
There are 150 independently working wine farmers, who produce their wines themselves. With a permitted production quantity of 830,000 hectoliters per year, the Gers is France's largest producer of white Vin de Pays, with a production potential of more than 100 millions bottles per year, of which 75% are for export. In the Gers, the production volumes are more or less as follows: 91% white wine, 8% red and 1% rosé wine; this is atypical for the southwest of France, because in neighbouring departments red wine is produced. There are rosé and white wine. Wines are produced only from the defined area; the types of grapes for red and rosé wine are Abouriou, Cabernet sauvignon, Cabernet franc, Fer, Négrette, Portugias bleu and Tannat. The types of grapes for white wine are Colombard, Petit Manseng, Gros Manseng, Len de l'El, Sauvignon blanc, Sémillon and Ugni blanc; the Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée-région Côtes de Gascogne and Floc de Gascogne are identical. The three Armagnac sub-regions Armagnac-Ténarèze, Bas-Armagnac and Haut-Armagnac form in a way the Côtes de Gascogne.
The region is in the Gers where two thirds of the vineyards, nearly 12 thousand hectares are used for the production of the Côtes de Gascogne wines. In Gers the cantons: Auch, Condom, Jegun, Montesquiou, Montréal, Riscle, Aignan, Valence-sur-Baïse, Vic-Fezensac; the Appellation d'origine contrôlée was in 2005 extended with the Armagnac vineyards lying in twenty-five municipalities in the Bas-Armagnac which are in the department Landes and fourteen other municipalities in the Armagnac-Ténarèze which are in Lot-et-Garonne. The total surface of Côtes de Gascogne thus arrives at 15 thousand hectares. Alluvial soil with clay and sand; the Atlantic Ocean although far away behind Les Landes still has influence, further spring is rather wet and it is sunny in the rest of the year. French wine Syndicat des Côtes de Gascogne
Provinces of France
The Kingdom of France was organized into provinces until March 4, 1790, when the establishment of the department system superseded provinces. The provinces of France were equivalent to the historic counties of England, they came into their final form over the course of many hundreds of years, as many dozens of semi-independent fiefs and former independent countries came to be incorporated into the French royal domain. Because of the haphazard manner in which the provinces evolved, each had its own sets of feudal traditions, taxation systems, etc. and the system represented an impediment to effective administration of the entire country from Paris. During the early years of the French Revolution, in an attempt to centralize the administration of the whole country, to remove the influence of the French nobility over the country, the entirety of the province system was abolished and replaced by the system of departments in use today. In some cases, several modern regions or departments share names with the historic provinces, their borders may cover the same territory.
The list below shows the major provinces of France at the time of their dissolution during the French Revolution. Capital cities are shown in parentheses. Bold indicates a city, the seat of a judicial and quasi-legislative body called either a parlement or a conseil souverain. In some cases, this body met in a different city from the capital. Île-de-France Berry Orléanais Normandy Languedoc Lyonnais Dauphiné Champagne Aunis Saintonge Poitou Guyenne and Gascony Burgundy Picardy Anjou Provence Angoumois Bourbonnais Marche Brittany Maine Touraine Limousin Foix Auvergne Béarn Alsace Artois Roussillon Flanders and Hainaut Franche-Comté Lorraine.
The French Revolution was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies beginning in 1789. The Revolution overthrew the monarchy, established a republic, catalyzed violent periods of political turmoil, culminated in a dictatorship under Napoleon who brought many of its principles to areas he conquered in Western Europe and beyond. Inspired by liberal and radical ideas, the Revolution profoundly altered the course of modern history, triggering the global decline of absolute monarchies while replacing them with republics and liberal democracies. Through the Revolutionary Wars, it unleashed a wave of global conflicts that extended from the Caribbean to the Middle East. Historians regard the Revolution as one of the most important events in human history; the causes of the French Revolution are still debated among historians. Following the Seven Years' War and the American Revolution, the French government was in debt, it attempted to restore its financial status through unpopular taxation schemes, which were regressive.
Leading up to the Revolution, years of bad harvests worsened by deregulation of the grain industry and environmental problems inflamed popular resentment of the privileges enjoyed by the aristocracy and the Catholic clergy of the established church. Some historians hold something similar to what Thomas Jefferson proclaimed: that France had "been awakened by our Revolution." Demands for change were formulated in terms of Enlightenment ideals and contributed to the convocation of the Estates General in May 1789. During the first year of the Revolution, members of the Third Estate took control, the Bastille was attacked in July, the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen was passed in August, the Women's March on Versailles forced the royal court back to Paris in October. A central event of the first stage, in August 1789, was the abolition of feudalism and the old rules and privileges left over from the Ancien Régime; the next few years featured political struggles between various liberal assemblies and right-wing supporters of the monarchy intent on thwarting major reforms.
The Republic was proclaimed in September 1792 after the French victory at Valmy. In a momentous event that led to international condemnation, Louis XVI was executed in January 1793. External threats shaped the course of the Revolution; the Revolutionary Wars beginning in 1792 featured French victories that facilitated the conquest of the Italian Peninsula, the Low Countries and most territories west of the Rhine – achievements that had eluded previous French governments for centuries. Internally, popular agitation radicalised the Revolution culminating in the rise of Maximilien Robespierre and the Jacobins; the dictatorship imposed by the Committee of Public Safety during the Reign of Terror, from 1793 until 1794, established price controls on food and other items, abolished slavery in French colonies abroad, de-established the Catholic church and created a secular Republican calendar, religious leaders were expelled, the borders of the new republic were secured from its enemies. After the Thermidorian Reaction, an executive council known as the Directory assumed control of the French state in 1795.
They suspended elections, repudiated debts, persecuted the Catholic clergy, made significant military conquests abroad. Dogged by charges of corruption, the Directory collapsed in a coup led by Napoleon Bonaparte in 1799. Napoleon, who became the hero of the Revolution through his popular military campaigns, established the Consulate and the First Empire, setting the stage for a wider array of global conflicts in the Napoleonic Wars; the modern era has unfolded in the shadow of the French Revolution. All future revolutionary movements looked back to the Revolution as their predecessor, its central phrases and cultural symbols, such as La Marseillaise and Liberté, fraternité, égalité, ou la mort, became the clarion call for other major upheavals in modern history, including the Russian Revolution over a century later. The values and institutions of the Revolution dominate French politics to this day; the Revolution resulted in the suppression of the feudal system, emancipation of the individual, a greater division of landed property, abolition of the privileges of noble birth, nominal establishment of equality among men.
The French Revolution differed from other revolutions in being not only national, for it intended to benefit all humanity. Globally, the Revolution accelerated the rise of democracies, it became the focal point for the development of most modern political ideologies, leading to the spread of liberalism, radicalism and secularism, among many others. The Revolution witnessed the birth of total war by organising the resources of France and the lives of its citizens towards the objective of military conquest; some of its central documents, such as the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, continued to inspire movements for abolitionism and universal suffrage in the next century. Historians have pointed to many events and factors within the Ancien Régime that led to the Revolution. Rising social and economic inequality, new political ideas emerging from the Enlightenment, economic mismanagement, environmental factors leading to agricultural failure, unmanageable national debt, political mismanagement on the part of King Louis XVI have all been cited as laying the groundwork for the Revolution.
Over the course of the 18th century, there emerged what the philosopher Jürgen Habermas called the idea of the "public sphere" in France and elsewhere
Condom referred to as Condom-en-Armagnac, is a commune in southwestern France in the department of Gers, of which it is a subprefecture. The town of Condom is located in the northern part of the department of Gers, halfway between Mont-de-Marsan and Montauban, north of Auch. Way of St. JamesCondom is a town on the Via Podiensis, one of the three major French arms of the pilgrimage route, the Way of St. James; this particular route ends in Santiago de Compostela in northwest Spain. Pilgrims continue on to Larressingle. There is no relationship between this town; the toponym Condom comes from the Gaulish words condate and magos combined into Condatomagos, which means "market or field, of the confluence". Condatómagos evolved into Condatóm and into Conddóm. Condom was first recorded in Latin in the 10th century as Condomium, it is. Although the French word for a condom is préservatif, in 1995 the town's mayor, taking advantage of the incidental relationship between the town's name and the English word, opened a museum of contraceptives, which closed in 2005.
In 1987, a letter was sent from Condom asking to twin with England. However this was denied due to the embarrassment caused by the town name in English. Grünberg, Germany – since 1973 Toro, Spain Condom is the site of two castles, the Château de Mothes and the Château de Pouypardin, both started in the 13th century. In total, 19 sites in Condom are listed as monuments historiques by the French Ministry of Culture, including the cathedral and houses. Condom is known for the production of Armagnac, an international music festival of "bandas", an international chess tournament and an international chess marathon, it is known for its tourism with farm campings and boating on waterways. It is home to a museum about Armagnac. A statue of The Three Musketeers and d'Artagnan stands beside the cathedral and was created in 2010 by Zurab Tsereteli. Blaise de Montluc, marshal of France, buried in Condom. Scipion Dupleix. Jacques-Bénigne Bossuet. Jean-Charles Persil. Narcisse-Achille de Salvandy. Stéphane Abrial, French general born in Condom.
Siouxsie Sioux, British singer and songwriter, moved to Condom in 1992 and left in 2015. Bishop of Condom Communes of the Gers department INSEE Official website Ministry of Culture entries for Condom Pictures of Condom Le bonheur est dans le pré Google Earth view
Termes-d'Armagnac is a commune in the Gers department in southwestern France. Thibault d'Armagnac, companion of Joan of Arc Communes of the Gers department Château de Thibault de Termes INSEE
Mirande is a commune in the Gers department in southwestern France. Town Hall St. Mary's Cathedral Astarac Square Clock Tower Rohan Tower Aquapark "Ludina" Country Music Festival Traditional markets Communes of the Gers department INSEE "Mirande". Encyclopædia Britannica. 1911