Coat of arms of Gibraltar
The coat of arms of Gibraltar was first granted by a Royal Warrant passed in Toledo on 10 July 1502 by Isabella I of Castile during Gibraltar's Spanish period. The arms consists of an escutcheon and features a three-towered red castle under which hangs a golden key; the arms were described in the Royal Warrant as consisting of: "...an escutcheon on which two thirds of its upper part shall have a white field. The arms consist of a shield parted per fess: 1st Division: Two thirds Argent, a triple-towered castle of Gules and ajouré of Sable. 2nd Division: One third Gules, a key of Or hanging by a chain of Or from the castle. The castle has its roots in the heraldry of the Kingdom of Castile, the largest and most important medieval Spanish kingdom, of which Isabella was Queen; the preamble to the warrant granting the coat of arms to Gibraltar said: "...and we, deeming it right, acknowledging that the said City is strong and by its situation it is the key between these our kingdoms in the Eastern and Western Seas and the sentinel and defence of the Strait of the said Seas through which no ships of peoples of either of these Seas can pass to the other without sighting it or calling at it."
The idea of Gibraltar being the key to Spain or the Mediterranean originated well before the Spanish conquest. The followers of Tariq ibn Ziyad, who invaded Spain via Gibraltar in 711, are said to have adopted the symbol of the key when they settled in Granada; the coat of arms was accompanied by the inscription "Seal of the noble city of Gibraltar, the Key of Spain". Today, the official coat of arms as used by the government of Gibraltar consists of the original coat of arms with the addition of the motto Montis Insignia Calpe, granted by the College of Arms in 1836 to commemorate the 1779-83 Great Siege of Gibraltar, it is the oldest coat of arms in use in an overseas territory of the United Kingdom and is unique in that it is the only armorial insignia that dates from before the period of British colonial administration. The arms differ from the seal of Gibraltar, an image of the Rock of Gibraltar with a sailing ship in the forefront. There is no evidence available as to. From 1982, a banner of the arms has been used as the flag of Gibraltar.
The arms appear in the flag of the governor of Gibraltar. The arms of the government of Gibraltar are the same as the royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom combined with a badge featuring the coat of arms of Gibraltar. A similar coat of arms is in use by the nearby Spanish municipality of San Roque, using a different version of the same main heraldic elements, with the addition of the old Spanish Royal Crown above the escutcheon; when Gibraltar was captured by an Anglo-Dutch force on behalf of the pretender to the Spanish Throne, the Archduke Charles, in 1704, the city council and much of the population established a new town near the existing chapel of Saint Roch to the west of Gibraltar, The Royal Warrant of 1502 which granted the coat of arms was taken by the city council to San Roque along with Gibraltar's standard and records, is now in the San Roque municipal archives. The establishment became a new town in 1706, addressed by King Philip V of Spain as "My city of Gibraltar resident in its Campo", becoming the Spanish Gibraltar.
Therefore, they kept the old coat of arms granted to Gibraltar in 1502. In 2015, the Commonwealth of the Municipalities of the Campo de Gibraltar adopted a coat of arms and a flag; this new coat of arms shows the elements of the coat of arms of Gibraltar with seven green stars that represent the municipalities of the Commonwealth, two equal horizontal stripes with the colors of this organisation, a bordure Or with its motto PRO GEOGRAPHIA, HISTORIA ET VOLUNTATE CONIVNCTI. The modern Spanish Royal Crown is used as heraldic crest. List of coats of arms of Gibraltar List of coats of arms of the United Kingdom and dependencies History of Gibraltar Spanish heraldry
Grand Casemates Square
Grand Casemates Square is the larger of the two main squares within the city centre of Gibraltar. The square takes its name from the British-built Grand Casemates, a casemate and bombproof barracks at the northern end of the square completed in 1817. Located at the northern end of Main Street, the square is lined with numerous pubs and restaurants and acts as the gateway into Gibraltar's city centre for most tourists. Grand Casemates Square dates back to Gibraltar's Moorish period when the place was first fortified, making it as old as the city itself; the square is built on sand, once a beach. In May 1160 Moroccans sent by the Almohad ruler Abd al-Mu'min landed to lay the foundations of the first substantial settlement; this "City of Victory" was small and included the area within the Moorish Castle and the land just below. It was this new ruler; this land was an intertidal zone used by the Muslims to beach their galleys. After the Siege of Gibraltar in 1309, Ferdinand IV of Castile gave orders that a galley house be built where his ships could be repaired.
This house sank into the sand over the next few centuries. In the late 15th century a gate in the wall near Water Gate was opened to let galleys in; the building of the Old Mole in the 1570s led to the passage silting and the galley house became unusable. The area of Grand Casemates Square formed part of the old town Spanish: Villa Vieja during Spanish times, being walled with its own gates and towers. Early 17th century plans refer to this area as La Barcina. Following the problems the Spanish faced with the buildings sinking into the soft wet ground, the British began to construct fortress walls and battlements on higher, more solid ground. In 1770, chief engineer William Green began preparatory work for the construction of Grand Casemates as bombproof barracks on the square's northern flank. However, its construction was not started until after the Great Siege of 1779-1783 and it was finished in 1817 under the governorship of General Sir George Don. After the Great Siege the British decided to demolish most buildings within the square which had suffered great damage.
This opened up the area into an esplanade which could be used for public events such military parades and public executions. Grand Casemates Square was once the site of public military hangings, with the last one being held in 1864. Following excavations during the refurbishment of the square in the 1990s, archeological remains of a galley house were unearthed; these foundations are still on display in the square. Nowadays Grand Casemates Square has become a commercial hub housing numerous pubs, bars and shops following the refurbishment of the square in the 1990s to replace a car park which occupied half the square; the square is used to host various cultural events from live open-air concerts, to National Day celebrations. In 2012 the square was host to celebration for Elizabeth II's Diamond Jubilee celebration, attended by the Earl and Countess of Wessex. Monuments found within the square include: Gibraltar Defence Force Koehler gun Grand Casemates Grand Casemates Gates Main Street, Gibraltar John Mackintosh Square Benady, Tito.
The Streets of Gibraltar. Gibraltar Books. Pp. 17–18. ISBN 0-948466-37-5. Http://www.mancomunidadcg.es/IECG/doc/revistas/Almoraima%2025-Articulo%2017.pdf
A national day is a designated date on which celebrations mark the nationhood of a nation or non-sovereign country. This nationhood can be symbolized by the date of independence, of becoming a republic or a significant date for a patron saint or a ruler; the day is not called "National Day" but serves and can be considered as one. The national day will be a national holiday. Many countries have more than one national day. Most countries have a fixed-date national day. An example is Jamaica; this commemorated independence from the United Kingdom, attained on Monday, 6 August 1962, the first Monday in August of that year. Israel's Independence Day is not fixed relative to the civil Gregorian calendar, being formally linked to 5 Iyar on the Jewish calendar, but may be moved to any day between 3 and 6 Iyar in order to avoid preparing for or celebrating either Independence Day or Memorial Day on Shabbat. Another example is Thailand; this date will change on the accession of the heir to the throne. Most national days can be categorized in two large blocks: Newer countries that celebrate their national day as the day of their independence.
Older countries that use some other event of special significance as their national day. Denmark and the United Kingdom are among the few countries that do not have designated national days. Importance attached to the national day as well as the degree to which it is celebrated vary from country to country. For example, Spain's national day Fiesta Nacional de España is held on 12 October, the day celebrated in other countries as Columbus Day or Día de la Raza, commemorates the anniversary of Christopher Columbus's arrival in the Americas. A military parade is held in Madrid celebrating the occasion; the national day in France is 14 July and known as the Fête nationale commemorating the Storming of the Bastille, considered the start of the French Revolution. It is celebrated and the French Tricolour is much in evidence, while the President of the Republic attends a military parade on the Champs-Élysées of Paris. In the United States, the Independence Day celebrations on 4 July are celebrated with parades, fireworks and barbecues.
In Ireland, Saint Patrick's Day, 17 March, is the equivalent of a national day and has been a public holiday for many years. However, in the United Kingdom the constituent countries' patron saints' days are low-key affairs. In recent times campaigns have commenced to promote the national days of England and Wales, with St. Andrew's Day being designated as an official bank holiday when the Scottish Parliament passed the St Andrew's Day Bank Holiday Act 2007. A National Day for the United Kingdom has been proposed in recent years; some countries may celebrate their national day with a parade. Notable examples include the Singapore National Day Parade. Regions that are not broadly recognized sovereign states are shown in pink. For regions controlled by sovereign states, the name of the sovereign state is shown in parentheses. Days that are not fixed to the Gregorian calendar are sorted by their 2019 occurrences. Public holiday Flag Day Independence Day Liberation day Civil religion National Holiday Fête nationale Republic Day Victory Day
Fireworks are a class of low explosive pyrotechnic devices used for aesthetic and entertainment purposes. The most common use of a firework is as part of a fireworks display, a display of the effects produced by firework devices. Fireworks competitions are regularly held at a number of places. Fireworks take many forms to produce the four primary effects: noise, light and floating materials, they may be designed to burn with colored flames and sparks including red, yellow, blue and silver. Displays are common throughout the world and are the focal point of many cultural and religious celebrations. Fireworks are classified as to where they perform, either as a ground or aerial firework. In the latter case they may be shot into the air by a mortar; the most common feature of fireworks is a paper or pasteboard tube or casing filled with the combustible material pyrotechnic stars. A number of these tubes or cases are combined so as to make when kindled, a great variety of sparkling shapes variously colored.
A skyrocket is a common form of firework. The aerial shell, however, is the backbone of today's commercial aerial display, a smaller version for consumer use is known as the festival ball in the United States; such rocket technology has been used for the delivery of mail by rocket and is used as propulsion for most model rockets. Fireworks were invented in medieval China around the early 9th century. One of the cultural practices for fireworks was to scare away evil spirits. Cultural events and festivities such as the Chinese New Year and the Mid-Autumn Moon Festival were and still are times when fireworks are guaranteed sights. China is exporter of fireworks in the world. Colored fireworks were invented in Europe in the 1830s. Modern skyrocket fireworks were invented in the early 20th century; the earliest documentation of fireworks dates back to about the early 9th-century medieval Chinese Tang Dynasty. The fireworks were used to accompany many festivities; the art and science of firework making has developed into an independent profession.
In China, pyrotechnicians were respected for their knowledge of complex techniques in mounting firework displays. Chinese people believed that the fireworks could expel evil spirits and bring about luck and happiness. During the Song Dynasty, many of the common people could purchase various kinds of fireworks from market vendors, grand displays of fireworks were known to be held. In 1110, a large fireworks display in a martial demonstration was held to entertain Emperor Huizong of Song and his court. A record from 1264 states that a rocket-propelled firework went off near the Empress Dowager Gong Sheng and startled her during a feast held in her honor by her son Emperor Lizong of Song. Rocket propulsion was common in warfare, as evidenced by the Huolongjing compiled by Liu Bowen and Jiao Yu. In 1240 the Arabs acquired knowledge of its uses from China. A Syrian named Hasan al-Rammah wrote of rockets and other incendiaries, using terms that suggested he derived his knowledge from Chinese sources, such as his references to fireworks as "Chinese flowers".
In regards to colored fireworks, this was derived and developed from earlier Chinese application of chemical substances to create colored smoke and fire. Such application appears in the Huolongjing and Wubeizhi, which describes recipes, several of which used low-nitrate gunpowder, to create military signal smokes with various colors. In the Wubei Huolongjing, two formulas appears for firework-like signals, the sanzhangju and baizhanglian, that produces silver sparkles in the smoke. In the Huoxilüe by Zhao Xuemin, there are several recipes with low-nitrate gunpowder and other chemical substances to tint flames and smoke; the Chinese pyrotechnics have been written about by foreign authors such as Antoine Caillot who wrote "It is certain that the variety of colours which the Chinese have the secret of giving to flame is the greatest mystery of their fireworks." Or Sir John Barrow who wrote "The diversity of colours indeed with which the Chinese have the secret of cloathing fire seems to be the chief merit of their pyrotechny."Fireworks were produced in Europe by the 14th century, becoming popular by the 17th century.
Lev Izmailov, ambassador of Peter the Great, once reported from China: "They make such fireworks that no one in Europe has seen." In 1758, the Jesuit missionary Pierre Nicolas le Chéron d'Incarville, living in Beijing, wrote about the methods and composition on how to make many types of Chinese fireworks to the Paris Academy of Sciences, which revealed and published the account five years later. Amédée-François Frézier published his revised work Traité des feux d'artice pour le spectacle in 1747, covering the recreational and ceremonial uses of fireworks, rather than their military uses. Music for the Royal Fireworks was composed by George Frideric Handel in 1749 to celebrate the Peace treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, declared the previous year. Improper use of fireworks may be dangerous, both to bystanders. For this reason, the use of fireworks is legally restricted. Display fireworks are restricted by law for use by professionals
A block party or street party is a party in which many members of a single community congregate, either to observe an event of some importance or for mutual enjoyment. The name comes from the form of the party, which involves closing an entire city block to vehicle traffic. Many times, there will be a celebration in the form of playing music and dance and activities like pony rides, inflatable slides, popcorn machines and barbecues; as a form of activism street parties are festive and/or artistic efforts to reclaim roadways as public space by large groups of people. They were made known in Western Europe and North America by the actions of Reclaim the Streets, a widespread "dis-organization" dedicated to reclaiming public space from automobiles and consumerism. Poland Orange Alternative staged festive protests to break the Communist government's monopoly on public life. In the UK, street parties are known as private residents' events and have a special cultural meaning, they have been held to commemorate major national events, such as VE Day or for royal events such as jubilees, with bunting dressing the street, children playing in the street.
An estimated 10 million people took part in street parties in 1977 for the Queen's Silver Jubilee. The tradition seems to have begun in England and Wales after World War I as residents' own "peace teas" to celebrate the signing of the Treaty of Versailles in 1919; the tradition was boosted for the wedding of Prince William and Kate Middleton in April 2011 with about 1 million people joining in street parties. For the Queen's Diamond Jubilee in June 2012 about 2 million took part. Now street parties are held annually and at any time for residents to meet their neighbours in a traffic-free street in a private street party; some "street parties" are public events taking many forms. An application may be needed to the local authority to close a road for a street party under 2 different laws. Block parties are reported as a World War I innovation originating from the East Side of New York City, where an entire block was roped off and patriotic songs sung and a parade held to honor the members of that block who had gone off to war.
Traditionally, many inner city block parties were held illegally, because they did not file for an event permit from the local authorities. However, police turned a blind eye to them. In the United States, block parties occur on holidays such as Independence Day and Memorial Day; some towns may have an annual block party. Block parties gained popularity in the United States during the 1970s within the hip hop community. Block parties were held outdoors and power for the DJ's sound system was taken illegally from street lights, as referenced in the song "South Bronx" by KRS-One. Sometimes the occasion may be a theme such as a recent popular movie or "Welcome to our town" for a new family. Block parties involve barbecues and lawn games such as Simon Says and group dancing such as the Electric Slide, the Macarena or line dancing. In many small towns, the local fire department may participate in the party, bringing out trucks that they display for show. Banquet Botellon Demoparty LAN party Mifflin Street Block Party Notting Hill Carnival Street reclaiming Tactical frivolity Street party
Flag of Gibraltar
The flag of Gibraltar is an elongated banner of arms based on the coat of arms of Gibraltar, granted by Royal Warrant from Queen Isabella I of Castile on 10 July 1502. "An escutcheon on which the upper two thirds shall be a white field and on the said field set a red castle, below the said castle, on the other third of the escutcheon, which must be a red field in which there must be a white line between the castle and the said red field, there shall be a golden key which hangs by a chain from the said castle, as are here figured". The flag was regularised in 1982 and is formed by two horizontal bands of white and red with a three-towered red castle in the centre of the white band; the flag differs from that of other British overseas territories, in that it is not a British ensign. The castle does not resemble any in Gibraltar, but is supposed to represent the fortress of Gibraltar; the key is said to symbolise the fortress' significance as Gibraltar was seen to be the key to Spain by the Moors and Spanish and as the key to the Mediterranean by the British.
The flag is flown throughout Gibraltar, sometimes alongside the Union Flag and flag of Europe. Prominent places which fly the flag include the frontier with Spain, at the top of The Rock and on the Parliament Building; the flag is a symbol of Gibraltarian nationalism, is popular among Gibraltarians. For the Gibraltar National Day, many Gibraltar homes and offices hang the flag from their windows and balconies, some individuals wear and dress their vehicles with the flag for national day celebrations; this was seen during the 2004 celebrations of the tercentenary of British Gibraltar. Gibraltarian students attending university abroad have been known to take Gibraltarian flags with them, putting them up in university accommodation rooms and hanging them from windows. A Lego flag of Gibraltar 4 metres high and 8 metres long can be seen at the John Mackintosh Hall, a cultural centre housing the public library as well as exhibition rooms and a theatre. At the time of its construction, the Lego flag of Gibraltar was the largest flag to be made from Lego bricks with a total of 393,857 bricks being used.
List of flags of Gibraltar List of British flags List of coats of arms of the United Kingdom and dependencies Gibraltar at Flags of the World Gibraltar Government Website Information On Flag
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K