The Getty Center, in Los Angeles, California, is a campus of the Getty Museum and other programs of the Getty Trust. The $1.3 billion Center opened to the public on December 16, 1997 and is well known for its architecture and views overlooking Los Angeles. The Center sits atop a hill connected to a visitors' parking garage at the bottom of the hill by a three-car, cable-pulled hovertrain people mover. Located in the Brentwood neighborhood of Los Angeles, the Center is one of two locations of the J. Paul Getty Museum and draws 1.8 million visitors annually. The Center branch of the Museum features pre-20th-century European paintings, illuminated manuscripts and decorative arts. In addition, the Museum's collection at the Center includes outdoor sculpture displayed on terraces and in gardens and the large Central Garden designed by Robert Irwin. Among the artworks on display is the Vincent Van Gogh painting Irises. Designed by architect Richard Meier, the campus houses the Getty Research Institute, the Getty Conservation Institute, the Getty Foundation, the J. Paul Getty Trust.
The Center's design included special provisions to address concerns regarding fires. The Getty Museum started in J. Paul Getty's house located in Pacific Palisades in 1954, he expanded the house with a museum wing. In the 1970s, Getty built a replica of an Italian villa on his home's land to better house his collection, which opened in 1974. After Getty's death in 1976, the entire property was turned over to the Getty Trust for museum purposes. However, the collection outgrew the site, which has since been renamed the Getty Villa, management sought a location more accessible to Los Angeles; the purchase of the land upon which the center is located, a campus of 24 acres on a 110-acre site in the Santa Monica Mountains above Interstate 405, surrounded by 600 acres kept in a natural state, was announced in 1983. The top of the hill is 900 feet above sea level, high enough that on a clear day it is possible to see not only the Los Angeles skyline but the San Bernardino Mountains, San Gabriel Mountains to the east as well as the Pacific Ocean to the west.
The price tag of the center totaled $733 million which includes $449 million for construction, $115 million for the land and site work, $30 million for fixtures and equipment, $139 million for insurance, engineers' and architects' fees and safety measures, according to Stephen D. Rountree, former director of the Getty's building program and director of operations and planning for the trust. Current appraisal for the property fluctuates with the market, but in June 2013 the land and buildings were estimated at $3.853 billion. In 1984, Richard Meier was chosen to be the architect of the center. After an extensive conditional-use permit process, construction by the Hathaway Dinwiddie Construction Company began in August 1989; the construction was delayed, with the planned completion date moved from 1988 to 1995. By 1995, the campus was described as only "more than halfway complete"; the center opened to the public on December 16, 1997. Although the total project cost was estimated to be $350 million as of 1990, it was estimated to be $1.3 billion.
After the center opened, the villa closed for extensive renovations and reopened on January 28, 2006, to focus on the arts and cultures of ancient Greece and Etruria. The museum displays collections at both the Getty Center and the Getty Villa in Pacific Palisades. In 2005, after a series of articles in the Los Angeles Times about the spending practices of the Getty Trust and its then-president Dr. Barry Munitz, the California Attorney General conducted an investigation of the Getty Trust and found that no laws had been broken; the trust agreed to appoint an outside monitor to review future expenditures. The Getty Trust experienced financial difficulties in 2008 and 2009 and cut 205 of 1,487 budgeted staff positions to reduce expenses. Although the Getty Trust endowment reached $6.4 billion in 2007, it dropped to $4.5 billion in 2009. The endowment rebounded to $6.2 billion by 2013. Meier has exploited the two naturally-occurring ridges by overlaying two grids along these axes; these grids serve to define the space of the campus while dividing the import of the buildings on it.
Along one axis along the other axis lie the administrative buildings. Meier emphasized the two competing grids by constructing strong view lines through the campus; the main north-south axis starts with the helipad includes a narrow walkway between the auditorium and north buildings, continues past the elevator kiosk to the tram station, through the rotunda, past the walls and support columns of the exhibitions pavilion, the ramp besides the west pavilion and the central garden. Its corresponding east-west visual axis starts with the edge of the scholar's wing of the Getty Research Institute, the walkway between the central garden and the GRI, the overlook to the azalea pool in the central garden, the walkway between the central garden and the west pavilion, the north wall of the west pavilion and the courtyard between the south and east pavilions; the main axes of the museum grid, offset by 22.5 degrees begins with the arrival plaza, carries through the edge of the stairs up to the main entrance, aligns with the columns supporting the rotunda as well as the center point of the rotunda, aligns with travertine benches in the courtyard between the pavilions, in
Little Swee'Pea is an American animated short film, released September 25, 1936 and featuring Popeye the Sailor, at the time a star of the cartoons of Fleischer Studios. As is the case with all Fleischer shorts of the period, Dave Fleischer is credited as the director; the cartoon makes use of the Fleischers' stereoptical process, by which modeled sets provide three-dimensional backgrounds for the action of the film. The short is in the public domain in the United States. Popeye the sailor, bearing a posy, struts jauntily through a site of construction, beams and buckets all around. Still expecting her appearance, the sailor absent-mindedly reaches for the switch again and twists the dainty nose of his lady love. A startled Popeye relieves his angered Olive with the little tussie-mussie and states his intention of taking her to the zoo "to see the aminals." Olive offers Swee'Pea as a companion instead. As an agreeable Popeye exits with Swee'Pea and carriage, Olive dreamily sniffs her duster and, noticing her mistake, takes a breath of Popeye's floral gift.
Again in his intrepid strut, Popeye pushes the carriage along a lovely stereoptical walk. Relieved to see his charge returned, Popeye continues pushing the carriage past the handsome gates of the zoo, along whose promenade Swee'Pea repeats his naughty trick, imitating Popeye's manner in his crawl, but all too pleased now to leave his watcher behind. Swee'Pea has the giant's trunk and, raised high aloft, the alluring legume in his evasive fingers, he lets the peanut down the trunk at last, sliding backwards along the elephant's back as he does so, chuckling the while and plumping at last on the dirt. Cut to Popeye, who looks down again and, in the same way as before, notices that the baby has gone, more astonished this time to find that turning about and calling has not returned him magically to the cart! For Swee'Pea is now traipsing about the mighty elephant, deftly avoiding his great, lumbering feet. Popeye scours the carriage and all catching sight of the boy as he tucks his head between his legs.
Over by the elephant and scolding the wayward infant, Popeye slips through the bars of the cage: Swee'Pea merrily and swiftly crawls off, the behemoth's trunk seizes the seething seaman. Twice the elephant wraps Popeye in trunk spinning the sailor out and into the iron bars of his confines. In the fighting vein, the mighty man begins a tug of war with the pachyderm's proboscis. Victory for Popeye as he flings the elephant's untold tons off to the side, taunting the astounded beast as he catches sight of the new scene. Again running after the babe, Popeye's backside is caught in the jaws of Swee'Pea's playmate just as the tyke finishes another crossing; the awful reptile flings his would-be prey through advances as the sailor makes land. "All right, zipper-mouth, you asked for it!" Man and beast tussle, Popeye prevailing, it seems, when he has his rival stretched out flat on its back: he rubs its belly, intoning a lullaby. But this gentleness gives way, a too-satisfied Popeye steps on the crocodile's slumbering form as he heads for Swee'Pea.
Awakened, the beast is ripe for revenge: again they tussle, but though the sailor's brawny arms resist the foe, his exposed midsection falls to the beast's massaging hand, his ears to a grunted lullaby! The creature picks up Popeye with his tail and with a mighty flip sends him again through the air and into the lair of the hippopotamus. Groggy, the sailor calls out to his charge, whom we find reclining on his elbow in the great maw of the happy hippo, tickling the beast's hard palate with a feather. Again, Popeye makes a snatch for the child, but he slips past him, the angered beast shunts the sailor away with a thrust of his huge snout, his pipe whirling about in surprise, Popeye screws up his courage again and marches toward the hippo, who once again sends his opponent flying into the bars—and again! The time has come for spinach! Dazed and maddened, Popeye gulps down the remainder of an open can withdrawn from his breast-pocket. Quivering with new-found might, hard as a wall of brick, the solid sailor effortlessly resists the onslaught of the charging river horse.
Popeye lifts the defeated beast high in the air and with a great, earth-shattering throw leaves him in a crater. Swee'Pea dashes by on leopardback, the chase begins, the hippo's bars bending at Popeye's mad sprint; as if at oar, the Sailor-Man strokes his way to the wildcat's hind, grasping his furious tail, pulls the mount out from under his rider, who falls safe and smiling to the sidewalk in front of Olive Oyl's house as his protector flings the leopard off and into a fence with such force that he drops to the ground senseless and spotless! The champion carries Swee'Pea to Olive's door, setting him on the steps, presents a little toy monkey to the boy as an alternative to playing with wild beas
SNARE proteins — "SNAP REceptor" — are a large protein complex consisting of at least 24 members in yeasts and more than 60 members in mammalian cells. The primary role of SNARE proteins is to mediate vesicle fusion, that is, the fusion of vesicles with their target membrane bound compartments; the best studied SNAREs are those that mediate docking of synaptic vesicles with the presynaptic membrane in neurons. These SNAREs are the targets of the bacterial neurotoxins responsible for tetanus. SNAREs can be divided into two categories: vesicle or v-SNAREs, which are incorporated into the membranes of transport vesicles during budding, target or t-SNAREs, which are associated with nerve terminal membranes. Evidence suggests that t-SNAREs form stable subcomplexes which serve as guides for v-SNARE, incorporated into the membrane of a protein-coated vesicle, binding to complete the formation of the SNARE complex. Several SNARE proteins are located on both vesicles and target membranes, therefore, a more recent classification scheme takes into account structural features of SNAREs, dividing them into R-SNAREs and Q-SNAREs.
R-SNAREs act as v-SNAREs and Q-SNAREs act as t-SNAREs. R-SNAREs are proteins that contribute an arginine residue in the formation of the zero ionic layer in the assembled core SNARE complex. One particular R-SNARE is synaptobrevin, located in the synaptic vesicles. Q-SNAREs are proteins that contribute a glutamine residue in the formation of the zero ionic layer in the assembled core SNARE complex. Q-SNAREs include syntaxin and SNAP-25. Q-SNAREs are further classified as Qa, Qb, or Qc depending on their location in the four-helix bundle. SNAREs are small, sometimes tail-anchored proteins which are post-translationally inserted into membranes via a C-terminal transmembrane domain. Seven of the 38 known SNAREs, including SNAP-25, do not have a transmembrane domain and are instead attached to the membrane via lipid modifications such as palmitoylation. Tail-anchored proteins can be inserted into the plasma membrane, endoplasmic reticulum and peroxisomes among other membranes, though any particular SNARE is targeted to a unique membrane.
The targeting of SNAREs is accomplished by altering either the composition of the C-terminal flanking amino acid residues or the length of the transmembrane domain. Replacement of the transmembrane domain with lipid anchors leads to an intermediate stage of membrane fusion where only the two contacting leaflets fuse and not the two distal leaflets of the two membrane bilayer. Although SNAREs vary in structure and size, they all share a segment in their cytosolic domain called a SNARE motif that consists of 60-70 amino acids and contains heptad repeats that have the ability to form coiled-coil structures. V- and t-SNAREs are capable of reversible assembly into tight, four-helix bundles called "trans"-SNARE complexes. In synaptic vesicles, the readily-formed metastable "trans" complexes are composed of three SNAREs: syntaxin 1 and SNAP-25 resident in cell membrane and synaptobrevin anchored in the vesicle membrane. In neuronal exocytosis and synaptobrevin are anchored in respective membranes by their C-terminal domains, whereas SNAP-25 is tethered to the plasma membrane via several cysteine-linked palmitoyl chains.
The core trans-SNARE complex is a four- α -helix bundle, where one α -helix is contributed by syntaxin 1, one α -helix by synaptobrevin and two α -helices are contributed by SNAP-25. The plasma membrane-resident SNAREs have been shown to be present in distinct microdomains or clusters, the integrity of, essential for the exocytotic competence of the cell. During membrane fusion, v-SNARE and t-SNARE proteins on separate membranes combine to form a trans-SNARE complex known as a "SNAREpin". Depending on the stage of fusion of the membranes, these complexes may be referred to differently. During fusion of trans-SNARE complexes, the membranes merge and SNARE proteins involved in complex formation after fusion are referred to as a "cis"-SNARE complex, because they now reside in a single resultant membrane. After fusion, the cis-SNARE complex is bound and disassembled by an adaptor protein, alphaSNAP; the hexameric ATPase called NSF catalyzes the ATP-dependent unfolding of the SNARE proteins and releases them into the cytosol for recycling.
SNAREs are thought to be the core required components of the fusion machinery and can function independently of additional cytosolic accessory proteins. This was demonstrated by engineering "flipped" SNAREs, where the SNARE domains face the extracellular space rather than the cytosol; when cells containing v-SNAREs contact cells containing t-SNAREs, trans-SNARE complexes form and cell-cell fusion ensues. The core SNARE complex is a 4- α -helix bundle. Synaptobrevin and syntaxin contribute one α -helix each, while SNAP-25 participates with two α -helices; the interacting amino acid residues that zip the SNARE complex can be grouped into layers. Each layer has 4 amino acid residues - one residue per each of the 4 α -helices. In the center of the complex is the zero ionic layer composed of one arginine and three glutamine residues, it is flanked by leucine zippering. Layers'-1','+1' and'+2' at the centre of the complex most follow ideal leucine-zipper geometry and aminoacid composition; the zero ionic layer is comp