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Getty Villa

The Getty Villa is at the easterly end of the Malibu coast in the Pacific Palisades neighborhood of Los Angeles, United States. One of two locations of the J. Paul Getty Museum, the Getty Villa is an educational center and museum dedicated to the study of the arts and cultures of ancient Greece and Etruria; the collection has 44,000 Greek and Etruscan antiquities dating from 6,500 BC to 400 AD, including the Lansdowne Heracles and the Victorious Youth. The UCLA/Getty Master's Program in Archaeological and Ethnographic Conservation is housed on this campus. In 1954, oil tycoon J. Paul Getty opened a gallery adjacent to his home in Pacific Palisades. Running out of room, he built a second museum, the Getty Villa, on the property down the hill from the original gallery; the villa design was inspired by the Villa of the Papyri at Herculaneum and incorporated additional details from several other ancient sites. It was designed by architects Robert E. Langdon, Jr. and Ernest C. Wilson, Jr. in consultation with archeologist Norman Neuerburg.

It opened in 1974, but was never visited by Getty, who died in 1976. Following his death, the museum inherited $661 million and began planning a much larger campus, the Getty Center, in nearby Brentwood; the museum overcame neighborhood opposition to its new campus plan by agreeing to limit the total size of the development on the Getty Center site. To meet the museum's total space needs, the museum decided to split between the two locations with the Getty Villa housing the Greek and Etruscan antiquities. In 1993, the Getty Trust selected Rodolfo Machado and Jorge Silvetti to design the renovation of the Getty Villa and its campus. In 1997, portions of the museum's collection of Greek and Etruscan antiquities were moved to the Getty Center for display, the Getty Villa was closed for renovation; the collection was restored during the renovation. Starting in 2004, the museum and the University of California, Los Angeles hold summer institutes in Turkey, studying the conservation of Middle Eastern Art.

Reopened on January 28, 2006, the Getty Villa shows Greek and Etruscan antiquities within Roman-inspired architecture and surrounded by Roman-style gardens. The art is arranged by themes, e.g. Gods and Goddesses and the Theater, Stories of the Trojan War; the new architectural plan surrounding the Villa –, conceived by Boston architects Machado and Silvetti Associates – is designed to simulate an archaeological dig. Architectural Record has praised their work on the Getty Villa as "a near miracle – a museum that elicits no smirks from the art world... a masterful job... crafting a sophisticated ensemble of buildings and landscaping that provides a real home for a relic of another time and place."In 2016–18 the collection was reinstalled in a chronological arrangement emphasizing art-historical themes. There has been controversy surrounding the Greek and Italian governments' claim that objects in the collection were looted and should be repatriated. In 2006, the Getty returned or promised to return four looted objects to Greece: a stele, a marble relief, a gold funerary wreath, a marble statue.

In 2007, the Getty signed an agreement to return 40 looted items to Italy. The Getty Villa hosts live performances in both its outdoor theatre. Indoor play-readings included The Trojan Women, Aristophanes' The Frogs, Euripides' Helen. Indoor musical performances, which relate to art exhibits, included: Musica Angelica, De Organographia, Songs from the Fifth Age: Sones de México in Concert; the auditorium held a public reading of Homer's Iliad. Outdoor performances included Aristophanes' Peace, Aeschylus's Agamemnon, Sophocles' Elektra; the Getty Villa hosts visiting exhibitions beyond its own collections. For example, in March 2011 "In Search of Biblical Lands" was a photographic exhibition which included scenes of the Middle East dating back to the 1840s; the Getty Villa offers special educational programs for children. A special Family Forum gallery offers activities including decorating Greek vases and projecting shadows onto a screen that represents a Greek urn; the room has polystyrene props from Greek and Roman culture for children to handle and use to cast shadows.

The Getty Villa offers children's guides to the other exhibits. The Getty Conservation Institute offers a Master's Program in Archaeological and Ethnographic Conservation in association with the Cotsen Institute of Archaeology at UCLA. Classes and research are conducted in the museum wing of the ranch house; the program was the first of its kind in the United States. The Villa self-identifies with Malibu as it is located just east of the city limits of Malibu in the city of Los Angeles in the community of Pacific Palisades; the 64 acres museum complex sits on a hill overlooking the Pacific Ocean, about 100 feet from the entrance to the property. An outdoor 2,500-square-foot entry pavilion is built into the hill near the 248-car, four story, South Parking garage at the southern end of the Outer Peristyle. To the west of the Museum is a 450-seat outdoor Greek theater where evening performances are staged, named in honor of Barbara and Lawrence Fleischman; the theater uses its entrance as a stage.

To the northwest of the theatre is a three-story, 15,500-square-foot building built into the hill that contains the museum store on the lower level, a cafe on the second level, a private dining room on the top level. North of the Villa is a 10,000 sq ft indoor 250 seat auditorium. On the hill above the museum are Getty's original private ranch hous

Paul Scheffer

Paul Scheffer is a Dutch author, he was professor at the Universiteit van Amsterdam between 2003 and 2011 he is professor of European studies at Tilburg University. Paul Scheffer is a prominent member of the Dutch Labour Party. In 2000, he wrote an essay Het multiculturele drama, influential in shaping the debate on multiculturalism and immigration in the Netherlands, his 2007 book, Het land van aankomst, was published in English in 2011 as "Immigrant Nations", deals with the overlaps between multiculturalism in the Netherlands and immigration to the Netherlands. The central idea of this book is that "immigration always has been and is a process of alienation for both the newcomers and the natives"

Cheadle railway station

Cheadle railway station served the English town of Cheadle, Staffordshire. It was the terminus of a branch line from Cresswell and opened in 1901; the initial station buildings were of a temporary nature and a permanent structure was built in 1910. That year, the goods yard was expanded and the goods shed was extended. A new loading dock was built and a crane was provided. Cheadle station had a loop but no turntable and so most trains left Cheadle with the locomotive running "bunker first". Passenger services were withdrawn in June 1963, though the closure of the service was not directly due to the Beeching Axe. Local sand traffic from nearby quarries continued and a new road-rail loading dock replaced the goods shed in the late 1960s. 1,200 tons per day was being moved by this time but in the 1970s the amount of traffic reduced and on 6 March 1978 public freight working was withdrawn. A small amount of traffic for railway civil engineering use continued until November 3rd 1984. An InterCity charter train ran from Euston to Cheadle in 1985, InterCity choosing the Cheadle branch to show the versatility of their charter service.

Passengers were taken to Alton Towers by coach from Cheadle, which fueled debate about a regular service, however this came to nothing Cheadle station building was demolished in 1986, leaving just a bare platform at the end of the branch line that became overgrown with weeds. The only trace of the station that remains today is the station master's house. Mitchell, Vic. Derby to Stoke-on-Trent. West Sussex: Middleton Press. Figs. 106-110. ISBN 9781908174932. OCLC 954271104