A humbucking pickup, humbucker, or double coil, is a type of electric guitar pickup that uses two coils to "buck the hum" picked up by coil pickups caused by electromagnetic interference mains hum. Most pickups use magnets to produce a magnetic field around the strings, induce an electrical current in the surrounding coils as the strings vibrate. Humbuckers work by pairing a coil with the north poles of its magnets oriented "up", with another coil right next to it, which has the south pole of its magnets oriented up. By connecting the coils together out of phase, the interference is reduced via phase cancellation: the string signals from both coils add up instead of canceling, because the magnets are placed in opposite polarity; the coils can be connected in series or in parallel in order to achieve this hum-cancellation effect, although it's much more common for the coils of a humbucker pickup to be connected in series. In addition to electric guitar pickups, humbucking coils are sometimes used in dynamic microphones to cancel electromagnetic hum.
Hum is caused by the alternating magnetic fields created by transformers and power supplies inside electrical equipment using alternating current. While playing a guitar without humbuckers, a musician would hear a hum through the pickups during quiet sections of music. Sources of studio and stage hum include high-power amps, mixers, power lines, other equipment. Compared to single coil pickups unshielded ones, humbuckers reduce hum, produce a louder signal with more mid-range presence; the "humbucking coil" was invented in 1934 by Electro-Voice, an American professional audio company based in South Bend, Indiana that Al Kahn and Lou Burroughs incorporated in 1930 for the purpose of manufacturing portable public address equipment, including microphones and loudspeakers. The twin coiled guitar pickup invented by Arnold Lesti in 1935 is arranged as a humbucker, the patent USRE20070 describes the noise cancelation and current summation principles of such a design; this "Electric Translating Device" employed the solenoid windings of the pickup to magnetize the steel strings by means of switching on a short D.
C. charge before switching over to amplification. In 1938 A. F. Knoblaugh invented a pickup for stringed instruments involving 2 stacked coils; this pickup was to be used in pianos. The 1939 April copy of "Radio Craft Magazine" shows how to construct a guitar pickup made with two identical coils wrapped around self-magnetized iron cores, where one is flipped over to create a reverse wound, reverse polarity, humbucking orientation; the iron cores of these pickups were magnetized to have their north-south poles at the opposite ends of the core, rather than the now more common top-bottom orientation. To overcome the hum problem for guitars, a humbucking pickup was invented by Seth Lover of Gibson under instruction of then-president Ted McCarty. About the same time, Ray Butts developed a similar pickup, taken up by Gretsch guitars. Although Gibson's patent was filed 2 years before Gretsch's, Gibson's patent was issued 4 weeks after Gretsch's. Both patents describe a reverse wound and reverse polarity pair of coils.
A successful early humbucking pickup was the so-called PAF invented by Seth Lover in 1955. Because of this, because of its use on the Gibson Les Paul guitar, popularization of the humbucker is associated with Gibson, although humbuckers had been used in many different guitar designs by many different manufacturers before. Humbuckers are known as dual-coil, double-coil, or hum-canceling pickups. Rickenbacker offered dual coil pickups arranged in a humbucking pattern beginning in late 1953 but dropped the design in 1954 due to the perceived distorted sound, which had stronger mid-range presence; the Gibson Les Paul was the first guitar to use humbuckers in substantial production, but since even some models of Fender Stratocasters and Telecasters, traditionally fitted with single-coil pickups, are factory-equipped with humbuckers. Stratocasters fitted with one humbucker in the bridge position, resulting in a pickup configuration noted as H-S-S are referred to as "Fat Strats", because of the "fatter", "rounder" tone offered by the humbucking pickup.
In any magnetic pickup, a vibrating guitar string, magnetized by a fixed magnet within the pickup, induces an alternating voltage across its coil. However, wire coils make excellent antennae and are therefore sensitive to electromagnetic interference caused by alternating magnetic fields from mains wiring and electrical appliances like transformers and computer screens the older CRT monitors. Guitar pickups reproduce this noise, which can be quite audible, sounding like a constant hum or buzz; this is most noticeable when using distortion, compressors, or other effects which reduce the signal-to-noise ratio and therefore amplify the unwanted interference relative to the signal from the strings. The direction of voltage induced across a coil by the moving string depends on both the coil winding direction and the polarity of the fixed magnet. On the other hand, the direction of current induced by external fields is only dependent on the direction of winding. Therefore, a humbucker has two coils wound in such a way to cancel hum and maximize signal when they are connected.
By convention humbucker coils are both wound counterclockwise.
Gibson Flying V
The Gibson Flying V is an electric guitar model introduced by Gibson in 1958. The Flying V offered a radical, "futuristic" body design, much like its siblings: the Explorer, released the same year and the Moderne, designed in 1957 but not released until 1982. Gibson manufactured prototypes of the guitar in 1957. Production guitars were made of korina wood, a trademarked name for limba, a wood similar to but lighter in color than mahogany; this Flying V, along with the Futura and the Moderne, made up a line of modernist guitars designed by Gibson's then-president Ted McCarty. These designs were meant to add a more futuristic aspect to Gibson's image, but they did not sell well. After the initial launch in 1958, the line was discontinued by 1959; some instruments were assembled from leftover parts and shipped in 1963, with nickel- rather than gold-plated hardware. McCarty started out with a mahogany guitar, rounded in the back instead of being cut out. Gibson decided to change the back for weight reduction.
Pioneering blues-rock guitarist Lonnie Mack and famed blues guitarist Albert King started using the guitar immediately. Mack used his 1958 Flying V exclusively during his long career; as it was seventh off the inaugural year's assembly line, he named it "Number 7". King used his original 1958 instrument into the mid-70s and replaced it with various custom Flying Vs. Later, in the mid-late 1960s, such guitarists as Dave Davies, in search of a distinctive looking guitar with a powerful sound started using Flying Vs; the renewed interest created a demand for Gibson to reissue the model. Gibson reissued the guitar in mahogany in 1967, updating its design with a bigger pickguard, replacing the original bridge, which had the strings inserted through the back, with the stopbar tail piece more associated with Gibson models; some models were shipped with a short Vibrola Maestro Tremolo. This 1967 model is now the standard for the Flying V although the earlier design is periodically reissued. Like other Gibson guitars the Flying V's headstock is angled at 17 degrees to increase string pressure on the nut to increase the amount of sustain.
The design of the V places the pickups near the center of mass of the entire guitar, further enhancing sustain. Flying Vs became a popular heavy metal guitar due to their aggressive appearance and were used by guitarists Rudolf Schenker, Andy Powell, Michael Schenker, K. K. Downing, James Hetfield, Kirk Hammett, Dave Mustaine; the 1958–59 korina Flying V is one of the most valuable production-model guitars on the market, ranked at No. 5 on the 2011 Top 25 published by Vintage Guitar magazine, worth between US$200,000 and US$250,000. Both Gibson and Epiphone produce a 1958-style Flying V, designed to look like the original korina models. Although a staple in the Gibson lineup, the guitar has been discontinued on-and-off again in the 2010s, along with the Gibson Explorer. In 2016, Gibson produced the Flying V Pro which had a smaller body and had cream binding on the neck and body. Since the 2017 models have been released however, Gibson have changed its name to the Flying V 2016; as of 2017, Gibson USA manufacture only the Flying V 2017 which has a'half' pick guard and is available in both Ebony and Alpine White, as well as Traditional spec and High performance models.
Gibson Custom continues to produce the Flying V Custom. When Tim Shaw arrived at Gibson in 1978, one of his first assignments was to help with designing a companion Guitar to the newly designed E2 Explorer Guitar; this companion guitar would be the new Gibson V2. The general shape of previous Flying V's was retained by Gibson, but the new V2 sported a new 5-layered sculptured walnut and maple body; these guitars came in a natural finish to accentuate the layered effect, with either Maple or Walnut for the top & bottom layer. This layering was known at Gibson as the "Sandwich" and the sculpted body gave the layering a 3D effect. Knobs were moved off the pickguard, a Pearl Gibson logo was inlaid into the black headstock, along with gold Gibson Tuners. Two solid brass 5/8 studs known as the "Sustain Sisters" were fitted into the body to anchor the "Tune-o-matic" Bridge along with a brass nut and brass "V" shaped tailpiece. Gibson felt this would provide the sustain and brilliance they wanted for the new V2.
The 1979 through 1981 models used the "boomerang" humbucker pickups that were designed to sound like single coils with lower noise. Beginning in 1982, the pickups were changed to the "Dirty finger" pickups that were available on only a few models in the early 1980s, including the Explorer, ES-347, ES-335S and the Flying V; the V2 with case retailed for US$1,199 in Gibson's 3rd most expensive guitar. Only 157 V2's were shipped in 1979. Besides the high price, some players complained about the non-traditional sounding humbucker pickups and the weight of the guitar. Sales were poor for the first 2 years of the V2's availability, Gibson was scrambling to find ways to increase demand for these guitars from the dealers, it became apparent by the early 1980s that the maple top version wasn't selling as well as the walnut top guitars. To move the maple-top inventory, Gibson began to offer various color finishes to supplement the initial offering of natural finishes. Custom colors included Pearl white, Blue sparkle, Blue sparkle metallic, Candy Apple Red, Goldburst, Silverburst and Black Sparkle.
The Majority of these finishes were applied to maple-top inventory between September 1980 and April 1981. The V2 did not meet sales expectations. In 1982, several hardware changes were made to reduce the cost of producing the guitar and to use up the remaining inventory; the most important change was replacing
Gibson Brands, Inc. is an American manufacturer of guitars, other musical instruments, consumer and professional electronics from Kalamazoo and now based in Nashville, Tennessee. The company was known as Gibson Guitar Corporation and renamed Gibson Brands, Inc. on June 11, 2013. Orville Gibson founded the company in 1902 as the "Gibson Mandolin-Guitar Mfg. Co. Ltd." in Kalamazoo, Michigan, to make mandolin-family instruments. Gibson invented archtop guitars by constructing the same type of carved, arched tops used on violins. By the 1930s, the company was making flattop acoustic guitars, as well as one of the first commercially available hollow-body electric guitars and popularized by Charlie Christian. In 1944, Gibson was bought by Chicago Musical Instruments, acquired in 1969 by Panama-based conglomerate Ecuadorian Company Limited, that changed its name in the same year to Norlin Corporation. Gibson was owned by Norlin Corporation from 1969 to 1986. In 1986, the company was acquired by a group led by David H. Berryman.
Gibson sells guitars under a variety of brand names and builds one of the world's most iconic guitars, the Gibson Les Paul. Gibson was at the forefront of innovation in acoustic guitars in the big band era of the 1930s. In 1952, Gibson introduced its first solid-body electric guitar, the Les Paul, which became its most popular guitar to date— designed by a team led by Ted McCarty. In addition to guitars, Gibson offers consumer electronics through its subsidiaries Onkyo Corporation, Cerwin Vega, Stanton, as well as professional audio equipment from KRK Systems, pianos from their wholly owned subsidiary Baldwin Piano, music software from Cakewalk. On May 1, 2018, the company filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection, announced a restructuring deal to return to profitability by closing down unprofitable consumer electronics divisions such as Gibson Innovations. Orville Gibson patented a single-piece mandolin design in 1898, more durable than other mandolins and could be manufactured in volume.
Orville Gibson began to sell his instruments in 1894 out of a one-room workshop in Kalamazoo, Michigan. In 1902, the Gibson Mandolin-Guitar Mfg. Co. Ltd. was incorporated to market the instruments. The company produced only Orville Gibson's original designs. Orville died in 1918 of endocarditis; the following year, the company hired designer Lloyd Loar to create newer instruments. Loar designed the flagship L-5 archtop guitar and the Gibson F-5 mandolin, introduced in 1922, before leaving the company in 1924. In 1936, Gibson introduced their first "Electric Spanish" model, the ES-150, followed by other electric instruments like steel guitars and mandolins. During World War II, instrument manufacturing at Gibson slowed due to shortages of wood and metal, Gibson began manufacturing wood and metal parts for the military. Between 1942-1945, Gibson employed women to manufacture guitars. "Women produced nearly 25,000 guitars during World War II yet Gibson denied building instruments over this period," according to a 2013 history of the company.
Gibson folklore has claimed its guitars were made by "seasoned craftsmen" who were "too old for war." In 1944 Gibson was purchased by Chicago Musical Instruments. The ES-175 was introduced in 1949. Gibson hired Ted McCarty in 1948, who became President in 1950, he led an expansion of the guitar line with new guitars such as the "Les Paul" guitar introduced in 1952, endorsed by Les Paul, a popular musician in the 1950s. The guitar was offered in Custom, Standard and Junior models. In the mid-1950s, the Thinline series was produced, which included a line of thinner guitars like the Byrdland; the first Byrdlands were slim, custom built, L-5 models for guitarists Billy Hank Garland. A shorter neck was added. Other models such as the ES-350T and the ES-225T were introduced as less costly alternatives. In 1958, Gibson introduced the ES-335T model. Similar in size to the hollow-body Thinlines, the ES-335 family had a solid center, giving the string tone a longer sustain. In the 1950s, Gibson produced the Tune-o-matic bridge system and its version of the humbucking pickup, the PAF, first released in 1957 and still sought after for its sound.
In 1958, Gibson produced two new designs: the eccentrically shaped Explorer and Flying V. These "modernistic" guitars did not sell initially, it was only in the late 1960s and early 70s when the two guitars were reintroduced to the market that they sold well. The Firebird, in the early 60s, was a reprise of the modernistic idea. In the late 50s, McCarty knew that Gibson was seen as a traditional company and began an effort to create more modern guitars. In 1961 the body design of the Les Paul was changed due to the demand for a double-cutaway body design; the new body design became known as the SG, due to disapproval from Les Paul himself. The original Les Paul design returned to the Gibson catalog in 1968. On December 22, 1969, Gibson parent company Chicago Musical Instruments was taken over by the South American brewing conglomerate ECL. Gibson remained under the control of CMI until 1974 when it became a subsidiary of Norlin Musical Instruments. Norlin Musical Instruments was a member of Norlin Industries, named for ECL president Norton Stevens and CMI president Arnold Berlin.
This began an era characterized by decreasing product quality. Between 1974 and 1984, production of Gibson guitars was shifted from Kalamazoo to Nashville, Tennessee; the Kalamazoo plant kept going for a few years a
Tune-o-matic is the name of a fixed or floating bridge design for electric guitars. It was designed by Ted McCarty and introduced on the Gibson Super 400 guitar in 1953 and the Les Paul Custom the following year. In 1955, it was used on the Gibson Les Paul Gold Top, it was accepted as a standard on all Gibson electric guitars, replacing the previous wrap-around bridge design, except on the budget series. Guitar strings steel strings, are not ideal vibrators; the thicker the string, the shorter the effective length. This refers to the length of string involved in producing a sound, as opposed to the length between the nut and the bridge. Many guitar designs with fixed bridges have the bridge slanted or stepped so that the distance from nut to bridge is larger for thick strings; the Tune-o-matic extends this idea to make the distance adjustable for all the strings, within limits. A common way of determining correct adjustment for a string is to compare the pitch at the 12th fret with the harmonic at the same position.
The two should be as close as possible. Both the ABR-1 and Nashville Tune-o-Matic bridges consist of one oblong saddle which holds 6 saddle inserts and their corresponding string length adjustment screws. ABR-1 bridges have a saddle retainer wire that holds all the saddle inserts and screws in place. Both are mounted to guitars via two threaded posts that may be screwed directly into the guitar's solid body, or into threaded anchors that are pressed into the body; these bridges are used on some archtop hollowbody guitars, such as the Gibson ES175D, which use a floating rosewood or ebony base with two threaded posts screwed directly into it. To adjust the string height, the Tune O Matic bridge sits atop two threaded wheels screwed on to its threaded posts; some have integrated wheel posts that thread into anchors. Each saddle insert has a small groove that matches string gauge and shape to keep the string from slipping off the saddle insert; when assembled, each string sits astride a saddle insert and thus "marks" the end of the sting's vibrating length- from the string nut to the saddle insert.
After passing over the saddle insert, each string makes a slight downward angle toward the stopbar tailpiece, vibrato, or on hollowbody guitars a trapeze tailpiece. Some solid body guitars have "strings through the body" construction. Whichever way the strings are held, the fact that the string makes a downward angle after the saddle creates "break angle". Break angle keeps the string from popping out of the saddle insert's groove because the angle causes the string to sit over the saddle. Break angle contributes to the guitar's sustain and on an acoustic guitar, its volume. There is break angle created over the nut caused by the headstock pitching back; the Tune-o-matic bridge is not flat, standard Gibson Tune-o-matic bridges have a 12" radius. Ideally, the radius should match the radius of fretboard for the most comfortable playing experience. Due to its symmetrical design, it's possible to accidentally fit the bridge on backwards on the two posts; this can lead to a certain amount of confusion if the bridge is removed for any reason.
Conventionally, the string length adjustment screw heads of the ABR-1 bridge face the neck, the screw heads of the newer "Nashville" bridge face the stopbar. Unless the player wishes to reset the action and intonation, it is important to refit the bridge in the same orientation as before a string change, regardless of which way round it was to start with. Since its invention, different versions by Gibson and other companies have emerged: • ABR-1 without retainer wire: 1954-1962 • ABR-1 with retainer wire: 1962-1975 • Schaller Wide travel Tune-o-Matic a.k.a. "Harmonica bridge": 1970-1980 • Modern TOM a.k.a. "Nashville" bridge: 1975-. It is still a signature feature found on guitars from the Gibson USA product line. There are multiple known Tune-o-matic models that differ in the following parameters: Gibson competitor Gretsch has their own copy of the Tune-o-matic, called the Adjust-o-matic. Although introduced on Gretsch guitars in the 1970s, the Adjust-o-matic is common on modern Fender guitars, since Fender acquired Gretsch in the early 2000s.
There is no definitive specification of an Adjust-o-matic Bridge, ranging from exact copies of the Tune-o-matic to more curved and narrower versions to fit the traditional 9.5" Fender neck radius. The term Adjust-o-matic is used to describe any Tune-o-matic on a FMIC brand guitar such as Jackson, Charvel or Squier; the style of bridge is sometimes referred to as an "F-style" or "F-spaced" Tune-o-matic by Fender competitors to avoid making overt references to the Fender trademarked term. Over time on the thinner unwound E, B and G strings, the groove may cut into the saddle in which the string rests, taking on a sharper'V' shape due to the action of the string sliding in the groove during string bending; as this'V' shape sharpens, it takes on a slight scissor characteristic and any new string is abraded as string tension pulls it deeper into the groove. The simplest solution is a slight filing out of the groove, to recreate more of a'U' shape, while saddle replacement with high quality metal alloy replacements, is another option.
There is no general consensus on "proper" capitalization of bridge name. Gibson's official site spells it a
Gibson ES Series
The Gibson ES series of semi-acoustic guitar are manufactured by the Gibson Guitar Corporation. The letters ES stand for Electric Spanish, to distinguish them from Hawaiian-style guitars which were played flat on the lap. Many of the original numbers referred in dollars, of the model. Suffixes in the names indicate additional appointments, for example "T" means "thinline" while "D" means "double pickup". Many of the models came with f-holes, though some, such as B. B. King's signature Lucille series, were made without f-holes; some models were full-bodied models, while single- and double-cutaways are available. Two different styles of cutaways were used, both named by Gibson after Italian cities. Florentine models had a sharper, more pointed end on the cutaway, while more rounded and contoured cutaways were called Venetian style. Numerous signature models of the ES series exist, as well as some hybrid models such as a Les Paul ES that combines features of a Gibson Les Paul with those of the ES series.
All modern ES guitars are built at Gibson's Memphis, Tennessee factory, the only of Gibson's factories to give public tours. ES-5 Three-pickup, full depth hollowbody. ES-5 Switchmaster ES-100 Entry-level archtop hollow-body model. ES-120T Most basic student model, thinline. ES-125 Successor of ES-100. 1956/1960 ES-125T thinline model added. ES-130 ES-135 Thick-body version of ES-125TDC. Thin semi-hollow-body with center-block. ES-137 Upscaled ES-135 with Les Paul sound. ES-140 3/4 size, short scale ES-175. ES-140T Thinline ES-140 3/4T. ES-150 Gibson's first electric guitar, based on L-50. EST-150 and EPG-150 were shipped. ES-150DC resembling thick ES-335. ES-165 Single pickup ES-175 based on Herb Ellis's. ES-175 Full depth, florentine cutaway, maple 24 3/4" scale. ES-175D ES-175T ES-225T Variation on ES-125T, with trapeze bridge. ES-250 Rare, fancier version of ES-150. ES-260 Resembling ES-125T/ES-225T, but semi-hollow with center block, stop tailpiece, humbuckers instead of P90 pickups.
Knob placement differed from other ES-series. ES-295 ES-175 resembling Les Paul Goldtop with trapeze bridge. ES-300 Slant-mounted long pickup. ES-320TD Similar with tune-o-matic and metal control plate. ES-325 Similar to ES-330TD but with mini-humbuckers, single f-hole, a half-moon shaped plastic control plate. ES-330TD Double rounded thinline hollow-body. ES-333 Stripped down version of ES-335. ES-335 World's first thinline archtop semi-acoustic. ES-335 Bass ES-336 Replaced by CS-336. ES-339 Size of CS-336 with construction of ES-335. ES-340TD ES-335 with a master volume/mixer and phase switch. ES-345 ES-335 construction, but with parallelogram inlays and stereo outputs. ES-347 Alternate ES-345 with a coil-tap switch instead of Varitone. ES-350 Rounded cutaway ES-300. ES-350T as a plainer Byrdland. ES-355 Upscaled ES-345 with vibrato unit, optional Varitone and stereo outputs. ES-359 Upscaled ES-339. ES-369 ES-390 Similar in size to the ES-339, but with the hollow construction of ES-330.
Equipped with mini humbuckers or dog-ear P90s. ES-775 ES-175 with higher quality components. ES Artist Upscale model of ES-335 with active circuit by Moog. Byrdland Thinline, short-scale L-5 CES, named after Hank Garland. Barney Kessel Barney Kessel model. 3" deep, double florentine cutaway hollow-body. Johnny Smith Later renamed as Gibson LeGrande. Tal Farlow Tal Farlow model. Trini Lopez Trini Lopez two versions: one based on ES-335, other similar to Kessel model with diamond-shaped sound holes and a single-side headstock. Les Paul Signature Lucille B. B. King model based on ES-355TD-SV without f-holes. Howard Roberts Fusion Howard Roberts model. Chet Atkins Country Gentleman Chet Atkins Tennessean Gibson version of Chet Atkins models. Tom DeLonge Signature ES-333 DG-335 Dave Grohl model based on Trini Lopez. 335-S Solidbody guitar similar to ES-335. CS-336 Custom Shop's first "tonally carved" guitar. CS-356 Upscaled CS-336 with goldplate parts, etc. Les Paul Bantam/Florentine Custom Shop models with thinline semi-hollow-body with center-block.
ES-Les Paul Mash up of Les Paul and ES-335 Les Paul Signature bass EB-2 bass EB-6 6-string bass/baritone guitar EDS-1275 Double 12 Doubleneck, hollow-body or SG-shaped solid-body guitar with 12 and 6 string guitar necks. Other doubleneck models inc
The guitar is a fretted musical instrument that has six strings. It is played with both hands by strumming or plucking the strings with either a guitar pick or the finger/fingernails of one hand, while fretting with the fingers of the other hand; the sound of the vibrating strings is projected either acoustically, by means of the hollow chamber of the guitar, or through an electrical amplifier and a speaker. The guitar is a type of chordophone, traditionally constructed from wood and strung with either gut, nylon or steel strings and distinguished from other chordophones by its construction and tuning; the modern guitar was preceded by the gittern, the vihuela, the four-course Renaissance guitar, the five-course baroque guitar, all of which contributed to the development of the modern six-string instrument. There are three main types of modern acoustic guitar: the classical guitar, the steel-string acoustic guitar, the archtop guitar, sometimes called a "jazz guitar"; the tone of an acoustic guitar is produced by the strings' vibration, amplified by the hollow body of the guitar, which acts as a resonating chamber.
The classical guitar is played as a solo instrument using a comprehensive finger-picking technique where each string is plucked individually by the player's fingers, as opposed to being strummed. The term "finger-picking" can refer to a specific tradition of folk, blues and country guitar playing in the United States; the acoustic bass guitar is a low-pitched instrument, one octave below a regular guitar. Electric guitars, introduced in the 1930s, use an amplifier and a loudspeaker that both makes the sound of the instrument loud enough for the performers and audience to hear, given that it produces an electric signal when played, that can electronically manipulate and shape the tone using an equalizer and a huge variety of electronic effects units, the most used ones being distortion and reverb. Early amplified guitars employed a hollow body, but solid wood guitars began to dominate during the 1960s and 1970s, as they are less prone to unwanted acoustic feedback "howls"; as with acoustic guitars, there are a number of types of electric guitars, including hollowbody guitars, archtop guitars and solid-body guitars, which are used in rock music.
The loud, amplified sound and sonic power of the electric guitar played through a guitar amp has played a key role in the development of blues and rock music, both as an accompaniment instrument and performing guitar solos, in many rock subgenres, notably heavy metal music and punk rock. The electric guitar has had a major influence on popular culture; the guitar is used in a wide variety of musical genres worldwide. It is recognized as a primary instrument in genres such as blues, country, folk, jota, metal, reggae, rock and many forms of pop. Before the development of the electric guitar and the use of synthetic materials, a guitar was defined as being an instrument having "a long, fretted neck, flat wooden soundboard, a flat back, most with incurved sides." The term is used to refer to a number of chordophones that were developed and used across Europe, beginning in the 12th century and in the Americas. A 3,300-year-old stone carving of a Hittite bard playing a stringed instrument is the oldest iconographic representation of a chordophone and clay plaques from Babylonia show people playing an instrument that has a strong resemblance to the guitar, indicating a possible Babylonian origin for the guitar.
The modern word guitar, its antecedents, has been applied to a wide variety of chordophones since classical times and as such causes confusion. The English word guitar, the German Gitarre, the French guitare were all adopted from the Spanish guitarra, which comes from the Andalusian Arabic قيثارة and the Latin cithara, which in turn came from the Ancient Greek κιθάρα. Which comes from the Persian word "sihtar"; this pattern of naming is visible in setar and sitar. The word "tar" at the end of all of these words is a Persian word that means "string". Many influences are cited as antecedents to the modern guitar. Although the development of the earliest "guitars" is lost in the history of medieval Spain, two instruments are cited as their most influential predecessors, the European lute and its cousin, the four-string oud. At least two instruments called "guitars" were in use in Spain by 1200: the guitarra latina and the so-called guitarra morisca; the guitarra morisca had a rounded back, wide fingerboard, several sound holes.
The guitarra Latina had a narrower neck. By the 14th century the qualifiers "moresca" or "morisca" and "latina" had been dropped, these two cordophones were referred to as guitars; the Spanish vihuela, called in Italian the "viola da mano", a guitar-like instrument of the 15th and 16th centuries, is considered to have been the single most important influence in the development of the baroque guitar. It had six courses, lute-like tuning in fourths and a guitar-like body, although early representations reveal an instrument with a cut waist, it was larger than the contemporary four-course guitars. By the 16th century, the vihuela's construction had more in common with the modern guitar, with its curved one-piece ribs, than with the viols, more like a larger version of the contemporary four-course guita
Lester William Polsfuss, known as Les Paul, was an American jazz and blues guitarist, songwriter and inventor. He was one of the pioneers of the solid-body electric guitar, his techniques served as inspiration for the Gibson Les Paul. Paul taught himself how to play guitar, while he is known for jazz and popular music, he had an early career in country music, he is credited with many recording innovations. Although he was not the first to use the technique, his early experiments with overdubbing, delay effects such as tape delay, phasing effects and multitrack recording were among the first to attract widespread attention, his innovative talents extended into his playing style, including licks, chording sequences, fretting techniques and timing, which set him apart from his contemporaries and inspired many guitarists of the present day. He recorded with his wife, the singer and guitarist Mary Ford, in the 1950s, they sold millions of records. Among his many honors, Paul is one of a handful of artists with a permanent, stand-alone exhibit in the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame.
He is prominently named by the music museum on its website as an "architect" and a "key inductee" with Sam Phillips and Alan Freed. Les Paul is the only person to be included in both the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and the National Inventors Hall of Fame. Paul was born Lester William Polsfuss in Waukesha, Wisconsin, to Evelyn Polsfuss, his family was of German ancestry. Paul's mother was related to the founders of Milwaukee's Valentin Blatz Brewing Company and the makers of the Stutz automobile, his parents divorced. His mother simplified their Prussian family name first to Polfuss to Polfus, although Les Paul never changed his name. Before taking the stage name Les Paul, he performed as Red Hot Red and Rhubarb Red. At the age of eight, Paul began playing the harmonica. After trying to learn the piano, he switched to the guitar, it was during this time that he invented a neck-worn harmonica holder, which allowed him to play both sides of the harmonica hands-free while accompanying himself on the guitar.
It is still manufactured using his basic design. By age thirteen, Paul was performing semi-professionally as a country-music singer and harmonica player. While playing at the Waukesha area drive-ins and roadhouses, Paul began his first experiment with sound. Wanting to make himself heard by more people at the local venues, he wired a phonograph needle to his guitar and connected it to a radio speaker, using that to amplify his acoustic guitar; as a teen Paul experimented with sustain by using a 2-foot piece of rail from a nearby train line. At age seventeen, Paul played with Rube Tronson's Texas Cowboys, soon after he dropped out of high school to team up with Sunny Joe Wolverton's Radio Band in St. Louis, Missouri, on KMOX. Paul moved to Chicago in 1934, where he continued to perform on radio stations WBBM and WLS, he met pianist Art Tatum, whose playing influenced him to stick with the guitar rather than original plans of taking on the piano. His first two records were released in 1936, credited to "Rhubarb Red", Paul's hillbilly alter ego.
He served as an accompanist for a few other bands signed to Decca. During this time he adopted his stage name of Les Paul. Paul's guitar style was influenced by the music of Django Reinhardt, whom he admired. Following World War II, Paul made friends with Reinhardt; when Reinhardt died in 1953, Paul paid for part of the funeral's cost. One of Paul's prized possessions was a Selmer Maccaferri acoustic guitar given to him by Reinhardt's widow. Paul formed a trio in 1937 with rhythm guitarist Jim Atkins and bassist/percussionist Ernie "Darius" Newton, they left Chicago for New York in 1938. Chet Atkins wrote that his brother, home on a family visit, presented him with an expensive Gibson archtop guitar that Les Paul had given to Jim. Chet recalled that it was the first professional-quality instrument he owned. Paul was dissatisfied with acoustic-electric guitars and began experimenting at his apartment in Queens, New York with a few designs of his own. Famously, he created several versions of "The Log", a length of common 4x4 lumber with a bridge, neck and pickup attached.
For the sake of appearance, he attached the body of an Epiphone hollow-body guitar sawn lengthwise with The Log in the middle. This solved his two main problems: feedback, as the acoustic body no longer resonated with the amplified sound, sustain, as the energy of the strings was not dissipated in generating sound through the guitar body; these instruments were being improved and modified over the years, Paul continued to use them in his recordings long after the development of his eponymous Gibson model. In 1945, Richard D. Bourgerie made an electric guitar pickup and amplifier for professional guitar player George Barnes. Bourgerie worked through World War II at Howard Radio Company making electronic equipment for the American military. Barnes showed the result to Les Paul. While experimenting in his apartment in 1941, Paul nearly succumbed to electrocution. During two years of recuperation, he moved to Hollywood, supporting himself by producing radio music and forming a new trio. During this time, he was remembered by factory workers as a frequent visitor to the Electro String Instrument Corp. shop on Western Avenue in Los Angeles, where he observed production of Rickenbacker brand guitars and amplifiers.
He was drafted into the U. S. Army in 1943, where he served in t