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Gheorghe Hagi

Gheorghe Hagi is a Romanian football manager and former professional player, who played as an attacking midfielder. He is the owner and manager of Romanian club Viitorul Constanța. Hagi was considered one of the best players in the world during the 1980s and'90s, is regarded by many as the greatest Romanian footballer of all time. Fans of Turkish club Galatasaray, with whom Hagi ended his career, called him "Comandante", while he was known as "Regele" to Romanian supporters. Nicknamed "The Maradona of the Carpathians", he was a creative advanced playmaker renowned for his dribbling, vision and shooting. After starting his playing career in Romania, with Farul Constanța, subsequently featuring for Sportul Studențesc and Steaua București, he also had spells in Spain with Real Madrid and FC Barcelona, Italy with Brescia, Turkey, with Galatasaray. Throughout his club career, he won numerous titles while playing in four different countries: he won three Romanian League titles, two Cupa României titles, the European Super Cup with Steaua București – reaching the final of the 1988–89 European Cup –, a Supercopa de España title with Real Madrid, the Anglo-Italian Cup and a Serie B title with Brescia, another Supercopa de España title with Barcelona, four Süper Lig titles, two Turkish Cups, two Turkish Super Cups, the UEFA Cup, the UEFA Super Cup with Galatasaray.

At international level, Hagi played for the Romanian national team in three FIFA World Cups, in 1990, 1994 and 1998. He won a total of 124 caps for Romania between 1983 and 2000, making him the second-most capped Romanian player of all time, behind only Dorinel Munteanu. Hagi is considered a hero both in Turkey, he was named Romanian Footballer of the Year a record seven times, is regarded as one of the best football players of his generation. In November 2003, to celebrate UEFA's Jubilee, Hagi was selected as the Golden Player of Romania by the Romanian Football Federation as their most outstanding player of the past 50 years. In 2004, he was named by Pelé as one of the 125 Greatest Living Footballers at a FIFA Awards Ceremony. In 1999, he was ranked at number 25 in World Soccer Magazine's list of the 100 greatest players of the 20th century. Following his retirement in 2001, Hagi pursued a managerial career, coaching the Romanian national team, as well as clubs in both Romania and Turkey, namely Bursaspor, Politehnica Timișoara, Steaua București, Viitorul Constanța.

In 2009, he founded Romanian club Viitorul Constanța, which he has coached since 2014. Hagi established the Gheorghe Hagi Football Academy, one of the largest football academies in Southeastern Europe. Hagi started his career playing for the youth teams of Farul Constanța in the 1970s, before being selected by the Romanian Football Federation to join the squad of Luceafărul București in 1980, where he remained for two years. In 1982, he returned to Constanța, but one year aged 18, he was prepared to make the step up to play for a top team, he was directed to Universitatea Craiova, but chose Sportul Studențesc of Bucharest instead. In late 1986, Hagi transferred to Steaua București as the team prepared for the European Super Cup final against Dynamo Kyiv; the original contract was for the final. However, after winning the trophy, in which Hagi scored the only goal of the match from a free kick, Steaua did not want to release him back to Sportul Studențesc and retained him. During his Steaua years, Hagi played 97 Liga I games, scoring 76 goals, netted 98 goals in total in 107 appearances for the club across all competitions.

With the club, he reached the European Cup semi-final in 1988, the final in the following year, while Hagi finished as one of the competition's top scorers in the former edition of the tournament. Hagi won three consecutive league and Cup doubles with Steaua between 1987 and 1989, his strong performances had him linked with Arrigo Sacchi's Milan, fellow Serie A club Juventus, German side Bayern Munich, but Nicolae Ceaușescu's communist government rejected any offer. After impressing at the 1990 FIFA World Cup, Hagi was signed by Spanish club Real Madrid on 27 June that same year. Hagi played two seasons with Real Madrid, which were unsuccessful, scoring 20 goals in 84 games, only winning the Supercopa de España, he was subsequently sold to Italian side Brescia for 8 billion lira in 1992. Hagi began the 1992–93 season with Brescia in Serie A, but after his first season, the club was relegated to Serie B; the following season, Hagi helped the club win the Anglo-Italian Cup, with Brescia defeating Notts County 1–0 in the final at Wembley, helped the team finish third in Serie B and earn promotion back to Serie A.

After performing memorably during the 1994 World Cup, Hagi returned to Spain, was signed by defending La Liga champions Barcelona for £2 million, where

JoaquĆ­n Pasos

Joaquín Pasos was a Nicaraguan poet and essayist. He was one of the leading figures of the national Vanguardia literary movement, he is best known. Pasos was born in Granada and studied at the Universidad Centroamericana. During his puberty and incipient adolescence, he was a literary prodigy. Pasos began to write relentlessly at the age of 14, opening in that way what should become the first of his two creating phases; the first one of these creating phases would take place between 1928 and 1935. In this stage he only showed a broad ability to apprehend and digest the style and patterns of some modern literary figures such as Paul Morand, Valery Larbaud, Philippe Soupault, J. J. Van Doren, Rafael Alberti & Gerardo Diego. We can observe a certain obsession with geographic eccentricities and a juvenile fetish for foreign actresses. After 1935–and until his death–his poetry obtains its own voice. In this phase Pasos reaches his maturity as a writer. With an exceptionally rich metaphor. After the writing of these poems, he wrote his masterpiece, “The song of the war of things”, that, in contrast to T. S. Eliot’s The Waste Land, covered in a much more global manner, the physical and metaphysical position of the man of the 20th century.

This is the last stanza of the poem: All the sounds of the world form one great silence. All the men of the world form one ghost. Amidst this pain, soldier!, your position lies empty or full. The lives that remain have gaps, they have complete vacuums, as if mouthfuls of flesh would’ve been taken out of their bodies. Take a close look to this bite, this one I have on my chest, To see heavens and hells. Look at my head cracked with a million of holes: Through it shines a white sun, through it a black star. Touch my hand, this hand that yesterday held steel: You can pass in through the air. Everything remained in time. Everything was burned far away; the Song of the war of things -Joaquin Pasos y tubo q “Joaquinillo”, like the other Nicaraguan poet Carlos Martínez Rivas called him, was known in his country for his humoristic labor. Next to Joaquín Zavala, he created “Opera Bufa” a political, literary & humoristic magazine that denounced the Liberal and Conservative political parties, he worked next to poet Manolo Cuadra, the humorist and poet Ge Erre Ene, the other humorist Alejandro Cuadra and the cartoonist Antonio López in “Los Lunes” a humoristic magazine that attacked the dictator Anastasio Somoza García.

In full anonymity–at an international level–Pasos died in Managua, capital of Nicaragua, January 20, 1947. The Nicaraguan Indian in Pasos' work An acknowledgment of his work A selection of his poetry translated to English A selection of his poetry in Spanish

United Mine Workers of America v. Gibbs

United Mine Workers of America v. Gibbs, 383 U. S. 715, was a case in which the Supreme Court of the United States held that in order for a United States district court to have pendent jurisdiction over a state-law cause of action and federal claims must arise from the same "common nucleus of operative fact" and the plaintiff must expect to try them all at once. This case was decided before the existence of the current supplemental jurisdiction statute, 28 U. S. C. § 1367. This case arose out of a dispute between two labor unions over the representation of coal miners in Marion County, Tennessee. Plaintiff Paul Gibbs was a truck driver and coal miner, hired by the Grundy Company, a wholly owned subsidiary of the Tennessee Consolidated Coal Company, to be the superintendent of a coal mine to be opened near Gray's Creek, to arrange for the coal to be hauled to the nearest railroad depot; the mine would have been within the jurisdiction of United Mine Workers of America Local 5881, whose members had worked for Tennessee Consolidated.

Gibbs had planned instead to use members of the rival Southern Labor Union to work the mine. News of the mine's planned opening reached the UMW members, on August 15 and 16, 1960, a group of armed miners from Local 5881 arrived at the site to prevent the mine from being opened, they threatened Gibbs, beat the Southern Labor Union representative. UMW field representative George Gilbert was away on business in Middlesboro, Kentucky at the time of the incident, learned of the violence while he was away. Gilbert returned to the site, established a picket line, which lasted for nine months. There was no further violence at the site, no further attempts were made by any party to open the mine. Gibbs lost his job as mine superintendent, was therefore unable to commence performance of his haulage contract, he lost some of his other mine leases and trucking contracts elsewhere in the state. Believing that his losses were part of a union conspiracy against him, he sued the United Mine Workers in the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Tennessee.

The counts on Gibbs' complaint included allegations that the UMW engaged in a secondary boycott in violation of § 303 of the Labor-Management Relations Act, that the UMW engaged in tortious interference with his employment relationship and a civil conspiracy in violation of the common law of the state of Tennessee. The district court judge refused to submit to the jury the claims of pressure intended to cause mining firms other than Grundy to cease doing business with Gibbs, finding these claims unsupported by the evidence; the jury's verdict was that the UMW had violated both § state law. Gibbs was awarded $60,000 as damages under the employment contract and $14,500 under the haulage contract. On motion, the trial court set aside the award of damages with respect to the haulage contract on the ground that the damages were unproved, it held that union pressure on Grundy to discharge Gibbs as supervisor would constitute only a primary dispute with Grundy, as Gibbs' employer, hence was not cognizable as a claim under 303.

Interference with the employment relationship was cognizable as a state law claim, a remitted award was sustained on that claim. The United States Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit affirmed the district court's decision. Justice Brennan first held that Gibbs' state law claims were not preempted by federal law, moved on to the central issue in the case: whether the district court acted properly in exercising jurisdiction over both the state law and federal law claims, he wrote that the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure encouraged the joinder of claims and remedies to the broadest extent possible, in keeping with the principles of judicial economy and fairness to the parties. However, he noted that pendent jurisdiction, while it can exist whenever there is a federal question under Article III, § 2 of the Constitution, is a matter of discretion for the district court, not a matter of right for the plaintiff. Here, Brennan established the test for pendent jurisdiction known as the "common nucleus of operative fact": the claims must derive from the same situation, such that a plaintiff would ordinarily expect to try them all in one judicial proceeding.

Brennan listed some situations. If the plaintiff's federal law claims are dismissed before trial, the state law claims should be as well. Brennan explained that in some cases, the likelihood of jury confusion in dealing with separate legal theories of relief could militate in favor of separate trials for the state and federal claims. Brennan concluded that though the jury ruled against plaintiff on his federal claim, the preemption issue created a good reason for exercising pendent jurisdiction in this case. Brennan held that the district court improperly instructed the jury on the conspiracy count, because the damages plaintiff was claiming must be proximately caused by violence or threats thereof, that plaintiff had not shown "clear proof" that the UMW's management had endorsed violence as a means of settling the dispute. Justice Harlan wrote a brief concurrence, in which he agreed with Brennan's discussion of pendent jurisdiction, but disagreed with his interpretation of the standard of proof required for a claim under the Norris-LaGuardia Act.

Text of United Mine Workers of America v. Gibbs, 383 U. S. 715