A pine is any conifer in the genus Pinus of the family Pinaceae. Pinus is the sole genus in the subfamily Pinoideae; the Plant List compiled by the Royal Botanic Gardens and Missouri Botanical Garden accepts 126 species names of pines as current, together with 35 unresolved species and many more synonyms. The modern English name "pine" derives from Latin pinus, which some have traced to the Indo-European base *pīt- ‘resin’. Before the 19th century, pines were referred to as firs. In some European languages, Germanic cognates of the Old Norse name are still in use for pines—in Danish fyr, in Norwegian fura/fure/furu, Swedish fura/furu, Dutch vuren, German Föhre—but in modern English, fir is now restricted to fir and Douglas fir. Pine trees are evergreen, coniferous resinous trees growing 3–80 m tall, with the majority of species reaching 15–45 m tall; the smallest are Siberian dwarf pine and Potosi pinyon, the tallest is an 81.79 m tall ponderosa pine located in southern Oregon's Rogue River-Siskiyou National Forest.
Pines are long lived and reach ages of 100–1,000 years, some more. The longest-lived is Pinus longaeva. One individual of this species, dubbed "Methuselah", is one of the world's oldest living organisms at around 4,600 years old; this tree can be found in the White Mountains of California. An older tree, now cut down, was dated at 4,900 years old, it was discovered in a grove beneath Wheeler Peak and it is now known as "Prometheus" after the Greek immortal. The bark of most pines is thick and scaly; the branches are produced in regular "pseudo whorls" a tight spiral but appearing like a ring of branches arising from the same point. Many pines are uninodal, producing just one such whorl of branches each year, from buds at the tip of the year's new shoot, but others are multinodal, producing two or more whorls of branches per year; the spiral growth of branches and cone scales may be arranged in Fibonacci number ratios. The new spring shoots are sometimes called "candles"; these "candles" offer foresters a means to evaluate fertility of the vigour of the trees.
Pines have four types of leaf: Seed leaves on seedlings are borne in a whorl of 4–24. Juvenile leaves, which follow on seedlings and young plants, are 2–6 cm long, green or blue-green, arranged spirally on the shoot; these are produced for six months to five years longer. Scale leaves, similar to bud scales, are small and not photosynthetic, arranged spirally like the juvenile leaves. Needles, the adult leaves, are green and bundled in clusters called fascicles; the needles can number from one to seven per fascicle, but number from two to five. Each fascicle is produced from a small bud on a dwarf shoot in the axil of a scale leaf; these bud scales remain on the fascicle as a basal sheath. The needles persist depending on species. If a shoot is damaged, the needle fascicles just below the damage will generate a bud which can replace the lost leaves. Pines are monoecious, having the male and female cones on the same tree, though a few species are sub-dioecious, with individuals predominantly, but not wholly, single-sex.
The male cones are small 1–5 cm long, only present for a short period, falling as soon as they have shed their pollen. The female cones take 1.5–3 years to mature after pollination, with actual fertilization delayed one year. At maturity the female cones are 3–60 cm long; each cone has numerous spirally. The seeds are small and winged, are anemophilous, but some are larger and have only a vestigial wing, are bird-dispersed. At maturity, the cones open to release the seeds, but in some of the bird-dispersed species, the seeds are only released by the bird breaking the cones open. In others, the seeds are stored in closed cones for many years until an environmental cue triggers the cones to open, releasing the seeds; the most common form of serotiny is pyriscence, in which a resin binds the cones shut until melted by a forest fire. Pines are gymnosperms; the genus is divided into two subgenera, which can be distinguished by cone and leaf characters: Pinus subg. Pinus, the yellow, or hard pine group with harder wood and two or three needles per fascicle Pinus subg.
Strobus, the white, or soft pine group with softer wood and five needles per fascicle Pines are native to the Northern Hemisphere, in a few parts of the tropics in the Southern Hemisphere. Most regions of the Northern Hemisphere host some native species of pines. One species crosses the equator in Sumatra to 2°S. In North America, various species occur in regions at latitudes from as far north as 66°N to as far south as 12°N. Pines may be found in a large variety of environments, ranging from semi-arid desert to rainforests, from sea level up to 5,200 metres, from the coldest to the hottest environments on Earth, they occur in mountainous areas with favorable soils and at least some water. Various species have been introduced to temperate and subtropical regions of both hemisp
Geographic coordinate system
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position. A common choice of coordinates is latitude and elevation. To specify a location on a plane requires a map projection; the invention of a geographic coordinate system is credited to Eratosthenes of Cyrene, who composed his now-lost Geography at the Library of Alexandria in the 3rd century BC. A century Hipparchus of Nicaea improved on this system by determining latitude from stellar measurements rather than solar altitude and determining longitude by timings of lunar eclipses, rather than dead reckoning. In the 1st or 2nd century, Marinus of Tyre compiled an extensive gazetteer and mathematically-plotted world map using coordinates measured east from a prime meridian at the westernmost known land, designated the Fortunate Isles, off the coast of western Africa around the Canary or Cape Verde Islands, measured north or south of the island of Rhodes off Asia Minor.
Ptolemy credited him with the full adoption of longitude and latitude, rather than measuring latitude in terms of the length of the midsummer day. Ptolemy's 2nd-century Geography used the same prime meridian but measured latitude from the Equator instead. After their work was translated into Arabic in the 9th century, Al-Khwārizmī's Book of the Description of the Earth corrected Marinus' and Ptolemy's errors regarding the length of the Mediterranean Sea, causing medieval Arabic cartography to use a prime meridian around 10° east of Ptolemy's line. Mathematical cartography resumed in Europe following Maximus Planudes' recovery of Ptolemy's text a little before 1300. In 1884, the United States hosted the International Meridian Conference, attended by representatives from twenty-five nations. Twenty-two of them agreed to adopt the longitude of the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, England as the zero-reference line; the Dominican Republic voted against the motion, while Brazil abstained. France adopted Greenwich Mean Time in place of local determinations by the Paris Observatory in 1911.
In order to be unambiguous about the direction of "vertical" and the "horizontal" surface above which they are measuring, map-makers choose a reference ellipsoid with a given origin and orientation that best fits their need for the area they are mapping. They choose the most appropriate mapping of the spherical coordinate system onto that ellipsoid, called a terrestrial reference system or geodetic datum. Datums may be global, meaning that they represent the whole Earth, or they may be local, meaning that they represent an ellipsoid best-fit to only a portion of the Earth. Points on the Earth's surface move relative to each other due to continental plate motion and diurnal Earth tidal movement caused by the Moon and the Sun; this daily movement can be as much as a metre. Continental movement can be up to 10 m in a century. A weather system high-pressure area can cause a sinking of 5 mm. Scandinavia is rising by 1 cm a year as a result of the melting of the ice sheets of the last ice age, but neighbouring Scotland is rising by only 0.2 cm.
These changes are insignificant if a local datum is used, but are statistically significant if a global datum is used. Examples of global datums include World Geodetic System, the default datum used for the Global Positioning System, the International Terrestrial Reference Frame, used for estimating continental drift and crustal deformation; the distance to Earth's center can be used both for deep positions and for positions in space. Local datums chosen by a national cartographical organisation include the North American Datum, the European ED50, the British OSGB36. Given a location, the datum provides the latitude ϕ and longitude λ. In the United Kingdom there are three common latitude and height systems in use. WGS 84 differs at Greenwich from the one used on published maps OSGB36 by 112 m; the military system ED50, used by NATO, differs from about 120 m to 180 m. The latitude and longitude on a map made against a local datum may not be the same as one obtained from a GPS receiver. Coordinates from the mapping system can sometimes be changed into another datum using a simple translation.
For example, to convert from ETRF89 to the Irish Grid add 49 metres to the east, subtract 23.4 metres from the north. More one datum is changed into any other datum using a process called Helmert transformations; this involves converting the spherical coordinates into Cartesian coordinates and applying a seven parameter transformation, converting back. In popular GIS software, data projected in latitude/longitude is represented as a Geographic Coordinate System. For example, data in latitude/longitude if the datum is the North American Datum of 1983 is denoted by'GCS North American 1983'; the "latitude" of a point on Earth's surface is the angle between the equatorial plane and the straight line that passes through that point and through the center of the Earth. Lines joining points of the same latitude trace circles on the surface of Earth called parallels, as they are parallel to the Equator and to each other; the North Pole is 90° N. The 0° parallel of latitude is designated the Equator, the fun
High Sierra Trail
The High Sierra Trail is a hiking trail in Sequoia National Park, California. The trail crosses the Sierra Nevada from west to east. According to the Yosemite Decimal System, the HST is a Class 1/Class 2 trail, which means simple scrambling, with the possibility of occasional use of the hands for balance. From the plateau of the Giant Forest at Crescent Meadow the trail travels high on the northern wall of the canyon of the Middle Fork of the Kaweah River to Bearpaw Meadow; this first 11.4 miles of the trail is a popular though strenuous two-day round trip hike. The Bearpaw Meadow High Sierra Camp located here dates back to 1934. Leaving the meadow, the trail climbs through the Hamilton Lakes Basin to Kaweah Gap which, at 10,700 feet, is one of the lowest passes over the Great Western Divide within the park. From this pass, the route descends into Big Arroyo and climbs to the Chagoopa Plateau, only to drop again to 6,700 feet in the Kern River Canyon. After following along the Kern River, it turns east and climbs parallel to Wallace Creek to the junction with the John Muir Trail and Pacific Crest Trail 48.9 miles from Crescent Meadow.
This is the end of the High Sierra Trail. Hikers may continue on the John Muir Trail 12.6 miles to the summit of Mount Whitney. The Mount Whitney Trail branches to the east from the John Muir Trail 2.4 miles south of Mount Whitney's summit, descends to Whitney Portal located at the end of the road from Lone Pine, California. From Crescent Meadow to Whitney Portal, the trail is 72.2 miles long and takes 6 days or more for the average hiker to complete. The fastest claimed time to traverse is 15 hours 46 minutes, by Leor Pantilat. Work began on the High Sierra Trail in 1928, it was the first Sierra trail built for recreational use. Hikers should check with park rangers before planning a trip with pack stock. At least one section of the trail is closed to stock, grazing is limited in many areas
Kings Canyon National Park
Kings Canyon National Park is an American national park in the southern Sierra Nevada, in Fresno and Tulare Counties, California. Established in 1890 as General Grant National Park, the park was expanded and renamed to Kings Canyon National Park on March 4, 1940; the park's namesake, Kings Canyon, is a rugged glacier-carved valley more than a mile deep. Other natural features include multiple 14,000-foot peaks, high mountain meadows, swift-flowing rivers, some of the world's largest stands of giant sequoia trees. Kings Canyon is north of and contiguous with Sequoia National Park, the two are jointly administered by the National Park Service as the Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks; the majority of the 461,901-acre park, drained by the Middle and South Forks of the Kings River and many smaller streams, is designated wilderness. Tourist facilities are concentrated in two areas: Grant Grove, home to General Grant and Cedar Grove, located in the heart of Kings Canyon. Overnight hiking is required to access most of the park's backcountry, or high country, which for much of the year is covered in deep snow.
The combined Pacific Crest Trail/John Muir Trail, a backpacking route, traverses the entire length of the park from north to south. General Grant National Park was created to protect a small area of giant sequoias from logging. Although John Muir's visits brought public attention to the huge wilderness area to the east, it took more than fifty years for the rest of Kings Canyon to be designated a national park. Environmental groups, park visitors and many local politicians wanted to see the area preserved. After President Franklin D. Roosevelt expanded the park in 1940, the fight continued until 1965, when the Cedar Grove and Tehipite Valley dam sites were annexed into the park; as visitation rose post–World War II, further debate took place over whether the park should be developed as a tourist resort, or retained as a more natural environment restricted to simpler recreation such as hiking and camping. The preservation lobby prevailed and today, the park has only limited services and lodgings despite its size.
Due to this and the lack of road access to most of the park, Kings Canyon remains the least visited of the major Sierra parks, with just under 700,000 visitors in 2017 compared to 1.3 million visitors at Sequoia and over 4 million at Yosemite. Kings Canyon National Park, located on the western slope of the Sierra Nevada to the east of the San Joaquin Valley, is divided into two distinct sections; the smaller and older western section centers around Grant Grove – home of many of the park's sequoias – and has most of the visitor facilities. The larger eastern section, which accounts for the majority of the park's area, is entirely wilderness, contains the deep canyons of the Middle and South Forks of the Kings River. Cedar Grove, located at the bottom of the Kings Canyon, is the only part of the park's vast eastern portion accessible by road. Although most of the park is forested, much of the eastern section consists of alpine regions above the tree line. Snow free only from late June until late October, the high country is accessible via foot and horse trails.
The Sequoia-Kings Canyon Wilderness encompasses over 768,000 acres in Kings Canyon and Sequoia National Parks, or nearly 90 percent of their combined area. In addition to Sequoia National Park on the south, Kings Canyon is surrounded by multiple national forests and wilderness areas; the Sierra National Forest, Sequoia National Forest and Inyo National Forest border it on the northwest and east, respectively. The John Muir Wilderness wraps around much of the northern half of the park, the Monarch Wilderness preserves much of the area between the park's two sections. Kings Canyon is characterized by some of the steepest vertical relief in North America, with numerous peaks over 14,000 feet on the Sierra Crest along the park's eastern border, falling to 4,500 feet in the valley floor of Cedar Grove just ten miles to the west; the Sierran crest forms the eastern boundary of the park, from Mount Goethe in the north, down to Junction Peak, at the boundary with Sequoia National Park. Several passes cross the crest into the park, including Bishop Pass, Taboose Pass, Sawmill Pass, Kearsarge Pass.
All of these passes are above 11,000 feet in elevation. There are several prominent subranges of the Sierra around the park; the Palisades, along the park's eastern boundary, have four peaks over 14,000 feet including the highest point in the park, 14,248 feet NAVD 88 at the summit of North Palisade. The Great Western Divide extends through the south-central part of the park and has many peaks over 13,000 feet, including Mount Brewer; the Monarch Divide, stretching between the lower Middle and South Forks of the Kings, has some of the most inaccessible terrain in the entire park. In the northwest section of the park are other steep and rugged ranges such as the Goddard Divide, LeConte Divide and Black Divide, all of which are dotted with high mountain lakes and separated by deep chasms. Most of the mountains and canyons, as in other parts of the Sierra Nevada, are formed in igneous intrusive rocks such as granite and monzonite, formed at least 100 million years ago due to subduction along the North American–Pacific Plate boundary.
However, the Sierra itself is a young mountain range, no more than 10 million years old. Huge tectonic forces along the western edge of the Great Basin forced the local crustal block to tilt and uplift, crea
Giant Forest Lodge Historic District
The Giant Forest Lodge Historic District in Sequoia National Park includes the remnants of what was once an extensive National Park Service Rustic style tourist development for park visitors. Known as Camp Sierra, the district was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in May 1978. Situated in the Giant Forest grove of giant sequoias, the district is notable for its nearly total demolition by the National Park Service to eliminate the impact of development on the Big Trees; the first development in the Giant Forest took place in 1899, when a tent camp was set up in the grove. A road reached the site in 1903, more permanent development followed; the first lodge was built in 1915. In 1921 the Sequoia and General Grant National Parks Company erected the primary lodging area next to Round Meadow, the first area to be called "Giant Forest Lodge"; the same year, Camp Kaweah was established to provide additional capacity. By 1926, a study commissioned by the Park Service indicated that the development was adversely affecting the trees.
The following year the park superintendent, Colonel John White, first proposed the removal of the development. However, the concessioner was able to intervene with the director of the Park Service, White was overruled, he was, able to impose limits on guest accommodations, the first such limits in the National Park system. In 1962 and 1965 two reports indicated that the hydrology of the area had been affected by development, that the fire suppression made necessary by the proximity of buildings had created an unfavorable environment for new sequoia growth. Additionally, the influential Leopold Report on national park development, written by nature conservationist A. Starker Leopold criticized the Giant Forest development. By 1971 the park's master plan called for the reduction of human impact in the Giant Forest. By 1980 a consensus had developed for the relocation of the recreational facilities. By the 1990s the Park Service had resolved to remove the development, demolition began in 1997, it was completed in 2000 for the Giant Forest Lodge area with the removal of all buildings and infrastructure.
New development was centered around the Gilbert Stanley Underwood Giant Forest Village Market building at nearby Camp Kaweah, which became the Giant Forest Museum in 2001. The facility is connected to the Giant Forest by shuttle bus; the visitor accommodations were replaced by Wuksachi Village, located about five miles to the north and well away from the sequoia grove. The demolition of the Giant Forest infrastructure is noteworthy as the most visible clash between the Park Service's role as a guardian of natural resources and its role as custodian of the National Register of Historic Places, when it had to determine which interest was more crucial. Giant Forest Village-Camp Kaweah Historic District, includes the Giant Forest Museum Wilsonia Historic District Giant Forest restoration at Sequoia National ParkAll of the following Historic American Buildings Survey documentation is filed under Three Rivers, Tulare County, CA: HABS No. CA-193-A, "Giant Forest Lodge Historic District, Registration Building", 7 photos, 2 data pages, 1 photo caption page HABS No.
CA-193-B, "Giant Forest Lodge Historic District, Amphitheater", 2 photos, 1 photo caption page HABS No. CA-193-C, "Giant Forest Lodge Historic District, General Office Building", 4 photos, 2 data pages, 1 photo caption page HABS No. CA-193-D, "Giant Forest Lodge Historic District, Cabin A", 6 photos, 2 data pages, 1 photo caption page HABS No. CA-193-E, "Giant Forest Lodge Historic District, Cabin B", 3 photos, 2 data pages, 1 photo caption page HABS No. CA-193-F, "Giant Forest Lodge Historic District, Cabin H", 3 photos, 2 data pages, 1 photo caption page HABS No. CA-193-G, "Giant Forest Lodge Historic District, Cabin No. 5", 1 photo, 1 photo caption page HABS No. CA-193-H, "Giant Forest Lodge Historic District, Cabin No. 6", 1 photo, 1 photo caption page HABS No. CA-193-I, "Giant Forest Lodge Historic District, Cabin No. 7", 1 photo, 1 photo caption page HABS No. CA-193-J, "Giant Forest Lodge Historic District, Cabin No. 8", 2 photos, 1 photo caption page HABS No. CA-193-K, "Giant Forest Lodge Historic District, Cabin No. 22", 5 photos, 1 photo caption page HABS No.
CA-193-L, "Giant Forest Lodge Historic District, Cabin No. 27-28", 4 photos, 1 photo caption page
The Generals Highway is a highway that connects State Route 180 and State Route 198 through Sequoia National Park, Giant Sequoia National Monument, Kings Canyon National Park in the Sierra Nevada of California. It is named after two of the largest and most famous Giant Sequoia trees, the General Sherman and General Grant trees; the highway is notoriously steep, narrow and difficult to drive its southern section from Hospital Rock to Giant Forest within Sequoia National Park. This section consists of numerous switchbacks, has a speed limit of 10 MPH. Regulations restrict the length of vehicles—they must not exceed 40 feet, although vehicles longer than 22 feet are not recommended to use the road between Potwisha Campground and Giant Forest Museum; the Generals Highway begins as a continuation of SR 198, where the state highway ends at the southern boundary of Sequoia National Park. The road travels northeast along the middle fork of the Kaweah River and enters Sequoia National Park through the Indian Head Entrance.
Near the Hospital Rock turnout, the road turns north and goes through several turns before straightening out and continuing northeast, passing near the General Sherman Tree. At Lodgepole Bridge, the road turns west before turning north. Generals Highway leaves Sequoia National Park through the North Entrance, entering Sequoia National Forest; the road continues northwest through Giant Sequoia National Monument before traveling along the northern border of Kings Canyon National Park entering it before terminating at SR 180. Two of the stone bridges on the highway are listed on the National Register of Historic Places; the entire route is in Tulare County. California Roads portal
Moro Rock is a granite dome rock formation in Sequoia National Park, United States. It is located in the center of the park, at the head of Moro Creek, between Giant Forest and Crescent Meadow. A stairway, designed by the National Park Service and built in the 1930s by the Civilian Conservation Corps, is cut into and poured onto the rock, so that visitors can hike to the top; the view from the rock encompasses much including the Great Western Divide. Use of this trail is discouraged during thunderstorms; the road to Moro Rock is closed in winter, so visitors need to hike 2 miles to reach the viewpoint. The road is open in summer; the 1996 general plan for the park calls for the road to Moro to be closed, replaced by a shuttle. As of June 2012, the road is open to general traffic only during weekdays; the west face of Moro Rock offers 1,000 vertical feet of knobs for rock climbing. However, climbing is prohibited during peregrine falcon nesting season on the East faces. Moro Rock is a dome-shaped granite monolith.
Common in the Sierra Nevada, these domes form by exfoliation, the spalling or casting off in scales, plates, or sheets of rock layers on otherwise unjointed granite. Outward expansion of the granite results in exfoliations. Expansion results from load relief. Fractures that form during exfoliation tend to cut corners; this results in rounded dome-like forms. The first stairway leading to the summit of Moro Rock was constructed of wood and installed in 1917; this stairway deteriorated by the late 1920s, was replaced in 1931 by the present Moro Rock Stairway, built by the Civilian Conservation Corps. Unlike the earlier stairway, the new stairway adopted a design policy of blending with the natural surfaces to the greatest extent possible; the 797-foot-long stairway was designed by National Park Service landscape architect Merel S. Sager and engineer Frank Diehl, following natural ledges and crevices, it has 400 steps. Changes since the original construction have impaired the integrity of the design.
Media related to Moro Rock at Wikimedia Commons "Moro Rock". Summitpost.org. Retrieved 2006-12-03. "Giant Forest Points of Interest, Summer". Sequoia & Kings Canyon National Parks. National Park Service. Retrieved 2009-01-14. "Moro Rock Summit interactive 360˚ panorama". 360Around.com. Retrieved 2010-06-01