Dorian Elizabeth Leigh Parker, known professionally as Dorian Leigh, was an American model and one of the earliest modeling icons of the fashion industry. She is considered one of the first supermodels, was well known in the United States and Europe. Dorian Leigh Parker was born in San Texas, to George and Elizabeth Parker, her parents married when they were around 17 or 18 years old and Elizabeth promptly gave birth to three daughters in quick succession: Dorian and Georgiabell. Thirteen years after the birth of her third daughter, Elizabeth believed she was going through menopause and was shocked to discover that she was pregnant, she gave birth to her fourth daughter, who became known as model and actress Suzy Parker). The family moved to Jackson Heights, soon after Dorian's birth and to Metuchen, New Jersey. There, George Parker invented a new form of etching acid, the production of which gave him enough income to retire. Dorian graduated from Newton High School in Queens, New York, in 1935 and enrolled at Randolph-Macon Women's College in Lynchburg, Virginia.
In her autobiography, Dorian claimed that she was born in 1920, graduated from high school early, at the age of 15 in 1935, because she loved learning, she took many classes at once since the school was overcrowded. This was not true, she wrote that she was a 17-year-old college sophomore when she first married, when in fact, she was 20. At college, she met her first husband, Marshall Powell Hawkins, whom she married on a whim in North Carolina in 1937, they had two children: Marsha Hawkins. The couple separated in the 1940s. Dorian worked as a file clerk at a department store in Manhattan and as a tabulator, keeping track of radio program ratings. Dorian found that she had an aptitude for math, mechanical engineering, drawing, she began to go to night school at Rutgers and said she learned about mechanical engineering at New York University. According to her autobiography, she enrolled in the Stevens Institute of Technology in Hoboken, New Jersey, received a B. S. in mechanical engineering. This was.
Dorian worked at Bell Laboratories during World War II, was a tool designer at Eastern Air Lines. Dorian assisted in the design of airplane wings, beginning at 65 cents an hour and ending up with an hourly wage of $1.00. After failing to be promoted because she was a woman and because of a wartime freeze on positions, Dorian quit and took a job with Republic Pictures as an apprentice copywriter. While writing ad copy for the B movies Republic created and distributed to movie houses, she was encouraged by a Mrs. Wayburn to try modeling. Taking Mrs. Wayburn's advice, in 1944 Dorian went to the Harry Conover modeling agency. At 27, Dorian was not only old by modeling standards, but at 5'5", she was shorter than the other models at the agency. Conover sent her to see Diana Vreeland, the editor of Harper's Bazaar. Dorian met with Vreeland and fashion photographer Louise Dahl-Wolfe, who were intrigued by her zig-zagged eyebrows. Vreeland warned her, "Do not -- do not do anything to those eyebrows!" Vreeland asked Dorian to return the next day, to be photographed for the cover of the June 1944 issue of Harper's Bazaar, her first modeling assignment.
Conover told her to tell them she was 19-years-old. They were shocked to discover her real age, that she had two children. Dorian's parents thought modeling was not respectable, so Dorian used only her first and middle name during her career; when Dorian became an enormous success though, they thought it was acceptable that their youngest daughter Suzy use the Parker last name when she became a famous model. Their other daughter, Florian had modeling photos in Vogue and Harper's Bazaar, but quit when she married a man in the military, was living in Oahu when Pearl Harbor was bombed in 1941. Florian was considered the ultimate beauty among the Parker girls. Dorian became busy with modeling assignments, landing on the covers of major magazines such as Vogue, Harper's Bazaar, Paris Match, LIFE, Elle; because of her schedule, Dorian's two children were sent to live with her parents in Florida, while she was based in New York City and traveling to Europe. In 1946, Dorian appeared on the cover of six American Vogue magazines.
She worked with famous fashion photographers Irving Penn, John Rawlings, Cecil Beaton, Paul Radkai. She dated Irving Penn, who married another model Lisa Fonssagrives. On one assignment, she argued with Paul Radkai's wife Karen, who wanted to be a fashion photographer and wanted to take many extra, free photos of Dorian for her portfolio; when Dorian balked at having to pose for Karen without being paid, Karen warned Dorian she would "ruin her." Indeed, Vogue never used Dorian again, Karen became a Vogue photographer for many years. Dorian transitioned to working with Harper's Bazaar's new, young photographer, Richard Avedon. Avedon would become one of the most famous photographers in history. While living in her apartment in New York, a young author, Truman Capote visited a friend in an apartment near hers. Capote was fascinated by Dorian's lifestyle of non-stop men, coming-and-goings, having a store across the street handle her phone calls, he struck up a friendship with Dorian, called her "Happy-go-lucky."
Capote's character Holly Golightly in his famous 1958 novel Breakfast at Tiffany's is said to be l
Desert Hearts is a 1985 American romantic drama film directed by Donna Deitch. The screenplay written by Natalie Cooper is an adaptation of the 1964 lesbian-themed novel Desert of the Heart by Jane Rule. Set in Reno, Nevada in 1959, it tells the story of a university professor awaiting a divorce who finds her true self when she meets a free-spirited younger woman confident in her romantic and sexual attraction; the film stars Helen Patricia Charbonneau with a supporting performance by Audra Lindley. Desert Hearts was released theatrically in the United States on March 7, 1986, it was released in the United Kingdom on June 6, 1986. It is regarded as the first film to present a positive portrayal of lesbian sexuality. In 1959, Vivian Bell, a 35-year-old English professor at Columbia University in New York City, travels to Reno to establish residency in Nevada, in order to obtain a quickie divorce, she stays at a guest house ranch for women. The guest ranch is owned by Frances Parker. Vivian meets Cay Rivvers, a younger, free-spirited sculptor whom Frances loves as if she were her mother.
Cay works at a casino as a change operator in Reno, is ending a relationship with Darrell, her boss, because as she put it, she "allowed self to be attracted to his attraction" for her. When Vivian arrives, Cay notices her and the controlled and elegant Vivian, in turn, is taken aback by Cay's boldness and lack of concern of what others think of her. Cay reveals. Frances jealously notices that Vivian is becoming a bigger and bigger part of Cay's life, resents her for it, afraid that Cay will leave her and the ranch, she will be left alone. Frances sees Cay as her only "family," though Cay is not her actual child, but rather the daughter of Frances' "man" Glenn, dead several years; when everyone attends an engagement party for Cay's best friend and co-worker, Cay drives a drunken Vivian to see Lake Tahoe afterwards and kisses her. Vivian returns the kiss passionately and is so surprised by her response to Cay's advance that she begs Cay to take her home; when they return to the ranch in the early morning, Frances has Vivian's bags and a taxi waiting for her, furious that she has seduced Cay.
Cay leaves the ranch and Vivian transfers to a hotel room at the Riverside Casino for the rest of her stay. After some days apart, both Cay and Vivian are confused and hurt. Cay goes to visit Vivian at the hotel and overcomes Vivian's resistance to making love with her, they start a relationship. With the impending finalization of Vivian's divorce, the two must sort out the future of their relationship. Vivian is afraid of what people in her academic circle will think of her being in a relationship with another woman, Cay is unsure of what she would do in New York City. At Silver's wedding and Cay are in attendance and Cay are brought back together, Cay admits to Frances that Vivian has "reached in and put a string of lights around my heart." In the final scene, after Vivian's divorce has become finalized, she packs up and goes to the train station to return to New York. Cay accompanies her to the station, as the train is pulling out, Vivian convinces Cay to come with her, at least as far as the next station.
Desert Hearts is loosely based on the 1964 romance novel Desert of the Heart by Jane Rule. In 1979, Donna Deitch was searching for a story about a lesbian romance that "was mainstream, not in the context of the women's community or the Village." The first draft of the screenplay, written by Deitch, followed the original story, but when Natalie Cooper was hired as the screenwriter she veered away from it. The names of the main characters were changed: Evelyn Hall became Vivian Bell and Ann Childs became Cay Rivvers. Other characters were minimized or excluded, subplots were eliminated, the love scene was made explicit. Jane Rule described the film as "beautifully simplified". Deitch raised the $1.5 million needed for the production budget with a $20,000 grant from the National Endowment for the Arts and sales of $15,000 shares to stock brokers and individual investors. She gave fundraising parties and published a regular newsletter to keep investors informed about the project's development. Raising funds took four years.
She sold her house to cover completion costs. In a 1991 interview with The Guardian, Deitch said that: "In San Francisco I sold it as politics. In New York as Art. In LA I convinced them it would be a box office hit." It took nearly six years for Deitch to bring Desert Hearts to theater screens. Deitch encountered difficulty finding actresses who would portray lesbians without reserve with many refusing to audition for the film. Patricia Charbonneau was the first actress to be cast and went to Los Angeles with Deitch so she could audition with those reading for the role of Vivian Bell. Deitch noticed the chemistry between Helen Shaver immediately, she persuaded actors to work for scale, after casting completed, the film was shot on location in Reno in 31 days. Limited funds necessitated filming two scenes in one day, with little room for retakes. Renting space in a real casino was out of the question and a dressed set in a room of an abandoned hotel served as the gambling casino in the film; the contract with Charbonneau and Shaver obligated them to perform the sex scene in the hotel room without body doubles and to be nude on camera from the waist down.
The scene was shot on the
Giorgio Armani S.p. A. is an Italian luxury fashion house founded by Giorgio Armani which designs, manufactures and retails haute couture, ready-to-wear, leather goods, watches, accessories, eyewear and home interiors. The brand markets these products under several labels: Giorgio Armani Privé, Giorgio Armani, Armani Collezioni, Emporio Armani, Armani Jeans, Armani Junior, Armani Exchange; the brand utilizes the association of the Armani name with high-fashion, benefiting from its prestige in the fashion industry. In 2016, estimated sales of the company were around $2.65 billion. In 2017, Giorgio Armani announced that his company will close two of its fashion labels, Armani Collezioni and Armani Jeans, as part of the restructuring process for his company. While Armani Collezioni will merge back into the "Giorgio Armani" line, Armani Jeans will be mixed with the Emporio Armani line due to their similarities in styles and the use of the same brand logo. Giorgio Armani is in collaboration with Emaar Properties, a chain of luxury hotels and resorts in several big cities including Milan, New York, Hong Kong, Los Angeles, Shanghai, Dubai.
The company operates a range of cafés worldwide, in addition to a bar and nightclub. Giorgio Armani is a high-end label specializing in men's and women's ready-to-wear, glasses and perfumes, it is available only in Giorgio Armani boutiques, specialty clothiers and select high-end department stores. The logo is a curved "G" completing a curved "A". In 2016, the fashion house stopped using animal fur in all of its collections, citing the availability of "valid alternatives at our disposition that render the use of cruel practices unnecessary as regards animals."According to The Wall Street Journal and other influential sources, in addition to couture line Armani Privé, Giorgio Armani and Emporio Armani are company's ready-to-wear lines that show at Milan fashion week. In addition, selling at lower prices are Armani Exchange and Armani Jeans. Emporio Armani is the second brand of Armani family, features ready-to-wear and runway collections. Emporio Armani focuses on modern traits. Emporio Armani along with Giorgio Armani are the only two ready-to-wear brands that are designed by Giorgio Armani himself, has a spotlight at Milan Fashion Week every year while Armani Collezioni, Armani Jeans, Armani Exchange do not.
Emporio Armani is only sold in freestanding Emporio Armani boutiques and its official website. Apollo Minerva starred in four Emporio Armani underwear campaigns from Spring/Summer 2008 to Fall/Winter 2009-2010. David Beckham appeared with his wife, former Spice Girl Victoria, in the campaigns twice in 2009. All campaigns were photographed by Marcus Piggott. In January 2010, football star Cristiano Ronaldo and Hollywood movie star Megan Fox became the male and female face and body of Emporio Armani. In 2011, Megan Fox was replaced with Rihanna and Ronaldo was replaced by tennis athlete Rafael Nadal. Emporio Armani has teamed up with Reebok to create fashion shoes under the label EA7. In 2019, Emporio Armani released a new series centered around Shawn Mendes; the black-and-white advertisement featured an instrumental version of his song, "In My Blood". Emporio Armani has boutiques in Oslo, Amman, Jeddah, Bogotá, Tokyo, Madrid, Paris, Glasgow, Los Angeles, Mexico City, Kuala Lumpur, Buenos Aires, Tel Aviv, Dubai, Lima, Singapore, New York, São Paulo, New Delhi, many other cities around the world.
Armani Collezioni is the diffusion line of Giorgio Armani that retails at a lower price than Giorgio Armani and the haute couture line, Armani Privé. The logo is displayed black written on a white label, but varies. "Armani" being larger and "Collezioni" underneath it. It provides made-to-measure tailored shirts where every element can be chosen. In addition to being sold in the two freestanding boutiques in Milan and Paris, Armani Collezioni sold in department stores and outlets while Giorgio Armani and Emporio Armani only sold in freestanding boutiques. Last year, a sporty line of this label has appeared named "Armani Collezioni Active" in the same way as the EA7 line from Emporio Armani line. Armani Jeans is a diffusion line collection of denim-related clothing, created in 1981, by Giorgio Armani. Armani Jeans is sold in department stores, although there are many freestanding Armani Jeans stores in the world, in addition to an Armani Jeans Cafe in Milan; some Armani Jeans items are sold in Emporio Armani Stores.
This line does not feature Giorgio Armani's signature simplicity. The colors used are more diverse. A|X Armani Exchange was launched in 1991 in the U. S, it retails fashion and lifestyle products and is known for its provocative ad campaigns. Inspired by street-chic culture and dance music, it is targeted as the more accessible Armani brand. To accelerate development of the nascent line, Giorgio Armani co-established the joint venture company Presidio Holdings Ltd in 2005 alongside Como Holdings, the company owned by the Singaporean tycoon Ong Beng Seng that, since 1994, has held the production and distribution license for A/X Armani Exchange in the United States, Canada and South America and Asia-Pacific; the Italian company held 25% of Presidio Holdings, the remaining 75% in the hands of Como Holdings. In 2008, Giorgio Armani acquired an additional 25% stake. In 2014, it acqui
Cosmopolitan is an international fashion magazine for women, titled The Cosmopolitan. The Cosmopolitan magazine is one of the best-selling magazines and is directed toward women readers. Jessica Pels is an appointed editor-in-chief of Cosmopolitan magazine; the magazine was first distributed in 1886 in the US as a family magazine. Referred to as Cosmo, its content as of 2011 includes articles discussing relationships, health, self-improvement, fashion and beauty. Published by Hearst Corporation, Cosmopolitan has 64 international editions, including Armenia, Croatia, Finland, Greece, Latin America, the Middle East, the Netherlands, Portugal, Russia, South Africa, Spain and the United Kingdom and is printed in 35 different languages and distributed in over 110 countries. Cosmopolitan began as a family magazine, launched in March 1886 by Schlicht & Field of New York as The Cosmopolitan. Authors and their writings in the first issue included: Paul Schlicht told his first-issue readers inside of the front cover that his publication was a "first-class family magazine" adding, "There will be a department devoted to the concerns of women, with articles on fashions, on household decoration, on cooking, the care and management of children, etc.
There was a department for the younger members of the family."Cosmopolitan's circulation reached 25,000 that year, but by November 1888, Schlicht & Field were no longer in business. John Brisben Walker acquired the magazine in 1889; that same year, he dispatched Elizabeth Bisland on a race around the world against Nellie Bly to draw attention to the magazine. Under John Brisben Walker's ownership, E. D. Walker with Harper's Monthly, took over as the new editor, introducing colour illustrations and book reviews, it became a leading market for fiction, featuring such authors as Annie Besant, Ambrose Bierce, Willa Cather, Theodore Dreiser, Rudyard Kipling, Jack London, Edith Wharton, H. G. Wells; the magazine's press run climbed to 100,000 by 1892. In 1897, Cosmopolitan announced plans for a free correspondence school: "No charge of any kind will be made to the student. All expenses for the present will be borne by the Cosmopolitan. No conditions, except a pledge of a given number of hours of study."
When 20,000 signed up, Walker could not fund the school and students were asked to contribute 20 dollars a year. In 1897, H. G. Wells' The War of the Worlds was serialized, as was his The First Men in the Moon. Olive Schreiner contributed a lengthy two-part article about the Boer War in the September and October issues of 1900. In 1905, William Randolph Hearst purchased the magazine for US$400,000 and brought in journalist Charles Edward Russell, who contributed a series of investigative articles, including "The Growth of Caste in America", "At the Throat of the Republic" and "What Are You Going to Do About It?". Other contributors during this period included O. Henry, A. J. Cronin, Alfred Henry Lewis, Bruno Lessing, Sinclair Lewis, O. O. McIntyre, David Graham Phillips, George Bernard Shaw, Upton Sinclair, Ida Tarbell. Jack London's novella, "The Red One", was published in the October 1918 issue, a constant presence from 1910–18 was Arthur B. Reeve, with 82 stories featuring Craig Kennedy, the "scientific detective".
Magazine illustrators included Francis Attwood, Dean Cornwell, Harrison Fisher, James Montgomery Flagg. Hearst formed Cosmopolitan Productions, a film company based in New York City from 1918 to 1923 Hollywood until 1938; the vision for this film company was to make films from stories published in the magazine. Cosmopolitan magazine was titled as Hearst's International Combined with Cosmopolitan from 1925 until 1952, but was referred to as Cosmopolitan. In 1911, Hearst had bought a middling monthly magazine called World To-Day and renamed it Hearst's Magazine in April 1912. In June 1914 it was shortened to Hearst's and was titled Hearst's International in May 1922. In order to spare serious cutbacks at San Simeon, Hearst merged the magazine Hearst's International with Cosmopolitan effective March 1925, but while the Cosmopolitan title on the cover remained at a typeface of eight-four points, over time span the typeface of the Hearst's International decreased to thirty-six points and to a legible twelve points.
After Hearst died in 1951, the Hearst's International disappeared from the magazine cover altogether in April 1952. With a circulation of 1,700,000 in the 1930s, Cosmopolitan had an advertising income of $5,000,000. Emphasizing fiction in the 1940s, it was subtitled The Four-Book Magazine since the first section had one novelette, six or eight short stories, two serials, six to eight articles and eight or nine special features, while the other three sections featured two novels and a digest of current non-fiction books. During World War II, sales peaked at 2,000,000; the magazine began to run less fiction during the 1950s. Circulation dropped to over a million by 1955, a time when magazines were overshadowed during the rise of paperbacks and television; the Golden Age of magazines came to an end as mass market, general interest publications gave way to special interest magazines targeting specialized audiences. Cosmo was known as a "bland" and boring magazine by critics. Cosmopolitan's circulation continued to decline for another decade until Helen Gurley Brown became
Blondie is an American rock band founded by singer Debbie Harry and guitarist Chris Stein. The band were punk scenes of the mid-late 1970s, its first two albums contained strong elements of these genres, although successful in the United Kingdom and Australia, Blondie was regarded as an underground band in the United States until the release of Parallel Lines in 1978. Over the next three years, the band achieved several hit singles including "Heart of Glass", "Call Me", "Rapture" and "The Tide Is High" and became noted for its eclectic mix of musical styles incorporating elements of disco, pop and early rap music. Blondie disbanded after the release of its sixth studio album The Hunter in 1982. Debbie Harry continued to pursue a solo career with varied results after taking a few years off to care for partner Chris Stein, diagnosed with pemphigus, a rare autoimmune disease of the skin; the band re-formed in 1997, achieving renewed success and a number one single in the United Kingdom with "Maria" in 1999 20 years after their first UK No.1 single.
The group toured and performed throughout the world during the following years, was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 2006. Blondie is still active; the band's tenth studio album, Ghosts of Download, was released in 2014 and their eleventh studio album, was released on May 5, 2017. Inspired by the burgeoning new music scene at the Mercer Arts Center, Chris Stein sought to join a similar band, he joined the Stilettoes in 1973 as their guitarist and formed a romantic relationship with one of the band's vocalists, Debbie Harry, a former waitress and Playboy Bunny. Harry had been a member of the Wind in the Willows, in the late 1960s. In July 1974, Stein and Harry parted ways with the Stilettoes and Elda Gentile, the band's originator, forming a new band with ex-Stilettoes bandmates Billy O'Connor and Fred Smith. Billed as Angel and the Snake for two shows in August 1974, they renamed themselves "Blondie" by October 1974; the name derived from comments made by truck drivers who catcalled "Hey, Blondie" to Harry as they drove past.
By the spring of 1975, after some personnel turnover and Harry were joined by drummer Clem Burke and bass player Gary Valentine. Blondie became regular performers at Max's Kansas City and CBGB. In June 1975, the band's first recording came in the way of a demo produced by Alan Betrock. To fill out their sound, they recruited keyboard player Jimmy Destri in November 1975; the band signed with Private Stock Records and their debut album, was issued in December 1976 but was not a commercial success. In September 1977, the band bought back its contract with Private Stock and signed with British label Chrysalis Records; the first album was re-released on the new label in October 1977. Rolling Stone's review of the debut album observed the eclectic nature of the group's music, comparing it to Phil Spector and the Who, commented that the album's two strengths were Richard Gottehrer's production and the persona of Debbie Harry; the publication said she performed with "utter aplomb and involvement throughout: when she's portraying a character consummately obnoxious and spaced-out, there is a wink of awareness, comforting and amusing yet never condescending."
It noted that Harry was the "possessor of a bombshell zombie's voice that can sound dreamily seductive and woodenly Mansonite within the same song". The band's first commercial success occurred in Australia in 1977, when the music television program Countdown mistakenly played their video "In the Flesh", the B-side of their current single "X-Offender". Jimmy Destri credited the show's Molly Meldrum for their initial success, commenting that "we still thank him to this day" for playing the wrong song. In a 1998 interview, drummer Clem Burke recalled seeing the episode in which the wrong song was played, but he and Chris Stein suggested that it may have been a deliberate subterfuge on the part of Meldrum. Stein asserted that "X-Offender" was "too crazy and aggressive ", while "In the Flesh" was "not representative of any punk sensibility. Over the years, I've thought they played both things but liked one better. That's all." In retrospect, Burke described "In the Flesh" as "a forerunner to the power ballad".
The single reached number 2 in Australia, while the album reached the Australian top twenty in November 1977, a subsequent double-A release of "X-Offender" and "Rip Her to Shreds" reached number 81. A successful Australian tour followed in December, though it was marred by an incident in Brisbane when disappointed fans rioted after Harry cancelled a performance due to illness. In February 1978, Blondie released Plastic Letters; the album was recorded as a four-piece as Gary Valentine had left the band in mid 1977. Plastic Letters was promoted extensively throughout Asia by Chrysalis Records; the album's first single, "Denis", was the Rainbows' 1963 hit. It reached number two on the British singles charts, while both the album and its second single, " Presence, Dear", reached the British top ten. Chart success, along with a successful 1978 UK tour, including a gig at London's Roundhouse, made Blondie one of the first American new wave bands to achieve mainstream success in the United Kingdom. By this time, Gary Valentine had left and been replaced by Frank In
Christian Dior SE
Christian Dior SE known as Dior, is a European luxury goods company controlled and chaired by French businessman Bernard Arnault, who heads LVMH, the world's largest luxury group. Dior itself holds 42.36% shares of and 59.01% voting rights within LVMH. The company was founded in 1946 by designer Christian Dior, it designs and retails leather goods, fashion accessories, jewelry, fragrance and skin care products, while maintaining its tradition as a creator of haute-couture under the Christian Dior Couture division. The Christian Dior label remains for women's offerings, although the company operates the Dior Homme division for men and the baby Dior label for children's wear. Products are sold throughout its portfolio of retail stores worldwide, as well as through its online store; the House of Dior was established on 16 December 1946 in "a private house" at 30 Avenue Montaigne Paris B. However, the current Dior corporation celebrates "1947" as the opening year. Dior was financially backed by wealthy businessman Marcel Boussac.
Boussac had invited Dior to design for Philippe et Gaston, but Dior refused, wishing to make a fresh start under his own name rather than reviving an old brand. The new couture house became a part of "a vertically integrated textile business" operated by Boussac, its capital was at workforce at 80 employees. The company was a vanity project for Boussac and was a "majorly owned affiliate of Boussac Saint-Freres S. A. Nevertheless, Dior was allowed a then-unusual great part in his namesake label despite Boussac's reputation as a "control freak". Dior's creativity negotiated him a good salary. On 12 February 1947, Dior launched his first fashion collection for Spring–Summer 1947; the show of "90 models of his first collection on six mannequins" was presented in the salons of the company's headquarters at 30 Avenue Montaigne. The two lines were named "Corolle" and "Huit". However, the new collection went down in fashion history as the "New Look" after the editor-in-chief of Harper's Bazaar Carmel Snow exclaimed, "It's such a new look!"
The New Look was a revolutionary era for women back in the forties. When the collection was presented, the editor in chief showed appreciation by saying; the debut collection of Christian Dior is credited with having revived the fashion industry of France. Along with that, the New Look brought back the spirit of haute couture in France as it was considered glamorous and young-looking. "We were witness to a revolution in fashion and to a revolution in showing fashion as well." The silhouette was characterised by a small, nipped-in waist and a full skirt falling below mid-calf length, which emphasised the bust and hips, as epitomized by the'Bar' suit from the first collection. The collection overall showcased more stereotypically feminine designs in contrast to the popular fashions of wartime, with full skirts, tight waists, soft shoulders. Dior retained some of the masculine aspects as they continued to hold popularity through the early 1940s, but he wanted to include more feminine style; the New Look became popular, its full-skirted silhouette influencing other fashion designers well into the 1950s, Dior gained a number of prominent clients from Hollywood, the United States, the European aristocracy.
As a result, which had fallen from its position as the capital of the fashion world after WWII, regained its preeminence. The New Look was welcomed in western Europe as a refreshing antidote to the austerity of wartime and de-feminizing uniforms, was embraced by stylish women such as Princess Margaret in the UK. According to Harold Koda, Dior credited Charles James with inspiring The New Look. Dior's designs from the "New Look" did not only affect the designers in the 1950s, but still some of the newer designers we know from now in the 2000s, including Thom Browne, Miuccia Prada, Vivienne Westwood. Dior's evening dresses from that time are still referred to by many designers, they have been seen in different wedding themed catwalks with multiple layers of fabric building up below the small waist. Examples include Vivienne Westwood's Ready-to-Wear Fall/Winter 2011 and Alexander McQueen's Ready to Wear Fall/Winter 2011. Not everyone was pleased with the New Look, however; some considered the amount of material to be wasteful after years of cloth rationing.
Feminists in particular were outraged, feeling that these corseted designs were restrictive and regressive, that they took away a woman's independence. Fellow designer Coco Chanel remarked, "Only a man who never was intimate with a woman could design something that uncomfortable." Despite such protests, the New Look was influential, continuing to inform the work of other designers and fashion well into the 21st century. For the 60th anniversary of the New Look in 2007, John Galliano revisited it for his Spring-Summer collection for Dior. Galliano used the wasp waist and rounded shoulders and updated with references to origami and other Japanese influences. In 2012 Raf Simons revisited the New Look for his debut haute couture collection for Dior, wishing to update its ideas for the 21st century in a minimalist but sensual and sexy manner. Simons's work for Dior retained the luxurious fabrics and silhouette, but encouraged self-respect for the woman's body and liberation of expression; the design process for this collection, produced in only eight weeks, is documented in Dior and I, presenting Simons's use of technology and modernist re-interpretations.
A model is a person with a role either to promote, display or advertise commercial products, or to serve as a visual aid for people who are creating works of art or to pose for photography. Modelling is considered to be different from other types of public performance, such as acting or dancing. Although the difference between modelling and performing is not always clear, appearing in a film or a play is not considered to be "modelling". Types of modelling include: fashion, fitness, fine art, body-part and commercial print models. Models are featured in a variety of media formats including: books, films, newspapers and television. Fashion models are sometimes featured in films. Celebrities, including actors, sports personalities and reality TV stars take modelling contracts in addition to their regular work. Modelling as a profession was first established in 1853 by Charles Frederick Worth, the "father of haute couture", when he asked his wife, Marie Vernet Worth, to model the clothes he designed.
The term "house model" was coined to describe this type of work. This became common practice for Parisian fashion houses. There were no standard physical measurement requirements for a model, most designers would use women of varying sizes to demonstrate variety in their designs. With the development of fashion photography, the modelling profession expanded to photo modelling. Models remained anonymous, poorly paid, until the late 1950s. One of the first well-known models was Lisa Fonssagrives, popular in the 1930s. Fonssagrives appeared on over 200 Vogue covers, her name recognition led to the importance of Vogue in shaping the careers of fashion models. In 1946, Ford Models was established by Gerard Ford in New York. One of the most popular models during the 1940s was Jinx Falkenburg, paid $25 per hour, a large sum at the time. During the 1940s and 1950s, Wilhelmina Cooper, Jean Patchett, Dorian Leigh, Suzy Parker, Evelyn Tripp, Carmen Dell'Orefice, Lisa Fonssagrives dominated fashion. Dorothea Church was among the first black models in the industry to gain recognition in Paris.
However, these models were unknown outside the fashion community. Compared to today's models, the models of the 1950s were more voluptuous. Wilhelmina Cooper's measurements were 38"-24"-36" whereas Chanel Iman's measurements are 32"-23"-33". In the 1960s, the modelling world began to establish modelling agencies. Throughout Europe, secretarial services acted as models' agents charging them weekly rates for their messages and bookings. For the most part, models were responsible for their own billing. In Germany, agents were not allowed to work for a percentage of a person's earnings, so referred to themselves as secretaries. With the exception of a few models travelling to Paris or New York, travelling was unheard of for a model. Most models only worked in one market due to different labor laws governing modelling in various countries. In the 1960s, Italy was in dire need of models. Italian agencies would coerce models to return to Italy without work visas by withholding their pay, they would pay their models in cash, which models would have to hide from customs agents.
It was not uncommon for models staying in hotels such as La Louisiana in Paris or the Arena in Milan to have their hotel rooms raided by the police looking for their work visas. It was rumoured; this led many agencies to form worldwide chains. By the late 1960s, London was considered the best market in Europe due to its more organised and innovative approach to modelling, it was during this period. Models such as Jean Shrimpton, Tania Mallet, Celia Hammond, Penelope Tree, dominated the London fashion scene and were well paid, unlike their predecessors. Twiggy became The Face of'66 at the age of 16. At this time, model agencies were not as restrictive about the models they represented, although it was uncommon for them to sign shorter models. Twiggy, who stood at 5 feet 6 inches with a 32" bust and had a boy's haircut, is credited with changing model ideals. At that time, she earned £ 80 an hour. In 1967, seven of the top model agents in London formed the Association of London Model Agents; the formation of this association changed the fashion industry.
With a more professional attitude towards modelling, models were still expected to have their hair and makeup done before they arrived at a shoot. Meanwhile, agencies took responsibility for a model's promotional materials and branding; that same year, former top fashion model Wilhelmina Cooper opened up her own fashion agency with her husband called Wilhelmina Models. By 1968, FM Agency and Models 1 were established and represented models in a similar way that agencies do today. By the late 1960s, models were making better wages. One of the innovators, Ford Models, was the first agency to advance models money they were owed and would allow teen models, who did not live locally, to reside in their house, a precursor to model housing; the innovations of the 1960s flowed into the 1970s fashion scene. As a result of model industry associations and standards, model agencies b