Epic films are a style of filmmaking with large scale, sweeping scope, spectacle. The usage of the term has shifted over time, sometimes designating a film genre and at other times synonymous with big-budget filmmaking. Like epics in the classical literary sense it is focused on a heroic character. An epic's ambitious nature helps to set it apart from other types of film such as the period piece or adventure film. Epic historical films would take a historical or a mythical event and add an extravagant setting and lavish costumes, accompanied by an expansive musical score with an ensemble cast, which would make them among the most expensive of films to produce; the most common subjects of epic films are royalty, important figures from various periods in world history. The term "epic" came from the poetic genre exemplified by such works as the Iliad, Epic of Gilgamesh, or the Odyssey. In classical literature, epics are considered works focused on deeds or journeys of heroes upon which the fate of a large number of people depend.
Films described as "epic" take a historical character, or a mythic heroic figure. Common subjects of epics are royalty, great military leaders, or leading personalities from various periods in world history. However, there are some films described as "epic" solely on the basis of their enormous scope and the sweeping panorama of their settings such as How the West Was Won or East of Eden that do not have the typical substance of classical epics but are directed in an epic style; when described as "epic" because of content, an epic movie is set during a time of war or other societal crisis, while covering a longer span of time sometimes throughout entire generations coming and passing away, in terms of both the events depicted and the running time of the film. Such films have a historical setting, although fantasy or science fiction settings have become common in recent decades; the central conflict of the film is seen as having far-reaching effects changing the course of history. The main characters' actions are central to the resolution of the societal conflict.
In its classification of films by genre, the American Film Institute limits the genre to historical films such as Ben-Hur. However, film scholars such as Constantine Santas are willing to extend the label to science-fiction films such as 2001: A Space Odyssey and Star Wars. Lynn Ramey suggests that "Surely one of the hardest film genres to define is that of the "epic" film, encompassing such examples as Ben-Hur, Gone with the Wind....and more 300 and the Star Wars films...none of these comes from literary epics per se, there is little that links them with one another. Among those who espouse film genre studies, epic is one of the most despised and ignored genres" Finally, although the American Movie Channel formally defines epic films as historical films, they nonetheless state the epic film may be combined with the genre of science-fiction and cite Star Wars as an example. Stylistically, films classed as epic employ spectacular settings and specially designed costumes accompanied by a sweeping musical score, an ensemble cast of bankable stars.
Epics are among the most expensive of films to produce. They use on-location filming, authentic period costumes, action scenes on a massive scale. Biographical films may be less lavish versions of this genre. Many writers may refer to any film, "long" as an epic, making the definition epic a matter of dispute, raise questions as to whether it is a "genre" at all; as Roger Ebert put it, in his "Great Movies" article on Lawrence of Arabia: The word epic in recent years has become synonymous with big budget B picture. What you realize watching Lawrence of Arabia is that the word epic refers not to the cost or the elaborate production, but to the size of the ideas and vision. Werner Herzog's Aguirre: The Wrath of God didn't cost as much as the catering in Pearl Harbor, but it is an epic, Pearl Harbor is not; the comedy film Monty Python and the Holy Grail had the joking tagline "Makes Ben-Hur look like an epic." The epic is among the oldest of film genres, with one early notable example being Giovanni Pastrone's Cabiria, a three-hour silent film, about the Punic Wars, that laid the groundwork for the subsequent silent epics of D. W. Griffith.
The genre reached a peak of popularity in the early 1960s, when Hollywood collaborated with foreign film studios to use exotic locations in Spain and elsewhere for the production of epic films such as El Cid or Lawrence of Arabia. This boom period of international co-productions is considered to have ended with Cleopatra, The Fall of the Roman Empire, Doctor Zhivago. Films in this genre continued to appear, with one notable example including War and Peace, released in the former Soviet Union during 1967-1968 and, directed by Sergei Bondarchuk, said to be the most expensive film made. In the 1980s Reds revived the epic genre after getting 12 Academy Award nominations. Epic films continue to be produced, although since the development of CGI they use computer effects instead of an actual cast of thousands. Since the 1950s, such films have been shot with a wide aspect ratio for a more immersive and panoramic theatrical experience. Epic films were recognized in a montage at the 2006 Academy Awards.
The enduring popularity of the epic is accredited to their ability to appeal to a wide audience. Many of the highest-grossing films of all-time have been epics; the 1997 film Titanic, cited as helping to revive the genre, grossed $658 million domestic
Roxy Theatre (New York City)
The Roxy Theatre was a 5,920 seat movie theater located at 153 West 50th Street between 6th and 7th Avenues, just off Times Square in New York City. It opened on March 11, 1927 with the silent film The Love of Sunya, produced by and starring Gloria Swanson; the huge movie palace was a leading Broadway film showcase through the 1950s and was noted for its lavish stage shows. It closed and was demolished in 1960; the Roxy Theatre was conceived by film producer Herbert Lubin in mid-1925 as the world's largest and finest motion picture palace. To realize his dream, Lubin brought in the successful and innovative theater operator Samuel L. Rothafel, aka "Roxy", to bring it to fruition, enticing him with a large salary, percentage of the profits, stock options and offering to name the theatre after him, it was intended to be the first of six planned Roxy Theatres in the New York area. Roxy determined to make his theater the summit of his career and in it realize all of his theatrical design and production ideas.
He worked with Chicago architect Walter W. Ahlschlager and decorator Harold Rambusch of Rambusch Decorating Company on every aspect of the theater's design and furnishings. Roxy's lavish ideas and his many changes ran up costs dramatically. Shortly after the theater's opening, $2.5 million over budget and near bankruptcy, sold his controlling interest a week before the theater opened to movie mogul and theater owner William Fox for $5 million. The final cost of the theater was $12 million. With Lubin's exit, Roxy's dreams of his own theater circuit ended. Only one of the projected Roxy chain was built, the planned Roxy Midway Theatre on Broadway on the Upper West Side of Manhattan designed by Ahlschlager; the nearly complete theater was sold to Warner Bros. who opened it as Warner's Beacon in 1929. Known as the "Cathedral of the Motion Picture", the Roxy's design by Ahlschlager featured a soaring golden, Spanish-inspired auditorium, its main lobby was a large columned rotunda called the "Grand Foyer", which featured "the world's largest oval rug", manufactured by Mohawk Carpets in Amsterdam, New York, plus its own pipe organ on the mezzanine.
Off the rotunda was a long entrance lobby that led through the building of the adjacent Manger Hotel to the theater's main entrance at the corner of Seventh Avenue and W. 50th Street. The hotel was built at the same time as the theater. Ahlschlager succeeded in creating an efficient plan for the Roxy's irregular plot of land, which utilized every bit of space by featuring a diagonal auditorium plan with the stage in one corner of the lot; the design maximized the auditorium's size and seating capacity but compromised the function of its triangular stage. The Roxy's stage, while wide, was not deep and had limited space off stage. Despite the stage limitations, the theater boasted lavish support facilities including two stories of private dressing rooms, three floors of chorus dressing rooms, huge rehearsal rooms, a costume department, staff dry-cleaning and laundry rooms, a barber shop and hairdresser, a equipped infirmary, dining room, a menagerie for show animals. There were myriad offices, a private screening room seating 100, massive engine rooms for the electrical and heating machinery.
The Roxy's large staff enjoyed a cafeteria, billiard room, nap room and showers. The theater's stage innovations included a rising orchestra pit which could accommodate an orchestra of 110 and a Kimball theater pipe organ with three consoles which could be played simultaneously; the film projection booth was recessed into the front of the balcony to prevent film distortion caused by the usual angled projection from the top rear wall of a theater. This enabled the Roxy to have the sharpest film image for its time. Courteous service to the patron was a key part of the Roxy formula; the theater's uniformed corps of male ushers were known for their polite manner and military bearing. They went through rigorous training, daily inspections and drill, overseen by a retired Marine officer; the ushers' crisp attire was favorably mentioned by Cole Porter in a stanza of the song "You're the Top" in 1932. The Roxy presented major Hollywood films in programs that included a 110-member symphony orchestra, a solo theater pipe organ, a male chorus, a ballet company and a famous line of female precision dancers, the "Roxyettes".
Elaborate stage spectacles were created each week to accompany the feature film, all under the supervision of Rothafel. The theater's orchestra and performers were featured in an NBC Radio program with Roxy himself as host; the Roxy Hour, was broadcast live weekly from the theater's own radio studio. Thanks to Roxy's radio popularity, his theater was known to radio listeners nationwide. In spite of the theater's fame and success, the financial problems of its majority owner, the Fox Film Corporation, after the stock market crash of 1929 destabilized the Roxy's operations and it was saddled with inferior films. In 1932, Rothafel left the theater named for him for Rockefeller Center where he opened the new Radio City Music Hall and RKO Roxy theaters. Most of the Roxy's performers and artistic staff moved with him to the Music Hall, including producer Leon Leonidoff, choreographer Russell Markert, conductor Erno Rapee; the Roxyettes went on to greater fame at the Music Hall, becoming the Rockettes in 1935.
After Rothafel's departure, the Roxy Theatre never quite regained its former glory but it remained a leading New York showcase for film and stage variety shows. In 1942, A. J
Theodore Childress "Chill" Wills was an American actor and a singer in the Avalon Boys Quartet. Wills was born in Seagoville, Texas on July 18, 1902, he was a performer from early childhood and leading the Avalon Boys singing group in the 1930s. After appearing in a few westerns he disbanded the group in 1938, struck out on a solo acting career. One of his more memorable roles was that of the distinctive voice of Francis the Mule in a series of popular films. Wills' deep, rough voice, with its Western twang, was matched to the personality of the cynical, sardonic mule; as was customary at the time, Wills was given no billing for his vocal work, though he was featured prominently on-screen as blustery General Ben Kaye in the fourth entry, Francis Joins the WACS. He provided the deep voice for Stan Laurel's performance of "The Trail of the Lonesome Pine" in Way Out West, in which the Avalon Boys Quartet appeared. Wills was cast in numerous serious film roles, including as "the city of Chicago" as personified by a phantom police sergeant in the film noir City That Never Sleeps, that of Uncle Bawley in Giant, which features Rock Hudson, Elizabeth Taylor and James Dean.
Wills was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor, for his role as Davy Crockett's companion "Beekeeper" in the film The Alamo. However, his aggressive campaign for the award was considered tasteless by many, including the film's star/director/producer John Wayne, who publicly apologized for Wills. Wills' publicity agent, W. S. "Bow-Wow" Wojciechowicz, accepted blame for the ill-advised effort, claiming that Wills had known nothing about it. The Oscar was instead won by Peter Ustinov for his role as Lentulus Batiatus in Spartacus. Wills was a poker player and a close friend of Benny Binion, the founder of the World Series of Poker and former owner of Binion's Horseshoe Casino in Las Vegas, Nevada. Wills participated in the first World Series, held in 1970, is seated in the center of the famous picture with a number of legendary players. In Rory Calhoun's CBS western series The Texan, Wills appeared in the lead role in the 1960 episode entitled "The Eyes of Captain Wylie". Wills starred in the short-run series Frontier Circus which aired for only one season on CBS.
In 1966, he was cast in the role of a shady Texas rancher, Jim Ed Love, in the short-lived ABC comedy/western series The Rounders, with co-stars Ron Hayes, Patrick Wayne and Walker Edmiston. in 1963-64, Wills joined William Lundigan, Walter Brennan and Efrem Zimbalist Jr. in making appearances on behalf of U. S. Senator Barry Goldwater, the Republican nominee in the campaign against U. S. President Lyndon B. Johnson. In 1968, Wills refused to support Richard Nixon for the presidency and served as master of ceremonies for George C. Wallace, former governor of Alabama, for the California campaign stops in Wallace's presidential campaign. Wills was among the few Hollywood celebrities to endorse Wallace's bid against Nixon and Hubert H. Humphrey. In 1968, he starred in the Gunsmoke episode "A Noose for Dobie Price", where he played Elihu Gorman, a former outlaw who joins forces with Marshal Matt Dillon, played by James Arness, to track down a member of his former gang who has escaped jail, his last role was in 1978, as a janitor in Stubby Pringle's Christmas.
On December 15, 1978, Wills died of cancer in Encino, aged 76. He was interred at Grand View Memorial Park Cemetery in Glendale, California. Chill Wills on IMDb Chill Wills at Find a Grave
Library of Congress
The Library of Congress is the research library that serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States. It is the oldest federal cultural institution in the United States; the Library is housed in three buildings on Capitol Hill in Washington, D. C.. The Library's functions are overseen by the Librarian of Congress, its buildings are maintained by the Architect of the Capitol; the Library of Congress has claimed to be the largest library in the world. Its "collections are universal, not limited by subject, format, or national boundary, include research materials from all parts of the world and in more than 450 languages."The Library of Congress moved to Washington in 1800 after sitting for 11 years in the temporary national capitals in New York City and Philadelphia. The small Congressional Library was housed in the United States Capitol for most of the 19th century until the early 1890s. Most of the original collection had been destroyed by the British in 1814 during the War of 1812, the library sought to restore its collection in 1815.
They bought Thomas Jefferson's entire personal collection of 6,487 books. After a period of slow growth, another fire struck the Library in its Capitol chambers in 1851, again destroying a large amount of the collection, including many of Jefferson's books. After the American Civil War, the Library of Congress grew in both size and importance, which sparked a campaign to purchase replacement copies for volumes, burned; the Library received the right of transference of all copyrighted works to deposit two copies of books, maps and diagrams printed in the United States. It began to build its collections, its development culminated between 1888 and 1894 with the construction of a separate, extensive library building across the street from the Capitol; the Library's primary mission is to research inquiries made by members of Congress, carried out through the Congressional Research Service. The Library is open to the public, although only high-ranking government officials and Library employees may check out books and materials.
James Madison is credited with the idea of creating a congressional library, first making such a proposition in 1783. The Library of Congress was subsequently established April 24, 1800 when President John Adams signed an act of Congress providing for the transfer of the seat of government from Philadelphia to the new capital city of Washington. Part of the legislation appropriated $5,000 "for the purchase of such books as may be necessary for the use of Congress... and for fitting up a suitable apartment for containing them." Books were ordered from London, the collection consisted of 740 books and three maps which were housed in the new United States Capitol. President Thomas Jefferson played an important role in establishing the structure of the Library of Congress. On January 26, 1802, he signed a bill that allowed the president to appoint the Librarian of Congress and establishing a Joint Committee on the Library to regulate and oversee it; the new law extended borrowing privileges to the President and Vice President.
The invading British army burned Washington in August 1814 during the War of 1812 and destroyed the Library of Congress and its collection of 3,000 volumes. These volumes had been left in the Senate wing of the Capitol. One of the few congressional volumes to survive was a government account book of receipts and expenditures for 1810, it was taken as a souvenir by British Admiral George Cockburn, whose family returned it to the United States government in 1940. Within a month, Thomas Jefferson offered to sell his personal library as a replacement. Congress accepted his offer in January 1815; some members of the House of Representatives opposed the outright purchase, including New Hampshire Representative Daniel Webster who wanted to return "all books of an atheistical and immoral tendency." Jefferson had spent 50 years accumulating a wide variety of books in several languages and on subjects such as philosophy, law, architecture, natural sciences, studies of classical Greece and Rome, modern inventions, hot air balloons, submarines, fossils and meteorology.
He had collected books on topics not viewed as part of a legislative library, such as cookbooks. However, he believed, he remarked: I do not know that it contains any branch of science which Congress would wish to exclude from their collection. Jefferson's collection was unique in that it was the working collection of a scholar, not a gentleman's collection for display. With the addition of his collection, the Library of Congress was transformed from a specialist's library to a more general one, his original collection was organized into a scheme based on Francis Bacon's organization of knowledge. He grouped his books into Memory and Imagination, which broke down into 44 more subdivisions; the Library followed Jefferson's organization scheme until the late 19th century, when librarian Herbert Putnam began work on a more flexible Library of Congress Classification structure that now applies to more than 138 million items. In 1851, a fire destroyed two thirds of the Jefferson collection, with only 2,000 books remaining.
By 2008, the Librarians of Congress had found replacements for all but 300 of the works that were in Jefferson's original collection. On December 22, 1851 the largest fire in the Library's history destroyed 35,000 books, about two–thi
Elsa Cárdenas is a Mexican actress. Since 1954 she has appeared in more than 100 films and television shows, she starred in the film Happiness, entered into the 7th Berlin International Film Festival. She acted including Elvis Presley in Fun in Acapulco and James Dean in Giant, she claims to have had a love affair with Elvis Presley during the filming of Fun in Acapulco. She married Guy Patton. Happiness Giant The Brave One Fun in Acapulco Of Love and Desire Casa de Mujeres The Wild Bunch Mar de amor - Luciana de Irazabal Elsa Cárdenas on IMDb
Nick Adams (actor, born 1931)
Nick Adams was an American film and television actor and screenwriter. He was noted for his roles in several Hollywood films during the 1950s and 1960s along with his starring role in the ABC television series The Rebel. Decades after Adams' death from a prescription drug overdose at the age of 36, his publicized friendships with James Dean and Elvis Presley would stir speculation about both his private life and the circumstances of his death. In an AllMovie synopsis for Adams' last film, reviewer Dan Pavlides wrote, "Plagued by personal excesses, he will be remembered just as much for what he could have done in cinema as what he left behind." Adams was born in Pennsylvania to Peter Adamshock and Catherine Kutz. His father was a Ukrainian-born anthracite coal miner. In 1958 he told columnist Hedda Hopper, "We lived in those little company houses — they were terrible. We had to buy from the company store and were always in debt and could never leave."The family did leave when he was five years old after Adams' uncle was killed in a mining accident.
"My father piled all our belongings into an old jalopy, with our bedding on top", Adams recalled. "We didn't know. He started driving, ran out of gas and money in Jersey City, New Jersey at Audubon Park. A man started talking to us, a Mr. Cohn, he said to my father'You look like you need a job,' and my father said'I do'." Adams' father was given a job as janitor of an apartment building along with living quarters in the basement. They moved to Van Nostrand Avenue between Ocean Avenue and Rutgers Avenue, his mother worked for Western Electric in New Jersey. While still in high school Adams was offered a playing position in minor league baseball with the St. Louis Cardinals, but he turned it down because he was uninterested in the low pay, he worked as a bat boy for the Jersey City Giants, a local minor league team. Some sources recount. In 1948, while visiting New York, 17-year-old Adams wandered into an audition for Seán O'Casey's play The Silver Tassie and met Jack Palance; when Palance, whose father was a Ukrainian coal miner from Northeastern Pennsylvania, asked why he wanted to act, Adams replied, "For the money."
Palance introduced him to the director of The Silver Tassie as Nick Adams. After the director declined to hire him as an extra, Palance sent Adams to a nearby junior theater group where he got his first acting job playing the role of Muff Potter in Tom Sawyer. While trying to get a role in the play Mister Roberts, Adams had a brief encounter with Henry Fonda. who advised him to get some training as an actor. Adams' friends teased him about his acting ambitions. "Everybody thought I was crazy", he recalled. "My father said,'Nick, get a trade, be a barber or something.' I said,'But, Pop, I want to do something where I can make lots of money. You can't make lots of money with just a trade.'" After a year of unpaid acting in New York, Adams hitchiked to Los Angeles. Adams was an avid reader of fan magazines and came to believe he could meet agents and directors by being seen at the Warners Theater in Beverly Hills, he got a job there as doorman and maintenance man, which included changing the notices on the theater marquee.
He was fired. Adams' earliest reported paid acting job in Los Angeles was a stage role at the Las Palmas Theater in a comedy called Mr. Big Shot. Although he was paid about $60 a week, Adams had to pay $175 for membership in Actors' Equity Association, he earned $25 one night at the Mocambo nightclub, filling in for Pearl Bailey who had fallen ill. Eight years Hedda Hopper told Adams she recalled writing about him at the time. After three years of struggle and optimistic self-promotion, his first film role came in 1951, an uncredited one-liner as a Western Union delivery boy in George Seaton's Somebody Loves Me; this allowed him to join the Screen Actors Guild, but he was unable to find steady acting work when "creatively" claiming he had appeared with Palance in The Silver Tassie in New York. Undaunted, Adams joined a theater workshop run by Arthur Kennedy. In January 1952, Adams enlisted in the United States Coast Guard. About two years in June 1954, his ship docked in Long Beach harbor and, after a brash audition for director John Ford during which Adams did impressions of James Cagney and other celebrities while dressed in his Coast Guard uniform, he took his accumulated leave and appeared as Seaman Reber in the 1955 film version of Mister Roberts.
Adams completed his military service, returned to Los Angeles and, at the age of 23, based on his work in Mister Roberts, secured a powerful agent, signed with Warner Bros. Adams had a small role in Rebel Without a Cause; that year Adams played the role of "Bomber" the paper boy in the popular film adaptation of Picnic, filmed on location in Kansas, starred William Holden, Kim Novak, Susan Strasberg. He was not perceived by casting directors as tall or handsome enough for leading roles, but during the late 1950s, Adams had supporting roles in several successful television productions, including one episode of Wanted Dead or Alive starring Steve McQueen, films such as Our Miss Brooks, No Time for Sergeants, Teacher's Pet, Pillow Talk. Adams may have met James Dean in December 1950 while jitterbugging fo
James Byron Dean was an American actor from Indiana. He is remembered as a cultural icon of teenage disillusionment and social estrangement, as expressed in the title of his most celebrated film, Rebel Without a Cause, in which he starred as troubled teenager Jim Stark; the other two roles that defined his stardom were loner Cal Trask in East of Eden and surly ranch hand Jett Rink in Giant. After his death in a car crash, Dean became the first actor to receive a posthumous Academy Award nomination for Best Actor, remains the only actor to have had two posthumous acting nominations. In 1999, the American Film Institute ranked him the 18th best male movie star of Golden Age Hollywood in AFI's 100 Years...100 Stars list. James Byron Dean was born on February 8, 1931, at the Seven Gables apartment on the corner of 4th Street and McClure Street in Marion, the only child of Winton Dean and Mildred Marie Wilson, he was of English descent, with smaller amounts of German, Irish and Welsh ancestry. He claimed that his father was Native American, that his mother belonged to a "line of original settlers that could be traced back to the Mayflower".
Six years after his father had left farming to become a dental technician, Dean moved with his family to Santa Monica, California. He was enrolled at Brentwood Public School in the Brentwood neighborhood of Los Angeles, but transferred soon afterward to the McKinley Elementary School; the family spent several years there, by all accounts, Dean was close to his mother. According to Michael DeAngelis, she was "the only person capable of understanding him". In 1938, she was struck with acute stomach pain and began to lose weight, she died of uterine cancer. Unable to care for his son, Dean's father sent him to live with his aunt and uncle and Marcus Winslow, on their farm in Fairmount, where he was raised in their Quaker household. Dean's father served in World War II and remarried. In his adolescence, Dean sought the counsel and friendship of a local Methodist pastor, the Rev. James DeWeerd, who seems to have had a formative influence upon Dean upon his future interests in bullfighting, car racing, theater.
According to Billy J. Harbin, Dean had "an intimate relationship with his pastor, which began in his senior year of high school and endured for many years", their alleged sexual relationship was suggested in Paul Alexander's 1994 book Boulevard of Broken Dreams: The Life and Legend of James Dean. In 2011, it was reported that Dean once confided in Elizabeth Taylor that he was sexually abused by a minister two years after his mother's death. Other reports on Dean's life suggest that he was either sexually abused by DeWeerd as a child or had a sexual relationship with him as a late teenager. Dean's overall performance in school was exceptional and he was a popular student, he played on the baseball and varsity basketball teams, studied drama, competed in public speaking through the Indiana High School Forensic Association. After graduating from Fairmount High School in May 1949, he moved back to California with his dog, Max, to live with his father and stepmother, he majored in pre-law. He transferred to UCLA for one semester and changed his major to drama, which resulted in estrangement from his father.
He was never initiated. While at UCLA, Dean was picked from a group of 350 actors to portray Malcolm in Macbeth. At that time, he began acting in James Whitmore's workshop. In January 1951, he dropped out of UCLA to pursue a full-time career as an actor. Dean's first television appearance was in a Pepsi Cola commercial, he quit college to act full-time and was cast in his first speaking part, as John the Beloved Disciple, in Hill Number One, an Easter television special dramatizing the Resurrection of Jesus. Dean worked at the filmed Iverson Movie Ranch in the Chatsworth area of Los Angeles during production of the program, for which a replica of the tomb of Jesus was built on location at the ranch. Dean subsequently obtained three walk-on roles in movies: as a soldier in Fixed Bayonets!, a boxing cornerman in Sailor Beware, a youth in Has Anybody Seen My Gal?. While struggling to get jobs in Hollywood, Dean worked as a parking lot attendant at CBS Studios, during which time he met Rogers Brackett, a radio director for an advertising agency, who offered him professional help and guidance in his chosen career, as well as a place to stay.
In July 1951, Dean appeared on Alias Jane Doe, produced by Brackett. In October 1951, following the encouragement of actor James Whitmore and the advice of his mentor Rogers Brackett, Dean moved to New York City. There, he worked as a stunt tester for the game show Beat the Clock, but was subsequently fired for performing the tasks too quickly, he appeared in episodes of several CBS television series The Web, Studio One, Lux Video Theatre, before gaining admission to the Actors Studio to study method acting under Lee Strasberg. Proud of this accomplishment, Dean referred to the Actors Studio in a 1952 letter to his family as "the greatest school of the theater, it houses great people like Marlon Brando, Julie Harris, Arthur Kennedy, Mildred Dunnock, Eli Wallach... Few get into it... It is the best thing. I am one of the youngest to belong." There, he was classmates and close friends with Carroll Baker, alongside whom he would star in Giant. Dean's career picked up and he performed in further episodes of such early 1950s television shows as Kraft Television Theatre, Robert Montgomery Pr