Khuzestan Province (Persian: استان خوزستان Ostān-e Khūzestān, is one of the 31 provinces of Iran. It is in the southwest of bordering Iraq and the Persian Gulf, its capital is Ahvaz and it covers an area of 63,238 km2. Since 2014 it has been part of Iran's Region 4; as the Iranian province with the oldest history, it is referred to as the "birthplace of the nation", as this is where the history of the Elamites begins. One of the most important regions of the Ancient Near East, Khuzestan is what historians refer to as ancient Elam, whose capital was in Susa; the Achaemenid Old Persian term for Elam was Hujiyā when they conquered it from the Elamites, present in the modern name. Khuzestan, meaning "the Land of the Khuz", refers to the original inhabitants of this province, the "Susian" people, they are the Shushan of the Hebrew sources where they are recorded as "Hauja" or "Huja". In Middle Persian, the term evolves into "Khuz" and "Kuzi"; the pre-Islamic Partho-Sasanian inscriptions gives the name of the province as Khwuzestan.
The seat of the province has for the most of its history been in the northern reaches of the land, first at Susa and at Shushtar. During a short spell in the Sasanian era, the capital of the province was moved to its geographical center, where the river town of Hormuz-Ardasher, founded over the foundation of the ancient Hoorpahir by Ardashir I, the founder of the Sasanian Dynasty in the 3rd century CE; this town is now known as Ahvaz. However in the Sasanian time and throughout the Islamic era, the provincial seat returned and stayed at Shushtar, until the late Qajar period. With the increase in the international sea commerce arriving on the shores of Khuzistan, Ahvaz became a more suitable location for the provincial capital; the River Karun is navigable all the way to Ahvaz. The town was thus refurbished by the order of the Qajar king, Naser al-Din Shah and renamed after him, Nâseri. Shushtar declined, while Ahvaz/Nâseri prospered to the present day. Khuzestan is known for its ethnic diversity.
Khuzestan's population is predominantly Shia Muslim, but there are small Christian, Jewish and Mandean minorities. Half of Khuzestan's population is Bakhtiari. Since the 1920s, tensions on religious and ethnic grounds have resulted in violence and attempted separatism, including an uprising in 1979, unrest in 2005, bombings in 2005–06 and protests in 2011, drawing much criticism of Iran by international human rights organizations. In 1980, the region was invaded by leading to the Iran -- Iraq War. Khuzestan has 18 representatives in Iran's parliament, the Majlis. Meanwhile, it has six representatives in the Assembly of Experts, including Ayatollahs Mousavi Jazayeri, Ka'bi, Farhani, Ali Shafi'i, Muhammad Hussain Ahmadi; the name Khuzestan means "The Land of the Khuzi", refers to the original inhabitants of this province, the "Susian" people (Old Persian "Huza", Middle Persian "Khuzi" or "Husa". The name of the city of Ahvaz has the same origin as the name Khuzestan, being an Arabic broken plural from the compound name, "Suq al-Ahvaz" --the medieval name of the town, that replaced the Sasanian Persian name of the pre-Islamic times.
The entire province was still known as "the Khudhi" or "the Khooji" until the reign of the Safavid king Tahmasp I and in general the course of the 16th century. The southern half of the province—south, southwest of the Ahwaz Ridge, had come by the 17th century to be known—at least to the imperial Safavid chancery as Arabistan; the contemporaneous history, the Alamara-i Abbasi by Iskandar Beg Munshi, written during the reign of king Abbas I refers to the southern part of Khuzestan as "Arabistan". The northern half continued to be called Khuzestan. In 1925, the entire province regained the term Arabistan was dropped. There is a old folk etymology which maintains the word "khouz" stands for sugar and "Khouzi" for people who make raw sugar; the province has been a cane sugar-producing area since the late Sassanian times, such as the sugar cane fields of the Dez River side in Dezful. Khouzhestan has been the land of Khouzhies who cultivate sugar cane today in Haft Tepe. There have been many attempts at finding other sources for the name.
The province of Khuzestan can be divided into two regions. The area is irrigated by the Karoun, Karkheh and Maroun rivers; the northern section maintains a non-Persian Bakhtiari minority, while the southern section always had diverse minority groups known as Khuzis. Since the 1940s, a flood of job seekers from all over Iran to the oil and commerce centers on the Persian Gulf Coast has made the region more Persian-speaking. Presently, Khouzestan still maintains its diverse group, but does have Arabs, Persians and ethnic Qashqais and Lors. Khuzestan has great potential for agricultural expansion, unrivaled by the country's other provinces. Large and permanent rivers flow over the entire territory contributing to the fertility of the land. Karun, Iran's most effluent river, 850 kilometers long, flows into the Persian Gulf through this province; the agricultural potential of most of these rivers, in their lower reaches, is hampered by the fact that their waters carry salt, the amount of which
Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani
Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani was an influential Iranian politician and one of the founding fathers of the Islamic Republic, the fourth President of Iran from 3 August 1989 until 3 August 1997. He was the head of the Assembly of Experts from 2007 until 2011, when he decided not to nominate himself for the post, he was the chairman of the Expediency Discernment Council. During the final years of the Iran–Iraq War, Rafsanjani was the de facto commander-in-chief of the Iranian military, he was elected chairman of the Iranian parliament in 1980, serving until 1989. He played an important role in the choice of Ali Khamenei as Supreme Leader. Rafsanjani became president of Iran after winning the 1989 election, he served another term by winning the election in 1993. In the 2005 election he ran for a third term in office, placing first in the first round of elections but losing to rival Mahmoud Ahmadinejad in the run-off, he and his family faced political isolation for their support of the opposition in 2009.
Rafsanjani entered the race for the 2013 presidential election, but he was disqualified by the Guardian Council. With Hassan Rouhani's election, in which Rafsanjani supported him, the Rafsanjani family recovered their political reputation. Rafsanjani died following a heart attack on 8 January 2017 in a hospital in Tehran at the age of 82. Rafsanjani has been described as having been a pragmatic Islamic conservative; the Economist called him a "veteran kingmaker". He supported a free market position domestically, favoring privatization of state-owned industries and a moderate position internationally, seeking to avoid conflict with the United States and the West, he was founder and one of the Board of Trustees of Azad University. In 2003, Forbes estimated his personal wealth to be in excess of USD$1 billion. Rafsanjani was born on 25 August 1934 in the village of Bahreman near the city of Rafsanjan in Kerman Province, to a wealthy family of pistachio farmers, he had seven siblings. His father, Mirza Ali Hashemi Behramani, was one of Kerman's famous businessmen and a Pistachio merchant.
His mother, Hajie Khanom Mahbibi Hashemi, died at the age of 90 on 21 December 1995. One of his brothers, Mohammad Hashemi is the former director of IRIB. Rafsanjani did not see himself according to family members, he left at the age of 14 to study theology in Qom. There he became acquainted with the ideas of Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, the most senior dissident cleric who became the founder of the Islamic Republic, on the political rule of the clergy, he studied theology. His other teachers were Seyyed Hossein Borujerdi, Mohammad-Reza Golpaygani, Mohammad Kazem Shariatmadari, Abdul-Karim Ha'eri Yazdi, Shahab al-Din Mar'ashi Najafi, Nematollah Salehi Najafabadi, Muhammad Husayn Tabataba'i, Hussein-Ali Montazeri; when he was studying at Qom Seminary, he became interested in politics under Ruhollah Khomeini. He was one of the opposers of Mohammad Reza Shah's White accompanied Khomeini. With Khomeini's exile, Hashemi's role in the fight against the Shah and representing Khomeini in the country was highlighted.
This opposition led to his arrest and imprisonment. He was arrested 7 times from 1960 until 1979 and was in jail for four years and 5 months in total due to his clandestine activities against the Pahlavi regime. Despite the anti-Western attitude of revolutionaries, he had traveled to 20 states of the United States. Although individual major pre-revolutionary speeches against Shah regime, But Khomeini acted him as financial manager of revolutionary struggle as well as connector with other revolutionary groups. Among the groups that had a deep bond with Hashemi, was the Islamic Coalition Party, known as responsible for the assassination of former Prime Minister Hassan Ali Mansur; this communication was another reason for his arrest. In prison, he found the opportunity to become familiar with other groups opposed to the Shah. After the victory of Iranian Revolution, Hashemi became one of the members of Council of Islamic Revolution, he was one of the powerful members of the council from its establishment.
He was deputy interior minister at that time and became the acting interior minister. He was one of the 28 founders of Traditional right-wing Combatant Clergy Association and one of the members of the central committee of Islamic Republican Party at the first years of the revolution. Years it was him that requested IRP's dissolution, his political acumen and Khomeini's full trust helped Rafsanjani as one of the most powerful politicians in Iran at that time. At the time, he was the closest person to the Khomeini and ruled as his "eyes and ears". According to the Gold, Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps was established with the help of Hashemi. At Iranian hostage crisis in 1980, Hashemi Rafsanjani mentioned it as "one of the largest manufacturer in the history". However, on the tenth anniversary of the revolution, he said in an interview that according to the experiences of these years, the hostage was "wrong". Hashemi served as one of the Tehran's Friday Prayer Imams, Representative of Khomeini at Defence High Council and Second-in-Command of Iran's Joint Chiefs of Staff in the last year of Iran–Iraq War.
He forced Khomeini to accept to end the war. Only three months after his appointment as Iran's deputy commander-in-chief, Iran accepted United Nations Security Council Resolution 598 and eight-year war was ended. Iran's first Election Law was developed with Hashemi's partnership, he nominated as one of the Islamic Republi
Cabinet of Iran
The Cabinet of Iran is a formal body composed of government officials, ministers and led by a President. Its composition must be approved by a vote in the Parliament. According to the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran, the President may dismiss members of the cabinet, but must do so in writing, new appointees must again be approved by the Parliament; the cabinet meets weekly on Saturdays in Tehran. There may be additional meetings; the president chairs the meetings. From 1699 until 1907 the Iranian cabinet was led by Premiers; the Persian Constitutional Revolution of 1905 led to the creation of the Persian Constitution of 1906 and the establishment of the Iranian parliament, whose members were elected from the general population. The position of premier was replaced by the Prime Minister of Iran; the constitution stipulated that all Prime Minister must be subject to a vote in parliament for both approval and removal. During the period 1907 to 1951 all Prime Ministers were selected by the Shah and subject to a vote-of-confidence by the Iranian Parliament.
From 1951 to 1953, the members of parliament elected the Prime Minister among themselves, through a vote-of-confidence. The Shah, as the head of state appointed the parliament's selection to the position of Prime Minister, in accordance with the Westminster system of parliamentary democracy. Following the removal of Prime Minister Mohammad Mosaddegh via the 1953 Iranian coup d'état, this practice was abolished and the selection of Prime Minister reverted to the process in effect before 1951. Following the Iranian Revolution of 1979, the position of Shah was removed as the head of state ending Iran's history of monarchy. Iran's new Islamic constitution stipulated that the President of Iran would nominate the Iranian cabinet, including the Prime Minister, to be approved by a vote-of-confidence in the Iranian parliament; the constitutional amendment of 1989 ended the position of Prime Minister and transferred its powers to that of the president and vice president. President Ahmadinejad announced controversial ministerial appointments for his second term.
Esfandiar Rahim Mashaei was appointed as first vice president, but opposed by a number of Majlis members and by the intelligence minister, Gholam-Hossein Mohseni-Eje'i. Mashaei followed orders to resign. Ahmadinejad appointed Mashaei as chief of staff, fired Mohseni-Eje'i. On 26 July 2009, Ahmadinejad's government faced a legal problem. Iran's constitution stipulates that, if more than half of its members are replaced, the cabinet may not meet or act before the Majlis approves the revised membership; the Vice Chairman of the Majlis announced that no cabinet meetings or decisions would be legal, pending such a reapproval. The main list of 21 cabinet appointments was announced on 19 August 2009. On 4 September, Parliament of Iran approved 18 of the 21 candidates and rejected three of them, including two women. Sousan Keshavarz, Mohammad Aliabadi, Fatemeh Ajorlou were not approved by Parliament for the Ministries of Education and Welfare and Social Security respectively. Marzieh Vahid-Dastjerdi won approval as health minister, making her Iran's first woman minister since the Islamic revolution.
President Ahmadinejad announced controversial ministerial appointments for his second term. Esfandiar Rahim Mashaei was appointed as first vice president, but opposed by a number of Majlis members and by the intelligence minister, Gholam-Hossein Mohseni-Eje'i. Mashaei followed orders to resign. Ahmadinejad appointed Mashaei as chief of staff, fired Mohseni-Eje'i. On 26 July 2009, Ahmadinejad's government faced a legal problem. Iran's constitution stipulates that, if more than half of its members are replaced, the cabinet may not meet or act before the Majlis approves the revised membership; the Vice Chairman of the Majlis announced that no cabinet meetings or decisions would be legal, pending such a reapproval. The main list of 21 cabinet appointments was announced on 19 August 2009. On 4 September, Parliament of Iran approved 18 of the 21 candidates and rejected three of them, including two women. Sousan Keshavarz, Mohammad Aliabadi, Fatemeh Ajorlou were not approved by Parliament for the Ministries of Education and Welfare and Social Security respectively.
Marzieh Vahid-Dastjerdi won approval as health minister, making her Iran's first woman minister since the Islamic revolution. On 9 May, Ahmedinejad announced Ministries of Petroleum and Energy would merge, as would Industries and Mines with Commerce, Welfare with Labour. On 13 May, he dismissed Ali Akbar Mehrabian and Sadegh Mahsouli. On 15 May, he was announced. From August 2009 to February 2013, a total of nine ministers in the cabinet was dismissed by the Majlis, the last of, labor minister, Reza Sheykholeslam at the beginning of February 2013. On 9 May, Ahmedinejad announced Ministries of Petroleum and Energy would merge, as would Industries and Mines with Commerce, Welfare with Labour. On 13 May, he dismissed Ali Akbar Mehrabian and Sadegh Mahsouli. On 15 May, he was announced. From August 2009 to February 2013, a total of nine ministers in the cabinet was dismissed by the Majlis, the last of, labor minister, Reza Sheykholeslam at the beginning of February
Vice President of Iran
The Vice President of Iran is defined by article 124 of the Constitution of Iran, as anyone appointed by the President of Iran to lead an organization related to Presidential affairs. As of July 2009, there are 12 Vice Presidents in Iran; the First Vice President is the most important as he or she leads cabinet meetings in the absence of the president. The role of First Vice President was created in the revision of the Constitution in 1989, it took over some of the responsibilities of the Prime Minister. According to Article 124, the First Vice President chairs the board of ministers and coordinates the other vice presidencies, if let by the President. According to Article 131, the First Vice President takes over as acting President in cases where the President in incapacitated, but only if permitted by the Supreme Leader. According to the same Article, the First Vice President must make sure that a new president is elected in fifty days. According to Article 132, during the time an Acting President is serving, the Majlis cannot impeach ministers and it can't disapprove newly introduced ministers.
Referendums and revisions to the Constitution are forbidden. Current officeholders are ex officio Vice Presidents: Vice President and Head of Environmental Protection Organization Vice President and Head of Atomic Energy Organization Vice President and Head of Cultural Heritage and Tourism Organization Vice President and Head of Management and Planning Organization Vice President and Head of Foundation of Martyrs and Veterans Affairs Vice President and Head of National Elites Foundation Vice President and Head of Administrative and Employment Affairs OrganizationFormerly, heads of these two organization below were ex-officio Vice Presidents: Vice President and Head of Physical Education Organization Vice President and Head of National Youth OrganizationBoth organizations were merged into Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports; the President may or may not choose vice presidents for specific issues, but their existence is not obligatory. Some of the offices held by vice presidents are: Vice President for Parliamentary Affairs Vice President for Legal Affairs Vice President for Executive Affairs Vice President for International Affairs Vice President for Economic Affairs Vice President for Women and Family Affairs Vice President for Management and Human Resources Development Vice President for Supervision and Strategic Affairs Vice President for Development and Social Affairs Chief of Staff of the President of Iran Advisor to the President of Iran Aide to the President of Iran
Mohammad Bagher Nobakht
Mohammad Bagher Nobakht Haghighi is an Iranian politician and economist and Hassan Rouhani's adviser for Supervision and Strategic Affairs, Head of Plan and Budget Organization, Spokesman of the Government. He is the former Head of Management and Planning Organization and secretary-general of the Moderation and Development Party, he was a representative of Rasht in the Islamic Consultative Assembly for four consecutive terms. He was the spokesman for Rouhani's 2013 presidential election and Deputy of Economic Research Department at the Center for Strategic Research, a think tank led by Rouhani. Following Rouhani's election, Nobakht was appointed as the president's liaison to the legislative branch led by Ali Ardashir Larijani, with the mandate to "establish communication and moderation" between the two branches of government, he was appointed as adviser for Strategic Affairs on 5 August 2013 by Rouhani. On 11 August 2013, he was appointed vice president for planning and strategic supervision
Sadeq Khalilian is an Iranian economist and politician who served as agriculture minister from 2009 to 2013 in the government headed by Mahmoud Ahmedinejad. Khalilian was born in Ahvaz in the Khouzaestan province in 1959, he holds a bachelor's degree from Ahvaz University. He received a PhD in agricultural economy from Tarbiat Modares University in 1996. During his studies, he was a member of the Islamic Association of Students. Khalilian became a member of IRGC after graduation. In 1990, he began to work at Tarbiat Modares University's faculty of agriculture as a faculty member. From 1998 to 2000, he served at different administrative positions at the university, he served as deputy agriculture minister until 2009. After the presidential elections in 2009, Ahmedinejad nominated Khalilian as agriculture minister, he was approved by the Majlis on 3 September 2009. He won 200 votes in 54 votes against. Khalilian registered for the 2013 presidential election, but he withdrew his candidacy on 14 May
Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Iran)
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs is an Iranian government ministry headed by the Minister of Foreign Affairs, a member of cabinet. The current Minister of Foreign Affairs is Mohammad Javad Zarif, approved by the Parliament on 15 August 2013 after being nominated by the President; the first minister of foreign affairs of Iran was Mirza Abdulvahab Khan, who served from 1821 to 1823. The incumbent minister is Mohammad Javad Zarif, appointed on 15 August 2013 to succeed Ali Akbar Salehi; the current officials of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs are: Minister of Foreign Affairs — Mohammad Javad Zarif Vice Minister of Foreign Affairs — Morteza Sarmadi Deputy for Legal & International Affairs — Abbas Araghchi Deputy for Administrative & Executive Affairs — Mehdi Danesh-Yazdi Deputy for Arab-African Affairs — Hossein Jaberi Ansari Deputy for European & American Affairs — Majid Takht-Ravanchi Deputy for Parliamentary & Iranian Affairs — Hassan Ghashghavi Spokesman & Head of the Center for Public and Media Diplomacy — Abbas Mousavi Deputy for Asia & Pacific Affairs — Ebrahim Rahimpour Head of the Center for International Education and Research — Mohammad Kazem Sajjadpour Director-General for Political Affairs and International Security Affairs - Hamid Baeidinejad Since 5 September 2013, the Ministry has been responsible for the negotiation of the Comprehensive agreement on Iranian nuclear program, carried out by the Supreme National Security Council.
The building of the Ministry was completed in 1939. Politics of Iran Foreign relations of Iran List of Ministers of Foreign Affairs of Iran