In folklore, a ghost is the soul or spirit of a dead person or animal that can appear to the living. In ghostlore, descriptions of ghosts vary from an invisible presence to translucent or visible wispy shapes, to realistic, lifelike forms; the deliberate attempt to contact the spirit of a deceased person is known as necromancy, or in spiritism as a séance. The belief in the existence of an afterlife, as well as manifestations of the spirits of the dead, is widespread, dating back to animism or ancestor worship in pre-literate cultures. Certain religious practices—funeral rites and some practices of spiritualism and ritual magic—are designed to rest the spirits of the dead. Ghosts are described as solitary, human-like essences, though stories of ghostly armies and the ghosts of animals rather than humans have been recounted, they are believed to haunt particular locations, objects, or people they were associated with in life. According to a 2009 study by the Pew Research Center, 18 % of Americans say.
The overwhelming consensus of science is. Their existence is impossible to falsify, ghost hunting has been classified as pseudoscience. Despite centuries of investigation, there is no scientific evidence that any location is inhabited by spirits of the dead. Certain toxic and psychoactive plants, whose use has long been associated with necromancy and the underworld, have been shown to contain anticholinergic compounds that are pharmacologically linked to dementia as well as histological patterns of neurodegeneration. Common prescription medication may, in rare instances, cause ghost-like hallucinations. Older reports linked carbon monoxide poisoning to ghost-like hallucinations. More recent research has indicated that ghost sightings may be related to degenerative brain diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. In folklore studies, ghosts fall within the motif index designation E200-E599; the English word ghost continues Old English gāst, from Proto-Germanic *gaistaz. It is common to West Germanic.
The prior Proto-Indo-European form was *ǵʰéysd-os, from the root *ǵʰéysd- denoting "fury, anger" reflected in Old Norse geisa "to rage". The Germanic word is recorded as masculine only, but continues a neuter s-stem; the original meaning of the Germanic word would thus have been an animating principle of the mind, in particular capable of excitation and fury. In Germanic paganism, "Germanic Mercury", the Odin, was at the same time the conductor of the dead and the "lord of fury" leading the Wild Hunt. Besides denoting the human spirit or soul, both of the living and the deceased, the Old English word is used as a synonym of Latin spiritus in the meaning of "breath" or "blast" from the earliest attestations, it could denote any good or evil spirit, such as angels and demons. From the Old English period, the word could denote the spirit of God, viz. the "Holy Ghost". The now-prevailing sense of "the soul of a deceased person, spoken of as appearing in a visible form" only emerges in Middle English.
The modern noun does, retain a wider field of application, extending on one hand to "soul", "spirit", "vital principle", "mind", or "psyche", the seat of feeling and moral judgement. The synonym spook is a Dutch loanword, akin to Low German spôk. Alternative words in modern usage include spectre, the Scottish wraith and apparition; the term shade in classical mythology translates Greek σκιά, or Latin umbra, in reference to the notion of spirits in the Greek underworld. "Haint" is a synonym for ghost used in regional English of the southern United States, the "haint tale" is a common feature of southern oral and literary tradition. The term poltergeist is a German word a "noisy ghost", for a spirit said to manifest itself by invisibly moving and influencing objects. Wraith is a Scots word for spectre, or apparition, it appeared in Scottish Romanticist literature, acquired the more general or figurative sense of portent or omen. In 18th- to 19th-century Scottish literature, it applied to aquatic spirits.
The word has no accepted etymology. An association with the verb writhe was the etymology favored by J. R. R. Tolkien. Tolkien's use of the word in the naming of the creatures known as the Ringwraiths has influenced usage in fantasy literature. Bogey or bogy/bogie is a term for a ghost, appears in Scottish poet John Mayne's Hallowe'en in 1780. A revenant is a deceased person returning from the dead to haunt the living, either as a disembodied ghost or alternatively as an animated corpse. Related is the concept of a fetch, the visible ghost or spirit of a person yet alive. A notion of the transcendent, supernatural, or numinous involving entities like ghosts, demons, or deities, is a cultural universal. In pre-literate folk religions, these beliefs
HMS L24 was a L-class submarine built for the Royal Navy during World War I. The boat was not completed before the end of the war and was sunk in an accidental collision in 1924. L9 and its successors were enlarged to accommodate more fuel; the submarine had a length of 238 feet 7 inches overall, a beam of 23 feet 6 inches and a mean draft of 13 feet 3 inches. They displaced 914 long tons on 1,089 long tons submerged; the L-class submarines had a crew of ratings. They had a diving depth of 150 feet. For surface running, the boats were powered by two 12-cylinder Vickers 1,200-brake-horsepower diesel engines, each driving one propeller shaft; when submerged each propeller was driven by a 600-horsepower electric motor. They could reach 17 knots on 10.5 knots underwater. On the surface, the L class had a range of 3,800 nautical miles at 10 knots; the boats were armed with four 21-inch torpedo tubes in the bow and two 18-inch in broadside mounts. They carried four reload torpedoes for the 21-inch tubes for a grand total of ten torpedoes of all sizes.
They were armed with a 4-inch deck gun. HMS L24 was built by Vickers at their Barrow-in-Furness shipyard, launched on 19 February 1919, completed at an unknown date; the boat was sunk with all hands lost in a collision with the battleship Resolution during an exercise off Portland Bill in the English Channel on 10 January 1924. A memorial is located in St Ann's Church in HMNB Portsmouth; the wreck is located at 50°22.50′N 02°37.79′W at a depth of 52 metres. Her hydroplanes remain set to hard dive. A hatch is open and there is obvious damage where Resolution sliced into her hull; the wreck is designated as a protected place under the Protection of Military Remains Act 1986. Akermann, Paul. Encyclopaedia of British Submarines 1901–1955. Penzance, Cornwall: Periscope Publishing. ISBN 1-904381-05-7. Colledge, J. J.. Ships of the Royal Navy: The Complete Record of all Fighting Ships of the Royal Navy. London: Chatham Publishing. ISBN 978-1-86176-281-8. Gardiner, Robert & Gray, eds.. Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships: 1906–1921.
Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 0-85177-245-5. Harrison, A. N.. "The Development of HM Submarines From Holland No. 1 to Porpoise ". Submariners Association: Barrow in Furness Branch. Archived from the original on 19 May 2015. Retrieved 19 August 2015. Innes McCartney. Lost Patrols: Submarine Wrecks of the English Channel. SI 2008/0950 Designation under the Protection of Military Remains Act
Freelance and freelance worker, are terms used for a person, self-employed and is not committed to a particular employer long-term. Freelance workers are sometimes represented by a company or a temporary agency that resells freelance labor to clients. While the term independent contractor would be used in a different register of English to designate the tax and employment classes of this type of worker, the term "freelancing" is most common in culture and creative industries, use of this term may indicate participation therein. Fields and industries where freelancing is predominant include: music, acting, computer programming, web design, graphic design and illustrating, film and video production and other forms of piece work which some cultural theorists consider as central to the cognitive-cultural economy. According to the 2012 Freelance Industry Report compiled about North America freelancing, nearly half of freelancers do writing work, with 18% of freelancers listing writing as a primary skill, 10% editing/copy-editing, 10% as copy-writing.
20% of freelancers listed their primary skills as design. Next on the list was translating, web development, marketing. Freelancing is projected to grow to $20–$30 billion in the next 5–7 years in India, the freelancers in US will comprise 40% of the workforce at the present growth rate. Depending on the industry, freelance work practices have changed over time. In some industries such as consulting, freelancers may require clients to sign written contracts. While in journalism or writing, freelancers may work for free or do work "on spec" to build their reputations or a relationship with a publication; some freelancers may provide written estimates of request deposits from clients. Payment for freelance work depends on industry, skills and location. Freelancers may charge on a per-project basis. Instead of a flat rate or fee, some freelancers have adopted a value-based pricing method based on the perceived value of the results to the client. By custom, payment arrangements may be percentage upfront, or upon completion.
For more complex projects, a contract may set a payment schedule based on outcomes. One of the drawbacks of freelancing is that there is no guaranteed payment, the work can be precarious. In order to ensure payment, many freelancers use online payment platforms to protect themselves or work with local clients that can be held accountable; as an independent contractor, when a freelancer creates creative expressions such as written or artistic works, they are automatically granted ownership of the copyright for their work. Registration of copyright is not required for ownership of these rights, however litigation against infringement may require registration, as documented in the class action lawsuit, Reed Elsevier, Inc. v. Muchnick, when freelance writers sued publishers for copyright violations, though this case settled for the benefit of freelance writers whether or not they had registered their copyright with the Copyright Office. Copyright is rescinded only when a freelancer signs a contract specifying that they are "working for hire," or if they are hired into employment.
S. copyright law, Section 101 in the Copyright Act of 1976. A 2018 McKinsey study found that up to 162 million people in Europe and the United States engage in some form of independent work, it represents 20-30 percent of the entire working age population. The total number of freelancers in USA is inexact, as of 2013, the most recent governmental report on independent contractors was published in 2005 by the U. S. Department of Labor Bureau of Labor Statistics. At that time, there were 10.3 million United States workers employed as independent contractors of all sorts. In 2011, Jeffrey Eisenach, an economist at George Mason University, estimated that number of freelancers had grown by one million. While in 2012, the Aberdeen Group, a private research company, estimated that 26% of the United States population was a part of the contingent workforce, a category of casual labor that includes freelancing. In 2013, the Freelancers Union estimated that 1 in 3 workers in the United States was self-employed, with more than four million of those self-employed workers as members of the creative class, a stratum of work associated with freelance industries, such as knowledge workers, professional writers, artists and media workers.
In 2016, the Freelancers Union estimated that 35% of the workforce in the United States was self-employed. This workforce earned an estimated $1 trillion from freelancing in 2016—a significant share of the U. S. economy. In 2017, a study by MBO Partners estimated the total number of self-employed Americans aged 21 and above to be 40.9 million. The total number of freelancers in UK is inexact, it has been estimated, that there are 1.7 million freelancers in the UK. Freelancing is a gendered form of work; the 2012 Freelance Industry Report estimates that more than 71% of freelancers are women between the ages of 30 and 50. Surveys of other specific areas of freelancing have similar trends. Demographic research on Amazon Mechanical Turk reveals that the majority of North American Mechanical Turk workers are