Ángel María Villar
Ángel María Villar Llona is a Spanish retired footballer who played as a midfielder. After having represented Athletic Bilbao during a full decade, he went on to serve an longer stint as president of the Spanish Football Federation. Villar was born in Bilbao and emerged through the youth ranks of local Athletic Bilbao, going on to make his senior debuts in amateur football, after which he returned in 1971. With the Basque side, he was an undisputed starter in nine of his ten seasons, helping them to two Copa del Rey finals and winning the 1973 edition. In March 1974, during a 0–0 La Liga home draw against FC Barcelona, Villar elbowed opposing superstar Johan Cruyff, as the Dutch was subject to severe man-marking by several Athletic players, he received a four-match ban for his actions, but the pair reconciled, Villar retired seven years with more than 350 competitive appearances for his main club. Villar played 22 times for Spain, his debut came on 17 October 1973 in a 0–0 friendly with Turkey, in Istanbul.
On 9 December 1979, his last cap, Villar helped the nation qualify for UEFA Euro 1980, netting in a 3–1 win in Cyprus. He did not participate, however, in any major international tournament. In 1979, still as an active player, Villar majored in law, would practice the activity during the following years, which he accumulated with several posts in the footballing hierarchies – he was one of the founders of the Association of Spanish Footballers in 1978. Having worked in the Royal Spanish Football Federation under president José Luis Roca, Villar was elected his successor in 1988, would stay in office for the following two decades, being in charge as the national team won Euro 2008. Villar occupied several roles within UEFA and FIFA, being named the organizations' vice president in 1992 and 2002. Following Spain's controversial exit at the 2002 FIFA World Cup, he left his post at the latter, but was named, amongst others, for the presidency of the Referees' Committee. Villar led the unsuccessful Portugal 2018 World Cup bid.
On 16 February 2012, he was elected for his seventh term at the helm of the Spanish Federation, remaining in office until 2016. Following the suspension of Michel Platini in October 2015, Villar became UEFA's acting president; the following month, he was fined 25,000 Swiss francs and warned by the FIFA Ethics Committee for failing to cooperate with the investigation into the bidding process of the 2018 World Cup. On 18 July 2017, Villar was arrested on suspicion of embezzling funds. Nine days he resigned from his post at both FIFA and UEFA. Villar's niece, María Villar Galaz, was kidnapped and murdered in Toluca, Mexico in September 2016. Athletic Bilbao Copa del Rey: 1972–73.
Hong Kong national football team
The Hong Kong national football team represents Hong Kong in international association football competitions such as the FIFA World Cup, AFC Asian Cup and East Asian Football Championship. The team is represented and supervised by the Hong Kong Football Association, the governing body for football in Hong Kong. Before Hong Kong became a member of FIFA in 1954, Hong Kong started to play Hong Kong–Macau Interport tournament in 1937, one of the oldest competition that co-held by Hong Kong as well as still continuously to play. There were other interport tournaments in the past, such as Shanghai-Hong Kong Interport, first held in 1908. At that time the team was composed of ethnic Chinese as well as western expatriates, such as the 1935 and 1937 edition of Shanghai-Hong Kong Interport. There was another Interport tournament against Saigon; the aforementioned Macau and Saigon were not a member of FIFA nor a sovereign nation at that time, which only Hong Kong and Macau had joined FIFA in 1954 and 1978 respectively.
The China national football team that participated in 1936 and 1948 Summer Olympics, were composed of ethnic Chinese players from Hong Kong, most famously Lee Wai Tong. After the WWII, number of Shanghai-based players started to represent Hong Kong, such as Chang King Hai and Hsu King Shing. Hong Kong played its first international match against South Korea, its first victory came in a 4 -- 0 win against South Korea. Hong Kong FA became a member of FIFA and the Asian Football Confederation since 1954. Since Hong Kong played their first FIFA-recognized international match against other countries. HKFA sent a scratch team for 1957 Merdeka Tournament, composed of players from Eastern due to their proximity, plus few players from other clubs; the club was having a pre-season tour in South Asia, thus the HKFA invited the club to represent Hong Kong. However, some of the players were in fact ineligible to Hong Kong, as they were ROC international players. Hong Kong qualified for three of the first four editions of the Asian Cup, including a third-place finish in the 1956 edition as host.
At that time, most Hong Kong players represented Republic of China, they finished third in the Asian Cup in the 1960 edition, leaving more inferior players to the proper Hong Kong team. The Republic of China team won the Football at the 1954 Asian Games and Football at the 1958 Asian Games. Hong Kong has never qualified for the World Cup. However, its most celebrated victory happened during 1986 World Cup qualifying. On 19 May 1985, in Beijing, Hong Kong faced China in the final match of the first qualifying round, where Hong Kong needed a win to advance while China needed only a draw. Hong Kong, led by coach Kwok Ka Ming, produced a 2–1 upset win, with goals from Cheung Chi Tak and Ku Kam Fai, thereby winning the group and advancing to the knockout stage, where it subsequently lost to Japan; the year 2009 could be a turning point in the diminishing football standards of Hong Kong. On 12 December, Hong Kong defeated Japan and took their first East Asian Games football gold medal in the first major competition Hong Kong football team have won.
This unexpected and surprising result, raised the belief that the Hong Kong football team could perform for football lovers in Hong Kong. The Hong Kong football team won the 2010 Long Teng Cup and 2011 Long Teng Cup. A short football fever had appeared during 2018 World Cup qualifying in Hong Kong, as Hong Kong had drawn into the same group with their fierce rival, China. Due to the tensions built by Hong Kong–Mainland China conflict, many local citizens concerned about this year's campaign, all four home matches were recorded as a sellout. Hong Kong ended the campaign with 4 victories against Bhutan and Maldives, 2 scoreless drawn against China, 2 lost against Qatar. Qatar and China qualified for the next round. For some of the friendly matches and the minor qualification matches, the Hong Kong team most play at the Mong Kok Stadium in Kowloon, re-opened in 2011 after a renovation. Moreover, the 2018 edition of Lunar New Year Cup, was held in Mong Kok; the cup was a local traditions to celebrate Chinese New Year, held in the Government Stadium in the past.
Jockey Club HKFA Football Training Centre is the main training ground for the Hong Kong national football team and youth teams. Only record the result that affect the FIFA/Coca-Cola World Ranking The FIFA Ranking Points showing below is just show as the reference for the points that Hong Kong gain at that time, does not show the affecting of weight. Win Draw Loss The following players have been selected to the preliminary squad for the 2019 EAFF E-1 Football Championship Second preliminary round on 11 to 16 November 2018 respectively. Caps and goals as of 16 November 2018, after the match against Mongolia. Players shown below are listed descendingly on their position, caps and age; the following players have been called up for the team within the last twelve months. NotesINJ Player withdrew from the squad due to an injuryPRE Preliminary squadRET Player retired from international football Players in bold are still active at international level. Players with an equal number of caps are ranked in chronological order of reaching the milestone.
Goalscorers with an equal number of goals are ranked with the highest to lowest goals per game ratio. ^ = Minimum 10 Goals Only record the players who were named as captains for the international official competitions. Last updated: Hong Kong 5-1 Mongolia, 16 November 2018. Statistics include international "A" matches only. See comprehensive article: Hong Kong national football team - record in qualifying and major tournaments De
Football in Gibraltar
Football has been a popular part of sport in Gibraltar since its introduction by British military personnel in the 19th century. The Gibraltar Football Association, founded in 1895, is one of the ten oldest active football associations in the world. Football was introduced to the civilian population of Gibraltar by the British Armed Forces in the late 19th century, it is not known when the first civilian football teams were formed, but the earliest records mention that the Prince of Wales F. C. existed in 1892, the Gibraltar F. C. was formed in November 1893. Between 1895 and 1907, the only known football competition organised by the Gibraltar Civilian Football Association was the Merchants Cup; the cup was donated each year by the Merchants of Gibraltar. The first Cup Final was between the Gibraltar F. C. and the Jubilee F. C. and was witnessed by 1,500 spectators. In 1902, the military authorities in Gibraltar designated one of their four football grounds at North Front as a civilian ground. Before this there was no civilian football grounds in Gibraltar, so the only way the Gibraltar Civilian Football Association could practice outside the annual Merchants Cup was by playing friendly matches against the military teams whenever possible.
The Gibraltar Football League was set up in October 1907. The military had well-established league and cup competitions before this, but local civil teams were not allowed to compete in them; the first league competition saw eight teams competing, with Prince of Wales F. C. being the winner. The growing success of the league and cup competitions was reflected in the increasing number of new teams that were registering with the association; such was the increase in participating teams that a Second Division was added in 1909, in 1910 the association was organising separate leagues and cup competitions for senior and junior divisions. This continuously growing interest in football in Gibraltar was reflected in the association's affiliation with The Football Association in 1909. Up until 2005-06, the league operated a Third Division, however the loss of several reserve teams that dominated the Second Division led to the two divisions merging. Years the Gibraltar Civilian Football Association changed its name to the Gibraltar Football Association.
The period between 1949 and 1955 is regarded as the "Golden era" for football in Gibraltar. It was during this time that world-renowned teams such as Real Madrid C. F. Atlético Madrid, Real Valladolid and Admira Wacker among many others were arriving on The Rock to play against the national team who acquitted themselves admirably against professionals despite being amateurs; the Gibraltar national football team has a long history competing against teams of visiting British military personnel. The highlight of their existence to date was a draw with Real Madrid C. F. in 1949 at a time when the Spanish club were about to enter a period of European dominance. On the most part though, they compete in smaller matches against non-sovereign national teams. Gibraltar won the championship at the 2007 Island Games, held in Rhodes; the Gibraltar national team play their matches, as do most of the clubs in the territory, at the 5,000 capacity FIFA approved and licensed Victoria Stadium. On 8 January 1997 the GFA applied for FIFA membership, in March 1999 FIFA confirmed that the GFA fulfilled the requirements of Article 4.7 of the FIFA Statutes and passed their file onto UEFA.
On 12 April 1999 the GFA applied for membership in UEFA. This would have allowed them to join the qualifiers for the European Football Championships and enter teams in European club competition; this drew a hostile reception from the Royal Spanish Football Federation, whose government opposes any suggestion that Gibraltar is in fact a separate territory and not part of Spain. Spanish authorities waged a campaign of virulent opposition to their application, causing it to be rejected by officials on the grounds that it did not meet their criteria. In 2002 UEFA had stipulated that future members would have to be sovereign nations, despite a number of their existing members failing to meet this requirement. After a legal challenge, a ruling by the Court of Arbitration for Sport in 2006 insisted that UEFA had to accept the GFA as any other member, as the application had come before the new criteria had been put in place and the rejection had political overtones, which are discouraged in sport. UEFA awarded the GFA associate member status along with Montenegro and deferred the matter to the 2007 Congress in Düsseldorf, Germany.
Spanish delegates had for some months, by attempting to secure support for their position been threatening to withdraw Spanish teams from UEFA competitions if Gibraltar was approved. This tactic was successful - winning the vote 45 to 3, with 5 abstentions. Gibraltar's application was at this point thrown out, while Montenegro was unanimously granted membership. On 3 October 2012, UEFA again granted Gibraltar provisional membership and deferred the matter about full membership to the next Congress, to be held in London in May 2013; the decision was taken to admit Gibraltar to UEFA. On 24 May 2013, Gibraltar became the 54th member of UEFA, with a team in the UEFA Champions League from the 2014/15 season. UEFA confirmed that due to the political dispute with Spain, the two countries would be kept apart in qualifying competitions. On 23 February 2014, Gibraltar were drawn against Germany, Scotland, the Republic of Ireland and Georgia in the qualifying rounds for UEFA Euro 2016 On the 13 May 2016, Gibraltar was granted FIFA membership so they can enter for the World Cup.
They were placed in G
A pillar box is a type of free-standing post box. They are found in the United Kingdom and in most former nations of the British Empire, members of the Commonwealth of Nations and British overseas territories, such as Australia, India, Hong Kong, the Republic of Ireland, New Zealand and Sri Lanka. Pillar boxes were provided in territories administered by the United Kingdom, such as Mandatory Palestine, territories with agency postal services provided by the British Post Office such as Bahrain, Dubai and Morocco; the United Kingdom exported pillar boxes to countries that ran their own postal services, such as Argentina and Uruguay. Mail is deposited in pillar boxes to be collected by the Royal Mail, An Post or the appropriate postal operator and forwarded to the addressee; the boxes have been in use since 1852, just twelve years after the introduction of the first adhesive postage stamps and uniform penny post. Mail may be deposited in lamp boxes or wall boxes that serve the same purpose as pillar boxes but are attached to a post or set into a wall.
According to the Letter Box Study Group, there are more than 150 recognised designs and varieties of pillar boxes and wall boxes, not all of which have known surviving examples. The red post box is regarded as a British cultural icon. Royal Mail estimates. Most traditional British pillar boxes are cylindrical. Other shapes have been used: the hexagonal Penfolds, rectangular boxes that have not proved to be popular, an oval shape, used for the large "double aperture" boxes most seen in large cities like London and Dublin. In recent years boxes manufactured in glass-fibre or acrylonitrile butadiene styrene plastic have been produced that do not follow these general outlines; these are for use in secure indoor locations such as supermarkets. Cast iron pillar box construction comprises three distinct main parts: The cap sits on top of the carcass and is bolted down from inside; some designs after 1965 do not have a separate cap. Caps can be fitted with a separate bracket of cast iron, which supports a Post Office Direction sign indicating the nearest Post Office.
The door contains the posting slot. It is hinged, should display the royal cypher of the reigning monarch and may be fitted with a collection plate showing the times of collection from that location, it is fitted with a brass security lock on the inside. The contractor for these locks has been the Chubb Locks company for many years, they are five-lever locks and each one can exhibit more than 6,500 combinations. There is no skeleton key for these locks; each post box has its own set of keys and postal workers have to carry large bunches with them when clearing the boxes. The carcass or body of the box that supports the door and cap, may protrude down below ground level; this provides stability to the pillar box. There is a wirework cage inside to prevent mail falling out when the door is opened, a hinged letter chute to allow mail to fall into the collecting bag or sack and a serrated hand-guard to prevent unauthorised tampering with the mail through the aperture. Before the introduction of pillar boxes, in the UK, it was customary to take outgoing mail to the nearest letter-receiving house or post office.
Such houses were coaching inns or turnpike houses where the Royal Mail coach would stop to pick up and set down mails and passengers. People took their letters, in person, to the receiver, or postmaster, purchased a stamp and handed over the letter; the advent of the British wayside letter box can be traced to Sir Rowland Hill, Secretary of the Post Office, his Surveyor for the Western District, noted novelist, Anthony Trollope. Hill sent Trollope to the Channel Islands to ascertain what could be done about the problem of collecting the mail on a pair of islands; the problems identified in the Channel Islands were caused by the irregular sailing times of the Royal Mail packet boats serving the islands due to weather and tides. Trollope subsequently arrived in Jersey in the early Spring of 1852 and proceeded to survey both islands, his recommendation back to Hill was to employ a device he may have seen in use in Paris: a “letter-receiving pillar”. It was to be painted olive green. Trollope estimated that four would be needed for five for Jersey.
The foundry of Vaudin & Son in Jersey was commissioned to produce them and the first four were erected in David Place, New Street, Cheapside and St Clement's Road in Saint Helier and brought into public use on 23 November 1852. Guernsey received its first three pillar boxes on 8 February 1853, they were an instant success, despite some obvious problems with rainwater ingress. One Vaudin box still stands in Union Street, Saint Peter Port, Guernsey whilst another is in the British Postal Museum & Archive collection in London; the first boxes erected in the UK are not recorded, but the designs varied from area to area as each district surveyor issued their own specifications and tendered to their own chosen foundries. The earliest ones were experimental, including octagonal pillars or fluted columns, vertical slits instead of horizontal ones, other unusual features, it is recorded in the Post Office archives that the first box in the UK was erected in Botchergate, Carlisle in 1853. This fact is commemorated today with a replica Penfold box, located between the Market Cross and the Old Town Hall, in Carlisle city centre.
The first six in London were installed on 11 April 1855. The earliest surviving UK designs are four Butt boxes made in Gloucester
Faroe Islands national football team
The Faroe Islands national football team, represents the Faroe Islands in association football and is controlled by the Faroe Islands Football Association. The Faroe Islands became a member of FIFA in 1988 and UEFA in 1990 and is the fourth smallest UEFA country by population. Faroe Islands have never advanced to the finals of the FIFA World UEFA European Championship, they won both tournaments. They took part in the Nordic Football Championship for the first time in 2000–01, the last time the competition was played. In the Faroe Islands the team is known as the landsliðið. Home matches are played at Tórsvøllur. From 1930 to 1988, before international membership, the Faroe Islands only played national friendly matches against Iceland, Orkney Islands and Denmark U-21. None of these fixtures were considered official either by FIFA, nor the Faroe Islands Football Association; the Faroe Islands are the most successful team of the friendly tournament known as the Greenland Cup, with two cup victories in 1983 and 1984.
The Faroe Islands gained membership of FIFA on 2 July 1988 and joined UEFA on 18 April 1990. The first official victory was a 1–0 win, in a friendly against Canada in 1989. Faroe Islands participated in two Island Games, winning both tournaments in 1989 and 1991, they never entered the tournament again, as the opponent teams were considered too weak a match for the Faroese side. Faroe Islands pulled one of the biggest upsets in footballing history when they beat Austria 1–0 in their first competitive international on 12 September 1990; the game, a Euro 92 qualifier, was played in Landskrona, because there were no grass pitches on the Islands. Torkil Nielsen, a salesman for his local builders company scored the goal. 32 year old national coach Páll Guðlaugsson became a folk hero overnight, is today remembered by his players as a fearless character, who always believed that the Faroe Islands could get a result against the bigger nations. In his self-biography, national goalkeeper Jens Martin Knudsen revealed that Guðlaugsson held a stunning pre-match speech, that boosted the players confidence prior to the match against the Austrians.
Guðlaugsson pre-match speech goes. Your flag. Take it with you on that field. Throw yourself into the tackles against those arrogant Austrians with one mission – to win the game for your nation. Tonight you pay back your childhood home. You have the opportunity now and it is an irreparable blow if you don't seize it!" The win was against all odds and to this day, this is the story about Faroese football – and the story about sports in the Faroe Islands. American sports magazine Soccerphile rated the Faroese victory number 10 of all-time football greatest upsets. One month the Faroe Islands lost 4–1 to Denmark at Parken, Copenhagen; the same team got another good result in the qualifying tournament, when they drew 1–1 against Northern Ireland at Windsor Park on 1 May 1991. The Faroe Islands lost the remaining five matches of the tournament. Since Landskrona, Faroese football stepped up to the challenge, regurlarly getting good results against better teams. However, it was a surprise to many around Europe when Allan Simonsen in 1994 was appointed the new coach for the Faroese national team.
Having had a playing career in Borussia Mönchengladbach and F. C. Barcelona, many thought that the European footballer of the year in 1977, was too big a name for such a small nation. Allan Simonsen was in charge of the Faroese team for seven years, is still today considered as the coach who lifted the Faroese amateurs to a more professional level. Among other things he asked the Football Association to lengthen the season, asked the clubs for fitter players. Of which both were granted, are today considered an essential part if the Faroese national team is to compete at the highest level. Under the guidance of Allan Simonsen the Faroe Islands won two Euro 1996 qualifiers matches against San Marino, they played. In 2002, former Danish international Henrik Larsen, succeeded his countryman, Allan Simonsen, as head coach of the Faroe Islands national team, it was important for the Football Association to get a well known and respected name in Europe, got what they wanted in Larsen, who won the UEFA Euro 1992 with Denmark as a player.
On 7 September 2002 in their first match together, an experienced Faroese team played Scotland at home in a Euro 2004 qualifier. The game ended 2 -- 2. In the same qualifying tournament, Faroe Islands caused a big upset against Germany in HDI-Arena in Hannover on 16 October 2002. For the Faroes, the post denied them a draw in the dying seconds of the match, the game ended 2–1 to the German side. However, they managed one more draw against Cyprus on 9 October 2004 in the 2006 World Cup Qualifying. In 2006, the Faroe Islands got their first Faroese coach. Jógvan Martin Olsen from Toftir had been the assistant coach for the Faroese national team for nine years upon appointment. Many experienced players, regulars in the national squad for years, quit the national team at the same time. Olsen main task was to build a new team with a new generation of players; this affected the results, the Faroe Islands got zero points in the Eu
Court of Arbitration for Sport
The Court of Arbitration for Sport is an international quasi-judicial body established to settle disputes related to sport through arbitration. Its headquarters are in Lausanne and its courts are located in New York City and Lausanne. Temporary courts are established in current Olympic host cities. Speaking, a dispute may be submitted to the CAS only if there is an arbitration agreement between the parties which specifies recourse to the CAS. However, according to rule 61 of the Olympic Charter, all disputes in connection with the Olympic Games can only be submitted to CAS, all Olympic International Federations have recognised the jurisdiction of CAS for at least some disputes. Through compliance with the 2009 World Anti-Doping Code, all signatories, including all Olympic International Federations and National Olympic Committees, have recognised the jurisdiction of CAS for anti-doping rule violations. Starting in 2016, an anti-doping division of CAS judges doping cases at the Olympic Games, replacing the IOC disciplinary commission.
These decisions can be appealed to CAS's ad hoc court in the Olympic host city or, if the ad hoc court is no longer available, to the permanent CAS. The inaugural anti-doping division handled eight cases, of which seven were doping cases within its jurisdiction; as a Swiss arbitration organization, decisions of the CAS can be appealed to the Federal Supreme Court of Switzerland. Appeals of arbitration decisions are not successful, no evaluation of the merits is taking place and the evaluation is based on whether procedural requirements have been met, whether the award is incompatible with public policy; as of March 2012 there have been seven successful appeals. Six of the upheld appeals were procedural in nature, only once has the Federal Supreme Court overruled a CAS decision on the merits of the case; this was in the case of a Brazilian football player. The Federal Court of Justice of Germany ruled against the German speed-skater Claudia Pechstein, recognising a lack of jurisdiction to revisit her case.
The Federal Court ruled that CAS met the requirements of a court of arbitration according to German law, that CAS's independence from the parties was secured by the method of selecting arbitrators and the possibility to appeal to the Swiss Federal Tribunal. With the intermixing of sports and politics, the body was conceived by International Olympic Committee president Juan Antonio Samaranch to deal with disputes arising during the Olympics, it was established as part of the IOC in 1984. In 1992, the case of Gundel v. La Fédération Equestre Internationale was decided by the CAS, appealed to the Federal Supreme Court of Switzerland, challenging CAS impartiality; the Swiss court ruled that the CAS was a true court of arbitration but drew attention to the numerous links between the CAS and the IOC. In response, the CAS underwent reforms to make itself more independent of the IOC, both organizationally and financially; the biggest change resulting from this reform was the creation of an "International Council of Arbitration for Sport" to look after the running and financing of the CAS, thereby taking the place of the IOC.
As of 2004, most recent cases that were considered by the CAS dealt with transfer disputes within professional association football or with doping. The Court of Arbitration for Sport is planning to move its headquarters from the Château de Béthusy to the south part of the Palais de Beaulieu. In March 2011, the CAS decided its first case on athlete biological passports when it suspended two Italian cyclists, Franco Pellizotti and Pietro Caucchioli, for two years based on evidence from their blood profiles. Prior to that, the case of skater Claudia Pechstein had been decided on similar grounds. Writing in the 2011/2 CAS Bulletin regarding the institution of the ABP program, CAS Counsel Despina Mavromati differentiated between the two types of cases and wrote:It is noteworthy that CAS had issued an award suspending an athlete based on the longitudinal profiling of the biological markers before the adoption of the ABP by the IFs: in CAS 2009/A/1912 & 1913, the Panel suspended an Olympic athlete after the biological data showed irregular blood values.
According to CAS, those abnormal values were not caused by an error occurred in a laboratory, as the athlete asserted, but due to the banned manipulation of the athlete’s blood. The essential difference between ABP judgments and the CAS 2009/A/1912 & 1913 consists in that in the latter case the athlete’s blood data was drawn from a sample the athlete gave at the federations championships and therefore not from data gathered by an official systematic program run by the athlete’s union. In 2001, the court decided the case of Andreea International Olympic Committee; this was a controversial anti-doping case, where it was clear the athlete received cold and flu tablets from her doctor. This resulted in a positive urine test, with the court concluding: "The Panel is aware of the impact its decision will have on a fine, elite athlete, it finds, in balancing the interests of Miss Raducan with the commitment of the Olympic Movement to drugfree sport, the Anti-Doping Code must be enforced without compromise.”
The court is reluctant to overturn field of play decisions, though it may do so in cases where there is clear evidence that the officials acted in bad faith or with arbitrariness. In CAS 2010/A/2090, the CAS Panel explained that the reason for this is not a matter of jurisdiction, but of arbitral self-restraint. In October 2011, in a case affecting the 2012 Summer Olympics, the court declared that a part of the Olympic Charter vio
The British Broadcasting Corporation is a British public service broadcaster. Its headquarters are at Broadcasting House in Westminster, it is the world's oldest national broadcasting organisation and the largest broadcaster in the world by number of employees, it employs over 20,950 staff in total. The total number of staff is 35,402 when part-time and fixed-contract staff are included; the BBC is established under a Royal Charter and operates under its Agreement with the Secretary of State for Digital, Culture and Sport. Its work is funded principally by an annual television licence fee, charged to all British households and organisations using any type of equipment to receive or record live television broadcasts and iPlayer catch-up; the fee is set by the British Government, agreed by Parliament, used to fund the BBC's radio, TV, online services covering the nations and regions of the UK. Since 1 April 2014, it has funded the BBC World Service, which broadcasts in 28 languages and provides comprehensive TV, online services in Arabic and Persian.
Around a quarter of BBC revenues come from its commercial arm BBC Studios Ltd, which sells BBC programmes and services internationally and distributes the BBC's international 24-hour English-language news services BBC World News, from BBC.com, provided by BBC Global News Ltd. From its inception, through the Second World War, to the 21st century, the BBC has played a prominent role in British culture, it is known colloquially as "The Beeb", "Auntie", or a combination of both. Britain's first live public broadcast from the Marconi factory in Chelmsford took place in June 1920, it was sponsored by the Daily Mail's Lord Northcliffe and featured the famous Australian soprano Dame Nellie Melba. The Melba broadcast caught the people's imagination and marked a turning point in the British public's attitude to radio. However, this public enthusiasm was not shared in official circles where such broadcasts were held to interfere with important military and civil communications. By late 1920, pressure from these quarters and uneasiness among the staff of the licensing authority, the General Post Office, was sufficient to lead to a ban on further Chelmsford broadcasts.
But by 1922, the GPO had received nearly 100 broadcast licence requests and moved to rescind its ban in the wake of a petition by 63 wireless societies with over 3,000 members. Anxious to avoid the same chaotic expansion experienced in the United States, the GPO proposed that it would issue a single broadcasting licence to a company jointly owned by a consortium of leading wireless receiver manufactures, to be known as the British Broadcasting Company Ltd. John Reith, a Scottish Calvinist, was appointed its General Manager in December 1922 a few weeks after the company made its first official broadcast; the company was to be financed by a royalty on the sale of BBC wireless receiving sets from approved domestic manufacturers. To this day, the BBC aims to follow the Reithian directive to "inform and entertain"; the financial arrangements soon proved inadequate. Set sales were disappointing as amateurs made their own receivers and listeners bought rival unlicensed sets. By mid-1923, discussions between the GPO and the BBC had become deadlocked and the Postmaster-General commissioned a review of broadcasting by the Sykes Committee.
The Committee recommended a short term reorganisation of licence fees with improved enforcement in order to address the BBC's immediate financial distress, an increased share of the licence revenue split between it and the GPO. This was to be followed by a simple 10 shillings licence fee with no royalty once the wireless manufactures protection expired; the BBC's broadcasting monopoly was made explicit for the duration of its current broadcast licence, as was the prohibition on advertising. The BBC was banned from presenting news bulletins before 19.00 and was required to source all news from external wire services. Mid-1925 found the future of broadcasting under further consideration, this time by the Crawford committee. By now, the BBC, under Reith's leadership, had forged a consensus favouring a continuation of the unified broadcasting service, but more money was still required to finance rapid expansion. Wireless manufacturers were anxious to exit the loss making consortium with Reith keen that the BBC be seen as a public service rather than a commercial enterprise.
The recommendations of the Crawford Committee were published in March the following year and were still under consideration by the GPO when the 1926 general strike broke out in May. The strike temporarily interrupted newspaper production, with restrictions on news bulletins waived, the BBC became the primary source of news for the duration of the crisis; the crisis placed the BBC in a delicate position. On one hand Reith was acutely aware that the Government might exercise its right to commandeer the BBC at any time as a mouthpiece of the Government if the BBC were to step out of line, but on the other he was anxious to maintain public trust by appearing to be acting independently; the Government was divided on how to handle the BBC but ended up trusting Reith, whose opposition to the strike mirrored the PM's own. Thus the BBC was granted sufficient leeway to pursue the Government's objectives in a manner of its own choosing; the resulting coverage of both striker and government viewpoints impressed millions of listeners who were unaware that the PM had broadcast to the nation from Reith's home, using one of Reith's sound bites inserted at the last moment