The Milan Conservatory is a college of music in Milan. The conservatory was established by a decree of 1807 in Milan. It opened the year with premises in the cloisters of the Baroque church of Santa Maria della Passione. There were initially 18 boarders, including students of both sexes, today it is the largest institute of musical education in Italy. Other notable students include composer Margrit Zimmermann and singer Florin Cezar Ouatu, among its past professors are the well-known voice teachers Francesco Lamperti and his son Giovanni Battista Lamperti. The Conservatorys Liceo Musicale for secondary students opened in 1971. In 1981 it began a collaboration with the Ministry of Education. The experimental phase ended in 2010 when it become ad ordinamento, Milan Conservatory official website Touring club italiano, Il conservatorio di musica Giuseppe Verdi, Guida d’Italia, Touring Editore, p.337, ISBN 978-88-365-1249-2 Liceo Musicale
Scotland is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain. It shares a border with England to the south, and is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east. In addition to the mainland, the country is made up of more than 790 islands, including the Northern Isles, the Kingdom of Scotland emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages and continued to exist until 1707. By inheritance in 1603, James VI, King of Scots, became King of England and King of Ireland, Scotland subsequently entered into a political union with the Kingdom of England on 1 May 1707 to create the new Kingdom of Great Britain. The union created a new Parliament of Great Britain, which succeeded both the Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament of England. Within Scotland, the monarchy of the United Kingdom has continued to use a variety of styles, the legal system within Scotland has remained separate from those of England and Wales and Northern Ireland, Scotland constitutes a distinct jurisdiction in both public and private law.
Glasgow, Scotlands largest city, was one of the worlds leading industrial cities. Other major urban areas are Aberdeen and Dundee, Scottish waters consist of a large sector of the North Atlantic and the North Sea, containing the largest oil reserves in the European Union. This has given Aberdeen, the third-largest city in Scotland, the title of Europes oil capital, following a referendum in 1997, a Scottish Parliament was re-established, in the form of a devolved unicameral legislature comprising 129 members, having authority over many areas of domestic policy. Scotland is represented in the UK Parliament by 59 MPs and in the European Parliament by 6 MEPs, Scotland is a member nation of the British–Irish Council, and the British–Irish Parliamentary Assembly. Scotland comes from Scoti, the Latin name for the Gaels, the Late Latin word Scotia was initially used to refer to Ireland. By the 11th century at the latest, Scotia was being used to refer to Scotland north of the River Forth, alongside Albania or Albany, the use of the words Scots and Scotland to encompass all of what is now Scotland became common in the Late Middle Ages.
Repeated glaciations, which covered the land mass of modern Scotland. It is believed the first post-glacial groups of hunter-gatherers arrived in Scotland around 12,800 years ago, the groups of settlers began building the first known permanent houses on Scottish soil around 9,500 years ago, and the first villages around 6,000 years ago. The well-preserved village of Skara Brae on the mainland of Orkney dates from this period and it contains the remains of an early Bronze Age ruler laid out on white quartz pebbles and birch bark. It was discovered for the first time that early Bronze Age people placed flowers in their graves, in the winter of 1850, a severe storm hit Scotland, causing widespread damage and over 200 deaths. In the Bay of Skaill, the storm stripped the earth from a large irregular knoll, when the storm cleared, local villagers found the outline of a village, consisting of a number of small houses without roofs. William Watt of Skaill, the laird, began an amateur excavation of the site, but after uncovering four houses
Spoleto Festival USA
Spoleto Festival USA in Charleston, South Carolina, is one of Americas major performing arts festivals. It was founded in 1977 by Pulitzer Prize-winning composer Gian Carlo Menotti, when Italian organizers planned an American festival, they searched for a city that would offer the charm of Spoleto and its wealth of theaters and other performance spaces. Charleston was selected as a location, with Menotti saying of Charleston, Its intimate. It has Old World charm in architecture and gardens, yet its a community big enough to support the large number of visitors to the festival. The annual 17-day late-spring event showcases both established and emerging artists in more than 150 performances of opera, theater, classical music, the festival experienced financial problems from its outset which produced a quick turnover in leadership. Personality disputes arose involving Menotti, I feel a bit lonely among them. Two camps developed on the board, splitting support between those backing Redden and those who supported Menotti, mayor Riley supported Menotti so strongly that he threatened to withdraw city support for the festival if Menotti were pushed out.
Eventually, in May 1991, Menotti issued an ultimatum that either Redden, in August 1991, Redden resigned, as did 19 of the 46 board members the next month. The tumult affected the scope of the festival the year, the budget for 1992s festival was $4.6 million, down about $1 million from 1991. By 1993, personal conflicts reached a point, with Menotti and the board of the Charleston festival arguing over those in charge of the festival, its artistic direction. Still, the difficulties continued, and the 1995 festival lost an additional $900,000. In July 1995, Redden was recruited to return to the festival on a basis to help it overcome a debt of more than $1,000,000. The 1995 festival went over budget by 20%, and its staff was cut in half. Upon his return in 1996, Redden was again successful in turning the finances of the festival around, quickly raising $1.6 million, one of the Festivals tenets is to provide young artists the opportunity to work with veteran directors and performers. World-renowned artists who performed at Spoleto Festival USA early in their careers include Renée Fleming, Emanuel Ax, Joshua Bell, Jean-Yves Thibaudet, each year, the Festival produces its own operas, which are often rarely performed masterpieces by well-known composers or traditional works presented in new ways.
It presents theater and music ranging from classical to jazz, soul. Since its inception, the Festival has presented over 200 international and U. S. premieres, notably Creve Coeur by Tennessee Williams, the official companion festival to Spoleto Festival USA, is operated by the City of Charleston Office of Cultural Affairs. After two years of mini-festivals, Piccolo Spoleto was created as an part of the overall Spoleto program in 1979
Amahl and the Night Visitors
Amahl and the Night Visitors is an opera in one act by Gian Carlo Menotti with an original English libretto by the composer. It was the first opera composed for television in America. Menotti was commissioned by Peter Herman Adler, director of NBCs new opera programming, the composer had trouble settling on a subject for the opera, but took his inspiration from Hieronymus Boschs The Adoration of the Magi hanging in The Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City. As the airdate neared, Menotti had yet to finish the score, the singers had little time to rehearse, and received the final passages of the score just days before the broadcast. The composers partner Samuel Barber was brought in to complete the orchestrations, after the dress rehearsal, NBC Symphony conductor Arturo Toscanini told Menotti, This is the best youve ever done. Menotti distinctly wanted Amahl to be performed by a boy, in the Production Notes contained in the Piano-Vocal score he wrote, It is the express wish of the composer that the role of Amahl should always be performed by a boy.
Neither the musical nor the concept of the opera permits the substitution of a woman costumed as a child. The booklet with the original cast recording contains the following anecdote and you see, when I was a child I lived in Italy, and in Italy we have no Santa Claus. I suppose that Santa Claus is much too busy with American children to be able to handle Italian children as well and our gifts were brought to us by the Three Kings, instead. But I do remember hearing them and my favorite king was King Melchior, because he was the oldest and had a long white beard. My brothers favorite was King Kaspar and he insisted that this king was a little crazy and quite deaf. I dont know why he was so positive about his being deaf, I suspect it was because dear King Kaspar never brought him all the gifts he requested. He was puzzled by the fact that King Kaspar carried the myrrh. To these Three Kings I mainly owe the happy Christmas seasons of my childhood, instead, I came to America and soon forgot all about them, for here at Christmas time one sees so many Santa Clauses scattered all over town.
But in 1951 I found myself in serious difficulty, I had been commissioned by the National Broadcasting Company to write an opera for television, with Christmas as deadline, and I simply didnt have one idea in my head. I realized they had back to me and had brought me a gift. I am often asked how I went about writing an opera for television, I must confess that in writing Amahl and the Night Visitors, I hardly thought of television at all. As a matter of fact, all my operas are originally conceived for a stage which has no equivalent in reality
Curtis Institute of Music
It is renowned for being among the most selective institutes of higher education in the world, with a 4. 8% admissions rate. The institute was established in 1924 by Mary Louise Curtis Bok, who named it in honor of her father, Cyrus Curtis and she established a faculty of prominent performing artists and eventually left the institute with an endowment of US$12 million. All pupils attend on scholarship and admission is extremely competitive. With the exception of composers, conductors and guitarists, enrollment is in the range of 150 to 170 students. Past directors of the institute have included, Josef Hofmann – pianist Randall Thompson – composer Efrem Zimbalist, Sr. Diaz is a Curtis alumnus and he was principal violist of the Philadelphia Orchestra from 1996 to 2006 and is a member of the Diaz Trio. Paul Bryan started his tenure as dean in January 2013. Many of its alumni have gone on to distinguished careers including, A–L M–Z Official website Media related to Curtis Institute of Music at Wikimedia Commons
Carl Van Vechten
Carl Van Vechten was an American writer and artistic photographer who was a patron of the Harlem Renaissance and the literary executor of Gertrude Stein. Born in Cedar Rapids, Iowa, he was the youngest child of Charles and he graduated from Washington High School in 1898, and the University of Chicago in 1903. In 1906, he moved to New York City and he was hired as the assistant music critic at The New York Times. His interest in opera had him take a leave of absence from the paper in 1907, while in England he married his long-time friend from Cedar Rapids, Anna Snyder. He returned to his job at the New York Times in 1909, at that time, Isadora Duncan, Anna Pavlova, and Loie Fuller were performing in New York City. The marriage to Anna Snyder ended in divorce in 1912 and he wed actress Fania Marinoff in 1914 and their marriage lasted until the end of his life, even while his relationships with men were an open secret. They continued corresponding for the remainder of Steins life, and at her death she appointed Van Vechten her literary executor, several books of Van Vechtens essays on various subjects such as music and literature were published between 1915 and 1920.
Van Vechtens controversial novel Nigger Heaven was published in 1926 and his essay Negro Blues Singers was published in Vanity Fair in 1926. Biographer Edward White suggests Van Vechten was convinced that Negro culture was the essence of America, by the start of the 1930s and at age 50, Van Vechten was finished with writing and took up photography, using his apartment at 150 West 55th Street as a studio. After the 1930s Van Vechten published little writing, though he continued writing letters to many correspondents, Van Vechten died in 1964, at the age of 84, in New York City. Most of Van Vechtens personal papers are held by the Beinecke Rare Book, the Beinecke Library holds a collection titled Living Portraits, Carl Van Vechtens Color Photographs Of African Americans, 1939–1964, a collection of 1,884 color Kodachrome slides. The Library of Congress has a collection of approximately 1,400 photographs, there is a collection of Van Vechtens photographs in the Prentiss Taylor collection in the Smithsonians Archives of American Art, and a Van Vechten collection at Fisk University.
The Museum of the City of New Yorks collection includes 2,174 of Carl Van Vechtens photographs, brandeis Universitys department of Archives & Special Collections holds 1,689 Carl Van Vechten portraits. Van Vechten donated materials to Fisk University to form the George Gershwin Memorial Collection of Music, the album ’O, Write My Name’, American Portraits, Harlem Heroes was completed in 1983. That year, the National Endowment for the Arts transferred the Eakins Press Foundation’s prototype albums to the permanent collection of the Smithsonian American Art Museum, dust Tracks on a Road, An Autobiography. Guide to the Carl Van Vechten papers, 1833–1965, manuscripts and Archives, New York Public Library. Carl Van Vechten collection of papers, 1911–1964, berg Collection of English and American Literature, New York Public Library
Natale Rosario Scalero was an Italian violinist, music teacher and composer. By the age of six, Scalero was under the tutelage of Pietro Bertazzi, in 1881, Scalero entered the Liceo Musicale di Torino under Luigi Avalle. At the age of 15, Scalero came under the tutelage of César Thomson, in 1891, Scalero made his debut as a recitalist in Leipzig, following which he performed in Milan, Rome and throughout Europe to critical acclaim. In 1895, Scaleri went to London to study and assist violinist August Wilhelmj, in 1900 he left London for Vienna, where he became a composition student of Eusebius Mandyczewski. Here he joined in 1913 the Società del Quartetto and became its musical director, in 1919, he was succeeded by Ernest Bloch as a composition teacher at the Mannes School of Music in New York. After 1927, he taught at the famous Curtis Institute of Music in Philadelphia, one of his most successful students at Curtis was composer Samuel Barber. During that time he taught composition to Marc Blitzstein.
In 1946 he returned to Montestrutto in Settimo Vittone, Italy, a Suite for String Quartet and String Orchestra La Divina Foresta, symphonic poem for large orchestra Violin Sonata Rosario Scalero, Retrieved 25 August 2010 Music Is My Faith - An Autobiography. David Mannes, ISBN 1-4067-3935-9 Free scores by Rosario Scalero at the International Music Score Library Project
Yester House is an early 18th-century mansion near Gifford in East Lothian, Scotland. It was the home of the Hay family, Marquesses of Tweeddale, construction of the present house began in 1699, and continued well into the 18th century in a series of building phases. The lands of Yester were granted to Hugo de Giffard, a Norman, Yester Castle, around 1 mile south-east of the present house, was built by the Giffords in the 13th century. The heiress of the Giffords married into the Hay family, who were raised to the peerage in 1488 as Lord Hay of Yester, in 1646 the 8th Lord Hay was created Earl of Tweeddale, and considered the building of a new house at Yester. The 1st Earl acquired his title for his support of Charles I and his son, the 2nd Earl of Tweeddale, was appointed to the Privy Council of Scotland after the Restoration. He began improvements to the estate, including the planting of over 6,000 acres of woodland and it was around this time that the medieval village of Yester was moved to its current location at Gifford.
The Earl consulted Sir William Bruce in 1670, with a view to commissioning a new house, formal gardens were established and parkland laid out through the 1680s and 1690s. For his support of William of Orange, the 2nd Earl was appointed Lord Chancellor of Scotland in 1692, john Hay, 2nd Marquess of Tweeddale, who inherited the estate in 1697, appointed James Smith and Alexander McGill to begin work on a new house in 1697. The 2nd Marquess supported the Acts of Union and served at Westminster as a representative peer, when he died in 1713 the building work was still underway, the main house was complete by 1715, when the 3rd Marquess died. John Hay, 4th Marquess of Tweeddale, served as a peer from 1722. The interior of the house was complete by 1728, but in 1729 the 4th Marquess appointed William Adam to make alterations to the roof and main façade, and in the mid-1730s to the interiors. The house was altered in the 1830s, with the moved to the west front. The estate was sold after the death of David Hay, 12th Marquess of Tweeddale, in 1972 it was bought by the Italian-American composer Gian Carlo Menotti because of the acoustics of the ballroom.
After Menottis death, the house was marketed by his family with a price of between £12 million and £15 million, according to the sales particulars the house has a gross internal area of 3,213 square metres. In September 2010 the guide price was reduced to £8 million, with the exclusion of 120 hectares of woodlands from the sale
The National Broadcasting Company is an American commercial broadcast television network that is the flagship property of NBCUniversal, a subsidiary of Comcast. The network is part of the Big Three television networks, founded in 1926 by the Radio Corporation of America, NBC is the oldest major broadcast network in the United States. Following the acquisition by GE, Bob Wright served as executive officer of NBC, remaining in that position until his retirement in 2007. In 2003, French media company Vivendi merged its entertainment assets with GE, Comcast purchased a controlling interest in the company in 2011, and acquired General Electrics remaining stake in 2013. Following the Comcast merger, Zucker left NBC Universal and was replaced as CEO by Comcast executive Steve Burke, during a period of early broadcast business consolidation, radio manufacturer Radio Corporation of America acquired New York City radio station WEAF from American Telephone & Telegraph. Westinghouse, a shareholder in RCA, had an outlet in Newark, New Jersey pioneer station WJZ.
This station was transferred from Westinghouse to RCA in 1923, WEAF acted as a laboratory for AT&Ts manufacturing and supply outlet Western Electric, whose products included transmitters and antennas. The Bell System, AT&Ts telephone utility, was developing technologies to transmit voice- and music-grade audio over short and long distances, the 1922 creation of WEAF offered a research-and-development center for those activities. WEAF maintained a schedule of radio programs, including some of the first commercially sponsored programs. In an early example of chain or networking broadcasting, the station linked with Outlet Company-owned WJAR in Providence, Rhode Island, AT&T refused outside companies access to its high-quality phone lines. The early effort fared poorly, since the telegraph lines were susceptible to atmospheric. In 1925, AT&T decided that WEAF and its network were incompatible with the companys primary goal of providing a telephone service. AT&T offered to sell the station to RCA in a deal that included the right to lease AT&Ts phone lines for network transmission, the divisions ownership was split among RCA, its founding corporate parent General Electric and Westinghouse.
NBC officially started broadcasting on November 15,1926, WEAF and WJZ, the flagships of the two earlier networks, were operated side-by-side for about a year as part of the new NBC. On April 5,1927, NBC expanded to the West Coast with the launch of the NBC Orange Network and this was followed by the debut of the NBC Gold Network, known as the Pacific Gold Network, on October 18,1931. The Orange Network carried Red Network programming, and the Gold Network carried programming from the Blue Network, the Orange Network recreated Eastern Red Network programming for West Coast stations at KPO in San Francisco. The Orange Network name was removed from use in 1936, at the same time, the Gold Network became part of the Blue Network. In the 1930s, NBC developed a network for shortwave radio stations, in 1927, NBC moved its operations to 711 Fifth Avenue in Manhattan, occupying the upper floors of a building designed by architect Floyd Brown
Maria Callas, Commendatore OMRI, was a Greek-American soprano, and one of the most renowned and influential opera singers of the 20th century. Many critics praised her bel canto technique, wide-ranging voice and dramatic interpretations and her musical and dramatic talents led to her being hailed as La Divina. Born in New York City and raised by a mother, she received her musical education in Greece. Forced to deal with the exigencies of wartime poverty and with myopia that left her nearly blind onstage, she endured struggles and scandal over the course of her career. She turned herself from a woman into a svelte and glamorous one after a mid-career weight loss, which might have contributed to her vocal decline. The press exulted in publicizing Callass temperamental behavior, her rivalry with Renata Tebaldi. Callass father had shortened the surname Kalogeropoulos first to Kalos and subsequently to Callas in order to make it more manageable, If you marry this man, I will never be able to help you.
Evangelia had ignored his warning, but soon realized that her father was right, the situation was aggravated by Georges philandering and was improved neither by the birth of a daughter, named Yakinthi, in 1917 nor the birth of a son, named Vassilis, in 1920. Vassiliss death from meningitis in the summer of 1922 dealt another blow to the marriage, the family left for New York in July 1923, moving first into an apartment in Astoria, Queens. Evangelia was convinced that her child would be a boy. Maria was christened three years at the Archdiocesan Cathedral of the Holy Trinity in 1926, when Maria was 4, George Callas opened his own pharmacy, settling the family in Manhattan on 192nd Street in Washington Heights where Callas grew up. Around the age of three, Marias musical talent began to manifest itself, and after Evangelia discovered that her youngest daughter had a voice, Callas recalled, I was made to sing when I was only five, and I hated it. George was unhappy with his wife favoring their elder daughter, as well as the put upon young Mary to sing.
The marriage continued to deteriorate and in 1937 Evangelia decided to return to Athens with her two daughters, I was the ugly duckling and clumsy and unpopular. It is a thing to make a child feel ugly. Ill never forgive her for taking my childhood away, during all the years I should have been playing and growing up, I was singing or making money. Everything I did for them was good and everything they did to me was mostly bad. In 1957, she told Norman Ross, Children should have a wonderful childhood, I have not had it – I wish I had
Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia, is a transcontinental country largely situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in Central America. Colombia shares a border to the northwest with Panama, to the east with Venezuela and Brazil and to the south with Ecuador and it shares its maritime limits with Costa Rica, Honduras, Jamaica and the Dominican Republic. It is a unitary, constitutional republic comprising thirty-two departments, the territory of what is now Colombia was originally inhabited by indigenous peoples including the Muisca, the Quimbaya and the Tairona. The Spanish arrived in 1499 and initiated a period of conquest and colonization ultimately creating the Viceroyalty of New Granada, independence from Spain was won in 1819, but by 1830 the Gran Colombia Federation was dissolved. What is now Colombia and Panama emerged as the Republic of New Granada, the new nation experimented with federalism as the Granadine Confederation, and the United States of Colombia, before the Republic of Colombia was finally declared in 1886.
Since the 1960s the country has suffered from an asymmetric low-intensity armed conflict, Colombia is one of the most ethnically and linguistically diverse countries in the world, and thereby possesses a rich cultural heritage. Cultural diversity has influenced by Colombias varied geography. The urban centres are located in the highlands of the Andes mountains. Colombian territory encompasses Amazon rainforest, tropical grassland and both Caribbean and Pacific coastlines, ecologically, it is one of the worlds 17 megadiverse countries, and the most densely biodiverse of these per square kilometer. Colombia is a power and a regional actor with the fourth-largest economy in Latin America, is part of the CIVETS group of six leading emerging markets and is an accessing member to the OECD. Colombia has an economy with macroeconomic stability and favorable growth prospects in the long run. The name Colombia is derived from the last name of Christopher Columbus and it was conceived by the Venezuelan revolutionary Francisco de Miranda as a reference to all the New World, but especially to those portions under Spanish and Portuguese rule.
The name was adopted by the Republic of Colombia of 1819. When Venezuela and Cundinamarca came to exist as independent states, New Granada officially changed its name in 1858 to the Granadine Confederation. In 1863 the name was changed, this time to United States of Colombia. To refer to country, the Colombian government uses the terms Colombia. Owing to its location, the present territory of Colombia was a corridor of early human migration from Mesoamerica, the oldest archaeological finds are from the Pubenza and El Totumo sites in the Magdalena Valley 100 km southwest of Bogotá. These sites date from the Paleoindian period, at Puerto Hormiga and other sites, traces from the Archaic Period have been found
In 1682, William Penn, an English Quaker, founded the city to serve as capital of the Pennsylvania Colony. Philadelphia was one of the capitals in the Revolutionary War. In the 19th century, Philadelphia became an industrial center. It became a destination for African-Americans in the Great Migration. The areas many universities and colleges make Philadelphia a top international study destination, as the city has evolved into an educational, with a gross domestic product of $388 billion, Philadelphia ranks ninth among world cities and fourth in the nation. Philadelphia is the center of activity in Pennsylvania and is home to seven Fortune 1000 companies. The Philadelphia skyline is growing, with a market of almost 81,900 commercial properties in 2016 including several prominent skyscrapers. The city is known for its arts and rich history, Philadelphia has more outdoor sculptures and murals than any other American city. Fairmount Park, when combined with the adjacent Wissahickon Valley Park in the watershed, is one of the largest contiguous urban park areas in the United States.
The 67 National Historic Landmarks in the city helped account for the $10 billion generated by tourism, Philadelphia is the only World Heritage City in the United States. Before Europeans arrived, the Philadelphia area was home to the Lenape Indians in the village of Shackamaxon, the Lenape are a Native American tribe and First Nations band government. They are called Delaware Indians and their territory was along the Delaware River watershed, western Long Island. Most Lenape were pushed out of their Delaware homeland during the 18th century by expanding European colonies, Lenape communities were weakened by newly introduced diseases, mainly smallpox, and violent conflict with Europeans. Iroquois people occasionally fought the Lenape, surviving Lenape moved west into the upper Ohio River basin. The American Revolutionary War and United States independence pushed them further west, in the 1860s, the United States government sent most Lenape remaining in the eastern United States to the Indian Territory under the Indian removal policy.
In the 21st century, most Lenape now reside in the US state of Oklahoma, with communities living in Wisconsin, Ontario. The Dutch considered the entire Delaware River valley to be part of their New Netherland colony, in 1638, Swedish settlers led by renegade Dutch established the colony of New Sweden at Fort Christina and quickly spread out in the valley. In 1644, New Sweden supported the Susquehannocks in their defeat of the English colony of Maryland