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Giardia duodenalis

Giardia duodenalis known as Giardia intestinalis and Giardia lamblia, is a flagellated parasitic microorganism, that colonizes and reproduces in the small intestine, causing giardiasis. The parasite attaches to the epithelium by a ventral adhesive disc or sucker, reproduces via binary fission. Giardiasis does not spread via the bloodstream, nor does it spread to other parts of the gastrointestinal tract, but remains confined to the lumen of the small intestine. Giardia trophozoites absorb their nutrients from the lumen of the small intestine, are anaerobes. If the organism is split and stained, its characteristic pattern resembles the familiar "smiley face" symbol. Chief pathways of human infection include ingestion of untreated sewage, a phenomenon common in many developing countries. Giardia infections occur worldwide, however Giardia lamblia is the most identified intestinal parasite in the United States and Canada among children in day care centers, family members and immunocompromised adults.

20,000 cases per year in the United States are reported. G. lamblia takes on two morphologically distinct forms during its life cycle. The replicative form is a motile pear-shaped cell that survives only in host small intestines called a trophozoite. Trophozoites swim through the intestinal mucus until they adhere to the host intestinal epithelium. Adhered trophozoites divide by binary fission, forming either more trophozoites or the non-replicative cyst stage. Cysts are shed in the feces. G. lamblia cysts are resistant to environment stressors, can survive in the environment for weeks to months if kept moist. Cysts remain dormant until ingested by a host animal. In the new host, environmental conditions trigger the cyst to produce two trophozoites, which attach to epithelial cells, starting the cycle anew; the cyst can survive for weeks to months in cold water, so can be present in contaminated wells and water systems stagnant water sources, such as occurring ponds, storm water storage systems, clean-looking mountain streams.

Cysts can be found on surfaces, food, or water, contaminated with feces from infected humans or animals. They may occur in city reservoirs and persist after water treatment, as the cysts are resistant to conventional water treatment methods, such as chlorination and ozonolysis. Zoonotic transmission is possible, so Giardia infection is a concern for people camping in the wilderness or swimming in contaminated streams or lakes the artificial lakes formed by beaver dams. In addition to waterborne sources, fecal–oral transmission can occur, for example in day-care centers, where children may have poor hygiene practices; those who work with children are at risk of being infected, as are family members of infected individuals. Not all Giardia infections are symptomatic, many people can unknowingly serve as carriers of the parasite. Giardia infects humans, but is one of the most common parasites infecting cats and birds. Mammalian hosts include dozens of species, including cattle and goats. Cats can be cured and lambs simply lose weight, but in calves, the parasites can be fatal and are not responsive to antibiotics or electrolytes.

Carriers among calves can be asymptomatic. This parasite is deadly for chinchillas, so extra care must be taken by providing them with safe water. Dogs have a high infection rate, as 30% of the population under one year old are known to be infected in kennels; the infection is more prevalent in puppies than in adult dogs. Infected dogs can be isolated and treated, or the entire pack at a kennel can be treated together regardless. Kennels should be cleaned with bleach or other cleaning disinfectants; the grass areas used for exercise should be considered contaminated for at least one month after dogs show signs of infection, as cysts can survive in the environment for long periods of time. Prevention can be achieved by quarantine of infected dogs for at least 20 days and careful management and maintenance of a clean water supply. G. lamblia trophozoites are pear-shaped cells, 10 to 20 micrometers long, 7 to 10 micrometers across, 2 to 4 micrometers thick. They are motile by way of four pairs of flagella, which propel the trophozoites through the intestine.

Notably, each G. lamblia cell has two nuclei, both of which transcribe genes. Adjacent to the nucleus, G. lamblia cells have an endoplasmic reticulum that extends through much of the cell. Trophozoites about to differentiate into cysts contain prominent vesicles termed encystation-specific vesicles that disappear once cyst wall construction begins. Unlike most other eukaryotes, G. lamblia cells contain no visible mitochondria, but instead contains a reduced metabolic organelle termed a mitosome. Additionally, cells appear to contain no Golgi bodies, instead the secretory system consists of the endoplasmic reticulum and numerous vesicles spread throughout the cell, termed peripheral vesicles. Peripheral vesicles are responsible both for taking up extracellular nutrients, expelling waste outside the cell; each cell contains a pair of rigid structures called median bodies which make up part of the G. lamblia cytoskeleton. Trophozoites adhere to host epithelial cells via a specialized disk-shaped organelle called the ventral disk.

Cysts are oval-shaped cells smaller than trophozoites. They lack flagella, are covered by a smooth, clear cyst wall; each cyst contains the organelles for two trophzoites: four nuclei, two vent

Landkreis Sprottau

The Landkreis Sprottau was a district of the German state Prussia from 1816 to 1945. It was part of the Prussian Province of Lower Silesia, before 1919 the Prussian Province of Silesia. In 1932 it was merged with Landkreis Sagan, its present-day successors are Powiat Polkowicki. On 1 January 1945 it included: 3 cities, Primkenau and Sprottau. 102 municipalities, 4 Gutsbezirke. Names of two communes were renamed in 1936: Puschkau → Hirtenau Tschirndorf → Hammerfeld Oskar von Bezold Holders of these political positions were called "Landsrat". 1811–1831: Kaspar von Knobelsdorff 1831–1857: Alexander Maximilian von Schkopp 1857–1869: Robert von Reder 1869–1877: Hans Graf von Kanitz-Podangen 1877–1890: Günther von Dallwitz 1890–1910: Henning von Klitzing 1910–1919: Wilhelm Freiherr von Kottwitz 1919–9999: Eichert 1920–1925: Dietrich 1925–1932: Hermann Kranold 1932–1933: Oskar von Bezold 1933–9999: Pintzke 1933–0000: Hans-Walter Friderici

KGB Prison, Potsdam

The KGB Prison at Leistikowstraße 1 in the German city of Potsdam was a detention centre run by the Soviet counter-intelligence organisation, SMERSH. The building was built in 1916–18 by the Evangelical Ecclesiastical Benevolent Society or EKH. After the Potsdam Conference in August 1945 about 100 houses in the Nauener Vorstadt quarter, which bordered on the New Garden, were cordoned off and renamed as Military Camp No. 7. In this area were located the command centre of the KGB for Germany, housed in the former boarding school attended by Empress Augusta Victoria; the neighbouring building of the women's benevolent society was used as the counter-intelligence detention centre. Until 1955 Germans were interned here who were suspected of being active as Werwolf members or of carrying out espionage for the Allied Occupation Powers in the Western Sector of Berlin. Soviet soldiers, who were accused of collaboration, desertion or close contact with the population, were imprisoned here until the mid-1980s.

Many inmates were subject to violent interrogation before being sentenced to death or to many years imprisonment and transported to Vorkuta Gulag or other labour camps of the Soviet Gulag system. At the end of the 1980s the building acted as a storehouse. With the withdrawal of the Red Army from Germany it was returned in 1994 to the Evangelical Ecclesiastical Benevolent Society again. After restoration in 2007/2008 a memorial site was opened on 29 March 2009, open to visitors. A permanent exhibition on the history of the detention prison is being worked on; the state of Brandenburg, the Federal Republic of Germany and private donors have put up 2.2 million euros for the memorial site. Website of the memorial site Website of the memorial site society From Potsdam to Vorkuta, publication by the Brandenburg State Office of Political Education, pdf

Gunsmoke Western

Gunsmoke Western was an American comic book series published by Atlas Comics, the 1950s forerunner of Marvel Comics, into the 1960s by Marvel. A Western anthology that ran 46 issues, it featured early stories of the Marvel Old West heroes Kid Colt and the Two-Gun Kid, work by such artists as Jack Kirby, John Severin, Joe Maneely, Doug Wildey, many others. Gunsmoke Western was published by the 1950s forerunner of Marvel Comics, it ran 46 issues, taking over the numbering of a previous series, Western Tales of Black Rider, beginning with #32. The series, which fell under the Marvel Comics banner with issue #65, ended with #77; the publication had premiered in 1948 as the superhero comic All Winners, a.k.a. All-Winners Comics, vol. 2 after one issue became All Western Winners, a.k.a. All-Western Winners, for three issues; the series was one of several Atlas Westerns. With the change to Gunsmoke Western, the series began starring Kid Colt, drawn by its longtime artist Jack Keller; the lesser-known Atlas frontiersman character Billy Bucksin served as a backup feature for three issues, with anthological Western stories in-between.

Issue #35 introduced the backup feature "Wyatt Earp", starring a version of the real-life lawman, for two issues before back-up features were dropped in favor of Kid Colt plus standalone stories. The Earp feature returned in issue #43, running as backup through #58. Clay Harder, introduced in 1948 as the first of Marvel's two Western heroes called the Two-Gun Kid, was re-imainged and reintroduced in Gunsmoke Western #57, in a feature by writer-editor Stan Lee and artist John Severin; the feature ran through #63. The second Two-Gun Kid, Matt Hawk, would be introduced in Two-Gun Kid #60, which retconned that Clay Harder was a dime novel fictional character who inspired Hawk to become a masked Western crimefighter. Occasional stories starred the Ringo Kid, the Gunsmoke Kid, others. All cover art through issue #50 was by either Severin or Joe Maneely, except for one each by Russ Heath, Sol Brodsky, Jack Davis. Afterward, all covers were penciled by Jack Kirby save for one each by Maneely. A wide range of artists drew the interior stories, with multiples drawn by artists including Keller, Severin, Dick Ayers, Gene Colan, Don Heck, Al Williamson, at least two each by Matt Baker, Mort Drucker, Angelo Torres, George Tuska, Doug Wildey, among others.

Spider-Man co-creator Steve Ditko, outside his normal realm of superhero and fantasy tales, drew one Gunsmoke Western story, "The Escape of Yancy Younger", written by Lee, in issue #66. The Mighty Marvel Western Gunsmoke Western at Gunsmoke Western at The Unofficial Handbook of Marvel Comics Creators

Fly Williams

James "Fly" Williams is an American former professional basketball player, who played in the American Basketball Association for the Spirits of St. Louis. A noted street basketball player from New York, he once scored 100 points in an IS8 League game in 1978. Born in Brownsville, New York, Williams attended Madison High School, where he was interested in being a baseball pitcher, but was advised that he had become too tall to remain competitive in that sport. Although Williams’ initial transition to basketball didn't go well, he made adjustments that allowed him to excel in his new game. Williams’ accelerated achievements were fueled by his frequent participation in street basketball games, he played with some of New York's finest street players, including World B. Free and Earl "the Goat" Manigault; when the games ended, Williams would go out in search of more opportunities to play basketball. Williams dominated. By his freshman year, he stood 6 feet 5 inches tall, with outstanding moves, a fantastic shot, a terrific knowledge of the back board action, could play the crowds.

However, due to his poor attendance at Madison, Williams completed high school at a prep school, Glen Springs Academy, in Watkins Glen, New York. The book Heaven Is a Playground discusses, among the education of Fly Williams. According to "Loose Balls" author Terry Pluto, Williams took the nickname in homage to singer Curtis "Super Fly" Mayfield. Williams was known for his play at The Hole. After Williams completed high school, he was recruited by an assistant basketball coach, Leonard Hamilton, to attend Austin Peay State University in Clarksville, Tennessee. Williams arrived on campus in 1972, he was greeted by a reception. His freshman year, playing as a guard, his scoring record was noteworthy. Williams averaged 29.4 points per game in 1973, fifth best in the nation. The Austin Peay State University basketball team, the Governors, won a bid to the National Collegiate Athletic Association tournament. Williams was true to form. In the second round of the tournament, Williams managed another 26 points, but the Austin Peay Governors lost to the University of Kentucky, coached by Joe B.

Hall, in overtime. Williams scored 51 points twice in his freshman year. In his sophomore season, Williams averaged 27.5 points per game, earning a third-place scoring record in the NCAA. Once again the Governors basketball team won the bid for the NCAA tournament. Once again Williams scored 26 points, but Austin Peay was crushed by Notre Dame, 108–66, in the first round; the record established by Williams in his two years at Austin Peay, was impressive. Williams scored 1,541 points with a 28.5 point per game average. Austin Peay responded to Williams' two year record, in 1975, by building the Dunn Center, a larger gymnasium, to accommodate the increase in attendance at basketball games; the Denver Nuggets drafted Williams in the first round of the 1974 ABA Draft. Following the draft, there were several offers to buy the player contract on Williams, his contract was sold to the Spirits of St. Louis; the 1974–75 basketball season was a disappointment to Williams and his team. He managed to score only 9.4 points per game for the Spirits.

Williams’ scoring was erratic and he was known for his showmanship rather than his scoring proficiency. He did not play during the following year, after which the Spirits of St. Louis were one of two teams, along with the Kentucky Colonels, to fold as a result of the ABA-NBA merger, Williams ended up without a team despite some interest in retaining him in the league, he was subsequently selected by the Philadelphia 76ers in the ninth round of the 1976 NBA Draft but the team did not sign him. Williams played in the Continental Basketball Association and the Eastern League, but he failed to receive any attractive offers from NBA teams, he played for a team in Israel, but never did attract any serious attention of NBA scouts. Williams admits that his temperament was an underlying issue which predicated his lack of serious offers. Williams's career was ended due to a robbery attempt. A bullet wound left him with decreased lung capacity, scar on his back. In retirement, Williams spent time working with disadvantaged youth and continued to play "streetball".

While playing at Austin Peay, Williams' nickname inspired a humorous fan chant: "The Fly is open, let's go Peay!" Fans still chant "Let's Go Peay" at all basketball games. Williams' number 35 jersey was retired by Austin Peay State University on February 5, 2009. A book on the life of Williams was written by Tennessee-based author Dave Link. Called The Fly 35, it was published to coincide with the jersey retirement ceremony. At age 64 in May, 2017, Williams was arrested in Brooklyn, NY, charged with being the alleged leader of a large heroin distribution ring. List of basketball players who have scored 100 points in a single game "Fly on the Rebound: An update on a basketball legend"

Hanna Rönnberg

Johanna Sofia Rönnberg was a Finnish artist and writer. She belonged to the generation of women painters in the 1880s who adopted the French Realism style, becoming an active member of the Önningeby artists colony on the island of Åland; as an author, she is remembered for her depictions of Scandinavian artists at the end of the 19th century. Born on 16 April 1862 in Hämeenlinna, Rönnberg was the daughter of Johan Rönnberg and Evelin Sofie Stenvall, she studied at the Finnish Art Society's Drawing School in Helsinki and at the Royal Swedish Academy of Fine Arts in Stockholm. She went on to attend courses in Paris at the Académie Colarossi, she became attached to the artists colony in Önningeby where the painter Victor Westerholm had a summer house. One of the most important members of the group, she first visited in 1886 and returned year after year, she contributed to the colony's success by including it in her non-fictional writings. One of the members of the colony was Elin Danielson with whom she painted both in Önningeby and in Paris.

Her paintings included people. Her best works appeared some achieving success at exhibitions, her early works of outdoor scenes on Åland were inspired by the French en plein air movement. She continued to paint in the 1890s and later, introducing brighter colour and sweeping brushstrokes. In 1932, she arranged a solo exhibition of the paintings. In 1888, Edvard Westman invited her to join him in Denmark, they together visited the Danish artists colony in Skagen. For a time they planned to marry but never did, she became interested in the lives of the inhabitants of the Åland Islands, including them in her fiction and non-fiction writings. From the early 1890s, she concentrated on her short story collections including Från Ålands skär and Brovaktens historier which received a Swedish literature award in 1905. In 1938, she published an account of the artist colony in Konstnärskolonien på Äland 1886–1914. Hanna Rönnberg spent her years in a villa on the coast in Kulosaari just outside Helsinki where she died on 9 October 1946.

Hanna Rönnberg by Kjell Ekström ISBN 9789529306268