Gaspard II de Coligny
Gaspard de Coligny, Seigneur de Châtillon was a French nobleman and admiral, best remembered as a disciplined Huguenot leader in the French Wars of Religion and a close friend and advisor to King Charles IX of France. Coligny came of a noble family of Burgundy, his family traced their descent from the 11th century, in the reign of Louis XI, were in the service of the King of France. His father, Gaspard I de Coligny, known as the'Marshal of Châtillon', served in the Italian Wars from 1494 to 1516, married in 1514, was created Marshal of France in 1516. By his wife, Louise de Montmorency, sister of the future constable, he had three sons, all of whom played an important part in the first period of the Wars of Religion: Odet and François. Born at Châtillon-sur-Loing in 1519, Gaspard came to court at the age of 22 and began a friendship with François of Guise. In the campaign of 1543 Coligny distinguished himself, was wounded at the sieges of Montmédy and Bains. In 1544 he served in the Italian campaigns under the Count of Enghien, King Charles VIII, King Louis XII, King Francis I and was knighted on the Field of Ceresole.
Returning to France, he took part in different military operations. That year he married Charlotte de Laval, he was made admiral on the death of Claude d'Annebaut. In 1557 he was entrusted with the defence of Saint-Quentin. In the siege he displayed great courage and strength of character. On payment of a ransom of 50,000 crowns he recovered his liberty; the Coligny brothers were the most zealous and consistent aristocratic supporters of Protestantism in sixteenth-century France. By this time he had become a Huguenot, through the influence of his brother, d'Andelot; the first known letter which John Calvin addressed to him is dated 4 September 1558. Gaspard de Coligny secretly focused on protecting his co-religionists, by attempting to establish colonies abroad in which Huguenots could find a refuge, he organized the expedition of a colony of Huguenots to Brazil, under the leadership of his friend and navy colleague, Vice-Admiral Nicolas Durand de Villegaignon, who established the colony of France Antarctique in Rio de Janeiro, in 1555.
They were afterwards expelled by the Portuguese, in 1567. Coligny was the leading patron for the failed French colony of Fort Caroline in Spanish Florida led by Jean Ribault in 1562. In 1566 and 1570, Francisque and André d'Albaigne submitted to Coligny projects for establishing relations with the Austral lands. Although he gave favourable consideration to these initiatives, they came to naught when Coligny was killed in 1572 during the St. Bartholomew's Day massacres. Following the death of Henry II he placed himself with Louis, Prince of Condé, at the forefront of the Huguenot party, demanded religious toleration and certain other reforms. In 1560, at the Assembly of Notables at Fontainebleau, the hostility between Coligny and François of Guise broke forth violently; when the civil wars began in 1562, Coligny decided to take arms only after long hesitation, remained always ready to negotiate. In none of these wars did he show superior genius, but he acted throughout with great prudence and extraordinary tenacity.
He was blamed by the Guise faction for the assassination of Francis, Duke of Guise at Orléans in 1563. In the "third war" of 1569 the defeat and death of the Prince of Condé at the Battle of Jarnac left Coligny the sole leader of the Protestant armies. Victorious at the Battle of La Roche-l'Abeille, but defeated in the Battle of Moncontour on 3 October, he entered into the negotiations for what became the Peace of Saint-Germain. Marrying Jacqueline de Montbel d'Entremont, returning to court in 1571, he grew in favour with Charles IX, becoming a close mentor to the weak manipulated King; as a means of emancipating the king from the tutelage of his mother and the faction of the Guises, the admiral proposed to him a descent on Spanish Flanders, with an army drawn from both faiths and commanded by Charles in person. The king's regard for the admiral and the bold demands of the Huguenots alarmed Catherine de' Medici, the Queen Mother; the wedding of the Protestant Henry, King of Navarre, Marguerite de Valois, the King's sister brought a great number of Huguenot notables to Paris, political and religious tensions were running high.
On 22 August 1572, the day after the end of the wedding festivities, Coligny was shot in the street by a man called Maurevert from a house belonging to de Guise. However, the bullets only shattered his left elbow; the would-be assassin escaped. It never became clear who, if anyone, had hired or encouraged Maurevert to carry out the attempt but historians centre on three possibilities: the Guise family, Catherine de Medici, or the duke of Alba on behalf of Philip II of Spain; the King sent his own physician to treat Coligny and visited him, but the queen mother prevented all private discourse between them. The Catholics now feared Huguenot retaliation for the attempt on Coligny's life, it was decided to pre-emptively assassinate their leadership, in what became known as the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre; as one of the main targets, on the nig
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, commerce, fashion and the arts; the City of Paris is the centre and seat of government of the Île-de-France, or Paris Region, which has an estimated official 2019 population of 12,213,364, or about 18 percent of the population of France. The Paris Region had a GDP of €681 billion in 2016, accounting for 31 percent of the GDP of France, was the 5th largest region by GDP in the world. According to the Economist Intelligence Unit Worldwide Cost of Living Survey in 2018, Paris was the second most expensive city in the world, after Singapore, ahead of Zurich, Hong Kong and Geneva. Another source ranked Paris as most expensive, on a par with Singapore and Hong-Kong, in 2018; the city is a major rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports: Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the city's subway system, the Paris Métro, serves 5.23 million passengers daily, is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro. Gare du Nord is the 24th busiest railway station in the world, the first located outside Japan, with 262 million passengers in 2015. Paris is known for its museums and architectural landmarks: the Louvre was the most visited art museum in the world in 2018, with 10.2 million visitors. The Musée d'Orsay and Musée de l'Orangerie are noted for their collections of French Impressionist art, the Pompidou Centre Musée National d'Art Moderne has the largest collection of modern and contemporary art in Europe; the historical district along the Seine in the city centre is classified as a UNESCO Heritage Site. Popular landmarks in the centre of the city include the Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris and the Gothic royal chapel of Sainte-Chapelle, both on the Île de la Cité. Paris received 23 million visitors in 2017, measured by hotel stays, with the largest numbers of foreign visitors coming from the United States, the UK, Germany and China.
It was ranked as the third most visited travel destination in the world in 2017, after Bangkok and London. The football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris; the 80,000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros. Paris will host the 2024 Summer Olympics; the 1938 and 1998 FIFA World Cups, the 2007 Rugby World Cup, the 1960, 1984, 2016 UEFA European Championships were held in the city and, every July, the Tour de France bicycle race finishes there. The name "Paris" is derived from the Celtic Parisii tribe; the city's name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. Paris is referred to as the City of Light, both because of its leading role during the Age of Enlightenment and more because Paris was one of the first large European cities to use gas street lighting on a grand scale on its boulevards and monuments.
Gas lights were installed on the Place du Carousel, Rue de Rivoli and Place Vendome in 1829. By 1857, the Grand boulevards were lit. By the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps. Since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang. Inhabitants are known in French as Parisiens, they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the area's major north–south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité; the Parisii minted their own coins for that purpose. The Romans began their settlement on Paris' Left Bank; the Roman town was called Lutetia. It became a prosperous city with a forum, temples, an amphitheatre. By the end of the Western Roman Empire, the town was known as Parisius, a Latin name that would become Paris in French. Christianity was introduced in the middle of the 3rd century AD by Saint Denis, the first Bishop of Paris: according to legend, when he refused to renounce his faith before the Roman occupiers, he was beheaded on the hill which became known as Mons Martyrum "Montmartre", from where he walked headless to the north of the city.
Clovis the Frank, the first king of the Merovingian dynasty, made the city his capital from 508. As the Frankish domination of Gaul began, there was a gradual immigration by the Franks to Paris and the Parisian Francien dialects were born. Fortification of the Île-de-la-Citie failed to avert sacking by Vikings in 845, but Paris' strategic importance—with its bridges prevent
Pierre de la Broce
Pierre de la Broce or de la Brosse was a royal favorite and councilor during the early reign of Philip III of France. De la Broce was from a family of petty nobility in Touraine, was a minor household official for Louis IX. After Louis' death in 1270, de la Broce became a favorite of the new king, he accumulated a substantial fortune, built from Philip's largesse and from gifts from those hoping to cultivate his influence with the king. This influence was resented by many of the nobility and by associates of the Queen. In 1277 letters written by de la Broce were presented to Philip, which caused the king to have de la Broce arrested, he was hanged six months later. No trial was held, the evidence was suppressed, so the contents of the letters are unknown. Evidence has been put forward. De la Broce appears in Dante's Purgatory, in Canto VI, with the other spirits of those who, though redeemed, were prevented from making a final confession and reconciliation due to having died by violence: I saw the soul cleft from its body out of spite and envy— not, so it said, because it had been guilty— I mean Pier de la Brosse, may the Lady of Brabant while she's still in this world, watch her ways—or end among a sadder flockfrom Allen Mandelbaum's translation
Paul Lacroix was a French author and journalist. He is known best by his pseudonym P. L. Jacob, bibliophile, or Bibliophile Jacob, suggested by his great interest in libraries and books generally. Lacroix was born in the son of a novelist, he was a prolific and varied writer, composing more than twenty historical romances as well as a variety of serious historical works, including histories of Napoleon III and of the Czar Nicholas I of Russia. He was the joint author with Ferdinand Séré of a five-volume work, Le moyen âge et la renaissance, a profusely illustrated standard work on the manners and dress of the Renaissance, he wrote many monographs on phases of the history of culture, including Manners and Dress During the Middle Ages and During the Renaissance Period. Someone using the name Pierre Dufour published an exhaustive six-volume Histoire de la prostitution, which has always been attributed to Lacroix, his works concerning bibliography were numerous, as was his periodical Revue universelle des arts, which he initiated in 1855.
In 1855 he was appointed librarian of the Arsenal Paris. L’Origine des cartes à jouer, 1835 Bibliothèque de M. G. de Pixerécourt, 1838 Bibliothèque dramatique de M. de Soleinne, 1843-1845 Bibliothèque dramatique de Pont de Vesle, 1846 Costumes historiques de la France d’après les monuments les plus authentiques, 1852 Histoire de la prostitution, 1853 Œuvres complètes de François Villon, nouvelle édition revue, corrigée et mise en ordre avec des notes historiques et littéraires, par P. L. Jacob, Paris, P. Jannet, 1854 Plus romanesque aventure de ma vie, Paris, P. Henneton, 1854. Ballets et mascarades de Cour, de Henri III à Louis XIV, 1868-1870 Vie militaire et religieuse au Moyen Âge et à l’époque de la Renaissance, 1869 Aventures de l’abbé de Choisy habillé en femme, 1870 Mœurs, usages et costumes au Moyen Âge et à l’époque de la Renaissance, 1871-1877 Œuvres poétiques de Marc-Claude de Buttet, 2 tomes, in -8, 1880. Danse Macabre translated by Brian Stableford, 2013, Black Coat Press, ISBN 9781612272054 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed..
"Lacroix, Paul". Encyclopædia Britannica. 16. Cambridge University Press. P. 54. Ferdinand Hoefer, Nouvelle Biographie générale, t. 27, Firmin-Didot, 1861. Paul Lacroix on data.bnf.fr Works by Paul Lacroix Jacob at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Bibliophile Jacob at Internet Archive Works by or about Pauk Lacroix Jacob at Internet Archive Works by Paul Lacroix at LibriVox Works by Paul Lacroix at openlibrary.org Suite de la Convalescence du vieux conteur by P.-L. Jacob, bibliophile on Gallica
Eugène Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc was a French architect and author who restored many prominent medieval landmarks in France, including those, damaged or abandoned during the French Revolution. His major restoration projects included Notre Dame Cathedral, the Basilica of Saint Denis, Mont Saint-Michel, Sainte-Chapelle, the medieval walls of the city of Carcassonne, his writings on the relationship between form and function in architecture had a notable influence on a new generation of architects, including Antonio Gaudí, Victor Horta, Louis Sullivan. Viollet-le-Duc was born in Paris in the last year of the Empire of Napoleon Bonaparte, his grandfather was an architect, his father was a high-ranking civil servant, who in 1816 became the overseer of the royal residences of Louis XVIII. His uncle Étienne-Jean Delécluze was a painter, a former student of Jacques-Louis David, an art critic and hosted a literary salon, attended by Stendhal and Sainte-Beuve, his mother hosted her own salon as well as men.
There, in 1822 or 1823, Eugène met Prosper Mérimée, a writer who would play a decisive role in his career. In 1825 he began his education in Fontenay-aux-Roses, he returned to Paris in 1829 as a student at the College de Bourbon. He passed his baccalaureate examination in 1830, his uncle urged him to enter the École des Beaux-Arts, created in 1806, but the École had an rigid system, based on copying classical models, Eugène was not interested. Instead he decided to get practical experience in the architectural offices of Jacques-Marie Huvé and Achille Leclère, while devoting much of his time to drawing medieval churches and monuments around Paris, he participated in the July 1830 revolution which overthrew Charles X, building a barricade, his first known construction project. Following the revolution, which brought Louis Philippe to power, his father became chief of the bureau of royal residences; the new government created, for the first time, the position of Inspector General of Historic Monuments.
Eugène's uncle Delescluze agreed to take Eugène on a long tour of France to see monuments. They traveled from July to October 1831 throughout the south of France, he returned with a large collection of detailed paintings and watercolors of churches and monuments. On his return to Paris, he moved with his family into the Tuileries Palace, where his father was now governor of royal residences, his family again urged him to attend the École des Beaux-Arts. He wrote, they all come out identical." He was a meticulous artist. On May 3, 1834, at age twenty, he married Élisabeth Templier, in the same year he was named an associate professor of ornamental decoration at the Royal School of Decorative Arts, which gave him a more regular income. With the money from the sale of his drawings and paintings, the couple set off on a long tour of the monuments of Italy, visiting Rome, Venice and other sites and painting, his reaction to the Leaning Tower of Pisa was characteristic: "It was disagreeable to see", he wrote, "it would have been infinitely better if it had been straight."
In 1838, he presented several of his drawings at the Paris Salon, began making a travel book and romantic images of the old France, for which, between 1838 and 1844, he made nearly three hundred engravings. In October 1838, with the recommendation of Achille Leclère, the architect with whom he had trained, he was named deputy inspector of the enlargement of the Hôtel Soubise, the new home of the French National Archives, his uncle, Delescluze recommended him to the new Commission of Historic Monuments of France, led by Prosper Mérimée, who had just published a book on medieval French monuments. Though he was just twenty-four years old and had no degree in architecture, he was asked to go to Narbonne to propose a plan for the completion of the cathedral there, he made his first plan, which included not only the completion but the restoration of the oldest parts of the structure. His first project was rejected by the local authorities too expensive, his next project was a restoration of the Vézelay Abbey, the church of a Benedictine monastery founded in the 12th century to house the reputed relics of Mary Magdalene.
The church had been sacked by the Huguenots in 1569, during the French Revolution, the facade and statuary on the facade were destroyed. The vaults of the roof were weakened, many of the stones had been carried off for other projects; when Mérimée visited to inspect the structure he heard stones falling around him. In February 1840 Mérimée gave Viollet-le-Duc the mission of restoring and reconstructing the church so it would not collapse, while "respecting in his project of restoration all the ancient dispositions of the church"; the task was all the more difficult because up until that time no scientific studies had been made of medieval building techniques, there were no schools of restoration. He had no plans for the original building to work from. Viollet-le-Duc had to discover the flaws of construction that had caused the building to start to collapse in the first place and to construct a more solid and stable structure, he lightened the roof and built new arches to stabilize the structure, changed the shape of the vaults and arches.
He was criticized for thes
La Reine Margot (novel)
La Reine Margot is a historical novel written in 1845 by Alexandre Dumas, père. Although La Reine Margot is based on real characters and events, certain aspects of the novel may be inconsistent with the historical record. Written in French, it was immediately translated into English, first anonymously and soon afterward by David Bogue as Marguerite de Valois: An Historical Romance; the story begins in Paris in August 1572, during the reign of the Valois King Charles IX, it is the French Wars of Religion. The protagonist is Marguerite de Valois, better known as Margot, the daughter of the deceased Henry II; the antagonist is the Margot's mother. Although Margot herself is excluded from the throne by the Salic Law, her marriage to a Protestant prince offers a chance for domestic reconciliation during the reign of the neurotic, hypochondriac King Charles IX, while Catholics are vying for political control of France with the French Protestants, the Huguenots. Catherine decides to make an overture of goodwill by offering up Margot in marriage to prominent Huguenot and King of Navarre, Henri de Bourbon, supposed to cement the hard-fought Peace of Saint-Germain.
At the same time, Catherine schemes to bring about the notorious St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre of 1572 and assassinate many of the most wealthy and prominent Huguenots, who are in the largely-Catholic city of Paris to escort the Protestant prince to his wedding; the massacre begins four days after the wedding ceremony, thousands of Protestants are slaughtered. The marriage goes ahead, but Margot, who does not love Henri, begins a passionate affair with the soldier La Môle a Protestant from a well-to-do family. Murders by poisoning follow, as court intrigues multiply and Catherine's villainous plotting to place her son, the future Henry III, on the throne threatens the lives of La Môle, Margot and Henri; the plot of the novel was or included in adaptations for film and television, which drew on the historical facts: La Reine Margot La Reine Margot La Reine Margot, a 1994 film starring Isabelle Adjani and Daniel Auteuil. The film was nominated for the Academy Award for Costume Design. Koroleva Margo, a 1996 TV Series directed by Aleksandr Muratov La reine Margot — Tome I at Project Gutenberg La reine Margot — Tome II at Project Gutenberg La Reine Margot, English translation at Google Books Google Library 1900 English language edition Marguerite de Valois public domain audiobook at LibriVox
Philip V of France
Philip V, knowns as the Tall, was King of France and Navarre. He reigned from 1316 to his death and was the fourteenth and penultimate monarch of the main line of the House of Capet; as the second son of king Philip IV, he was granted an appanage, the County of Poitiers, while his elder brother, Louis X, inherited the throne in 1314. When Louis died in 1316, he left Clementia of Hungary. Philip the Tall claimed the regency. Queen Clementia gave birth to a boy, proclaimed king as John I, but the infant king lived only for five days. At the death of his nephew, Philip had himself crowned at Reims. However, his legitimacy was challenged by the party of Louis X’s daughter Joan. Philip V contested her claims for a number of reasons, including her youth, doubts regarding her paternity, the Estates General's determination that women should be excluded from the line of succession to the French throne; the succession of Philip, instead of Joan, set the precedent for the French royal succession that would be famously known as the Salic law.
Philip V restored somewhat good relations with the County of Flanders, which had entered into open rebellion during his father’s rule, but his relations with Edward II of England worsened as the English king, Duke of Guyenne refused to pay him homage. A spontaneous popular crusade started in Normandy in 1320 aiming to liberate Iberia from the Moors. Instead the angry populace marched to the south attacking castles, royal officials, priests and Jews. Philip V engaged in a series of domestic reforms intended to improve the management of the kingdom; these reforms included the creation of an independent Court of Finances, the standardization of weights and measures, the establishment of a single currency. Philip V died from dysentery in 1322 without a male heir and was succeeded by his younger brother Charles IV. Philip was born in the second son of King Philip IV of France and Queen Joan I of Navarre, his father granted to him the county of Poitiers in appanage. Modern historians have described Philip V as a man of "considerable intelligence and sensitivity", the "wisest and politically most apt" of Philip IV's three sons.
Philip was influenced by the troubles and unrest that his father had encountered during 1314, as well as by the difficulties his older brother, Louis X, known as "the Quarreler", had faced during the intervening few years. At the heart of the problems for both Philip IV and Louis X were taxes and the difficulty in raising them outside of crises. Philip married Joan of Burgundy, the eldest daughter of Otto IV, Count of Burgundy and Mahaut, Countess of Artois, in 1307; the original plan had been for Louis X to marry Joan, but this was altered after Louis was engaged to Margaret of Burgundy. Modern scholars have found little evidence as to whether the marriage was a happy one, but the pair had a considerable number of children in a short space of time, Philip was exceptionally generous to Joan by the standards of the day. Philip went to great lengths not only to endow Joan with lands and money but to try to ensure that these gifts were irrevocable in the event of his early death. Amongst the various gifts were a palace, additional money for jewels, her servants and the property of all the Jews in Burgundy, which he gave to Joan in 1318.
Joan was implicated in Margaret's adultery case during 1314. Joan was suspected of having secretly known about the adultery. With Philip's support she continued to protest her innocence, by 1315 her name had been cleared by the Paris Parlement through Philip's influence, she was allowed to return to court, it is unclear. One theory has been that he was concerned that if he were to abandon Joan, he might lose Burgundy. Philip's older brother, Louis X, died in 1316 leaving the pregnant Clementia of Hungary as his widow. There were several potential candidates for the role of regent, including Charles of Valois and Duke Odo IV of Burgundy, but Philip outmanoeuvred them, being appointed regent himself. Philip remained as regent for the remainder of the pregnancy and for a few days after the birth of his nephew John I, who lived for only five days; the death of John I was unprecedented in the history of the Capetian Kings of France. For the first time, the king of France died without a male heir; the heir to the throne was now a subject of some dispute.
Joan, the remaining daughter of Louis X by Margaret of Burgundy, was one obvious candidate, but suspicion still hung over her as a result of the scandal in 1314, including concerns over her actual parentage. With only his niece between himself and the throne, Philip engaged in some rapid political negotiations and convinced Charles of Valois, who along with Odo IV was championing Joan's rights, to switch sides and support him instead. In exchange for marrying Philip's daughter, Odo IV abandoned his niece's cause, not only her claim to the French throne but her claim to Navarre's. On 9 January 1317, with Charles's support, Philip was hastily crowned at Rheims; the majority of the nobility, refused to attend, there were demonstrations in Champagne and Burgundy, Philip called a rapid assembly of the nobility