Joshua or Jehoshua is the central figure in the Hebrew Bible's Book of Joshua. According to the books of Exodus and Joshua, he was Moses' assistant and became the leader of the Israelite tribes after the death of Moses, his name was Hoshea the son of Nun, of the tribe of Ephraim, but Moses called him Joshua, the name by which he is known. The name is shortened to Yeshua in Nehemiah. According to the Bible he was born in Egypt prior to the Exodus. According to the Hebrew Bible, Joshua was one of the twelve spies of Israel sent by Moses to explore the land of Canaan. In Numbers 13:1–16, after the death of Moses, he led the Israelite tribes in the conquest of Canaan, allocated the land to the tribes. According to biblical chronology, Joshua lived some time in the late Bronze Age. According to Joshua 24:29, Joshua died at the age of 110. Joshua holds a position of respect among Muslims. According to Islamic tradition, he was, along with Caleb, one of the two believing spies whom Moses had sent to spy the land of Canaan.
Muslims see Joshua as the leader of the Israelites, following the death of Moses. Some Muslims believe Joshua to be the "attendant" of Moses mentioned in the Quran, before Moses meets Khidr and Joshua plays a significant role in Islamic literature with significant narration in the Hadith, therefore he is a point of study in comparative religion, see Joshua in Islam; the English name "Joshua" is a rendering of the Hebrew language Yehoshua, meaning "Yahweh is salvation". The vocalization of the second name component may be read as Hoshea—the name used in the Torah before Moses added the divine name."Jesus" is the English derivative of the Greek transliteration of "Yehoshua" via Latin. In the Septuagint, all instances of the word "Yehoshua" are rendered as "Ἰησοῦς", the closest Greek pronunciation of the Aramaic: ישוע Yeshua, Nehemiah 8:17). Thus, in modern Greek, Joshua is called "Jesus son of Naue"; this is true in some Slavic languages following the Eastern Orthodox tradition. Joshua was a major figure in the events of the Exodus.
He was charged by Moses with selecting and commanding a militia group for their first battle after exiting Egypt, against the Amalekites in Rephidim, in which they were victorious. He accompanied Moses when he ascended biblical Mount Sinai to commune with God, visualize God's plan for the Israelite tabernacle and receive the Ten Commandments. Joshua was with Moses when he descended from the mountain, heard the Israelites' celebrations around the Golden Calf, broke the tablets bearing the words of the commandments. In the narrative which refers to Moses being able to speak with God in his tent of meeting outside the camp, Joshua is seen as custodian of the tent when Moses returned to the Israelite encampment. However, when Moses returned to the mountain to re-create the tablets recording the Ten Commandments, Joshua was not present, as the biblical text states'no man shall come up with you'. Joshua was identified as one of the twelve spies sent by Moses to explore and report on the land of Canaan, only he and Caleb gave an encouraging report, a reward for which would be that only these two of their entire generation would enter the promised land.
According to Joshua 1:1-9, God appointed Joshua to succeed Moses as leader of the Israelites along with giving him a blessing of invincibility during his lifetime. The first part of the book of Joshua covers the period. At the Jordan River, the waters parted; the first battle after the crossing of the Jordan was the Battle of Jericho. Joshua led the destruction of Jericho moved on to Ai, a small neighboring city to the west. However, they were defeated with thirty-six Israelite deaths; the defeat was attributed to Achan taking an "accursed thing" from Jericho. Joshua went to defeat Ai; the Israelites faced an alliance of five Amorite kings from Jerusalem, Jarmuth and Eglon. At Gibeon, Joshua asked Yahweh to cause the sun and moon to stand still, so that he could finish the battle in daylight; this event is most notable because "There has been no day like it before or since, when the Lord heeded the voice of a man, for the Lord fought for Israel". God fought for the Israelites in this battle, for he hurled huge hailstones from the sky which killed more Canaanites than those which the Israelites slaughtered.
From there on, Joshua was able to lead the Israelites to several victories, securing much of the land of Canaan. He presided over the Israelite gatherings at Gilgal and Shiloh which allocated land to the tribes of Israel, the Israelites rewarded him with the Ephraimite city of Timnath-heres or Timnath-serah, where he settled; when he was "old and well advanced in years", Joshua convened the elders and chiefs of the Israelites and exhorted them to have no fellowship with the native population, because it could lead them to be unfaithful to God. At a general assembly of the clans at Shechem, he took leave of the people, admonishing them to be loyal to their God, so mightily manifested in the midst of them; as a witness of their promise to serve God, Joshua set up a great stone under an oak by the sanctuary of God. Soon afterward he died, at the age of 110, was buried at Timnath-heres, in the hill country of Ephraim, north of Moun
The Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible known as Strong's Concordance, is a Bible concordance, an index of every word in the King James Version, constructed under the direction of James Strong. Strong first published his Concordance in 1890, while professor of exegetical theology at Drew Theological Seminary; the purpose of Strong's Concordance is not to provide content or commentary about the Bible, but to provide an index to the Bible. This allows the reader to find words; this index allows a student of the Bible to re-find a phrase or passage studied. It lets the reader directly compare how the same word may be used elsewhere in the Bible. In this way Strong provides an independent check against translations, offers an opportunity for greater, more technically accurate understanding of text; each original-language word is given an entry number in the dictionary of those original language words listed in the back of the concordance. These have become known as the "Strong's numbers"; the main concordance lists each word that appears in the KJV Bible in alphabetical order with each verse in which it appears listed in order of its appearance in the Bible, with a snippet of the surrounding text.
Appearing to the right of the scripture reference is the Strong's number. This allows the user of the concordance to look up the meaning of the original language word in the associated dictionary in the back, thereby showing how the original language word was translated into the English word in the KJV Bible. Strong's Concordance includes: The 8674 Hebrew root words used in the Old Testament; the 5624 Greek root words used in the New Testament. New editions of Strong's may exclude the comparative section and the asterisks that denote differential definitions of the same Hebrew or Greek words. Although the Greek words in Strong's Concordance are numbered 1–5624, the numbers 2717 and 3203–3302 are unassigned due to "changes in the enumeration while in progress". Not every distinct word is assigned a number, but only the root words. For example, αγαπησεις is assigned the same number as αγαπατε – both are listed as Greek word #25 in Strong's αγαπαω. Other authors have used Strong's numbers in concordances of other Bible translations, such as the New International Version and American Standard Version.
Due to Strong's numbers it became possible to translate concordances from one language into another. Thus, the Russian concordance of 30,000 words from the Russian Thompson Study Bible is a translation of the English concordance from Thompson Chain-Reference Bible. In the process of compiling the Russian concordance, the Hebrew/Greek word corresponding to the English concordance word was found, its Russian equivalent in the Russian Synodal translation of the Bible was added to the resulting Russian concordance text. New editions of Strong's Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible remain in print as of 2016. In the 1890 version, Strong added a "Hebrew and Chaldee Dictionary" and a "Greek Dictionary of the New Testament" to his concordance. In the preface to both dictionaries, Strong explains that these are "brief and simple" dictionaries, not meant to replace reference to "a more copious and elaborate Lexicon." He mentions Fürst as examples of the lexicons that Strong's is drawn from. His dictionaries were meant to give students a quick and simple way to look up words and have a general idea of their meaning.
Strong based his lexicons on the work of contemporary scholars such as Gesenius, Fürst, Liddell & Scott and Brown, Briggs. According to the preface, he and his team made "numerous original suggestions and distinctions... in the affinities of roots and the classification of meanings." The work is intended to represent the best of 19th century scholarship, both a simplification of it and an improvement on it. An important feature of Strong's dictionaries is the listing of every translation of a source word in the AV after the definition itself, it is important to note Strong's association with the committee working on the American Revised Version of the Bible. His work does not tend to support the authority of the King James Version, he was part of the effort to update and replace it with what the translators believed would be a better version. As a result, he contributed deeper and more thorough study of Biblical languages etymology, but an inherently suspicious attitude toward the Textus Receptus, the King James, toward traditional, less "secular" definitions of original words.
The translation committee was associated with the Higher Critical movement and with the Westcott-Hort version of the Greek text. Strong, a Methodist layman and college professor, was acceptable to the committee, but one cannot assume he shared all of its views. Cruden's Concordance Gesenius' Lexicon Hermeneutics Stephanus pagination Young's Analytical Concordance to the Bible Strong, The Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible, Cincinnati: Jennings & Graham. Preface to Strong's Concordance Old and New Testaments with every word linked to Strong's Concordance Look up Hebrew words in Strong's Concordance Look up Greek words in Strong's Concordance Several English versions of OT and NT with Greek and Hebrew words linked to Strong's Concordance Strong's Concordance Online Searchable
Pistacia palaestina is a tree or shrub common in the Levant region. It is called terebinth in English, a name used for Pistacia terebinthus, a similar tree from the western Mediterranean Basin. Pistacia palaestina is distinguished from P. terebinthus "by its egg-shaped leaflets, which are drawn into a long point, with somewhat hairy margins, by more spreading and branching flower clusters." The terebinth is mentioned in the Hebrew Scriptures, where the Hebrew word elah is used, although the word is sometimes translated as "oak". The word terebinth is found in three successive chapters of Genesis in reference to the places where Abram camped called "Terebinths of Mamre the Amorite". Here, the traditional rendering in English is "oaks of Mamre", it is found in Genesis chapter 35, where Jacob commands his family to remove idols that were taken as booty from the battle in Shechem, before travelling to Bethel. Terebinths are found in Isaiah in possible reference to idolatry associated with the trees, although in the Septuagint and Vulgate the word is translated "idols", as the plural of "el".)
For you will be ashamed of the terebinths. The best known clear reference to a terebinth in the Hebrew Scriptures is that of the Valley of Elah or "Valley of the Terebinth", where David fought Goliath. At least a few references occur in Judges: Ch 4, Ch 6, Ch 9; this reference of Abimelech's crowning by an oak is referring to the Palestine oak related to the Kermes oak. The Hebrew distinguishes the terebinth, it is mentioned in Hosea 4:13 when Hosea is talking about Israel's spiritual adultery by sacrificing to false gods and how to repent and be forgiven in Hosea 14
Books of Samuel
The Books of Samuel, 1 Samuel and 2 Samuel, form part of the narrative history of Israel in the Nevi'im or "prophets" section of the Hebrew Bible/Old Testament, called the Deuteronomistic history, a series of books that constitute a theological history of the Israelites and aim to explain God's law for Israel under the guidance of the prophets. According to Jewish tradition, the book was written by Samuel, with additions by the prophets Gad and Nathan. Modern scholarly thinking is that the entire Deuteronomistic history was composed in the period c. 630–540 BC by combining a number of independent texts of various ages. Samuel begins with God's call to him as a boy; the story of the Ark of the Covenant that follows tells of Israel's oppression by the Philistines, which brought about Samuel's anointing of Saul as Israel's first king. But Saul proved unworthy and God's choice turned to David, who defeated Israel's enemies, purchased the threshing floor, where his son, Solomon built the Temple and brought the Ark to Jerusalem.
God promised David and his successors an everlasting dynasty. The childless Hannah vows to Yahweh of hosts. Eli, the priest of Shiloh, blesses her, a child named Samuel is born. Samuel is dedicated to the Lord as a Nazirite – the only one besides Samson to be identified in the Bible. Eli's sons and Phinehas, sin against God's laws and the people, of the priesthood and are killed in battle during the Battle of Aphek, but the child Samuel grows up "in the presence of the Lord." The Philistines capture the Ark of the Covenant from Shiloh and take it to the temple of their god Dagon, who recognizes the supremacy of Yahweh. The Philistines are afflicted with plagues and return the ark to the Israelites, but to the territory of the tribe of Benjamin rather than to Shiloh; the Philistines attack. Samuel appeals to Yahweh, the Philistines are decisively beaten, the Israelites reclaim their lost territory. In Samuel's old age, he appoints his sons Joel and Abijah as judges, but they walked not in the ways of the Lord with perverted judgement, lucre, bribes because of the corruption the people ask for a king to rule over them instead of rejecting God and his laws, forgetting all God had done to bring them out of the Land of Egypt The Lord tells Samuel to tell the people of Israel what they have asked for.
This king says Samuel that you have asked to rule over you will take the best of all your labor your fields, crops and give them to his servants. He will take your sheep, your asses, he will take your daughters and your manservants, you will cry out but the Lord will not hear you. But the people refused to obey the voice of Samuel. After Samuel inquires of God he directs Samuel to grant them a king God There was a mighty man of Benjamin whose name was Kish, the son of Abiel, the son of Zeror, the son of Bechorath the son of Aphiah a Benjamin a might man of power and he had a son, Saul a choice young man a goodly, there was not among the children of Israel a goodlier person than he. Samuel had never met God led Saul to Samuel to be anointed as King. God gave Saul a new heart 1Samuel 10:9 God was with Saul and he defeats the enemies of the Israelites, but disobeys God; the spirit of the Lord departs from Saul because of his disobedience. But the Lord has selected another godly man as King over his people, David son of Jesse the Bethlehemite, David was his youngest son a Shepard boy, he is described as "ruddy and withal of beautiful countenance and goodly to look at" and "fair" 1Samuel 16:12 God tells Samuel to anoint David of Bethlehem as king, David enters Saul's court as his armor-bearer and harpist.
Saul's son and heir Jonathan recognizes him as the rightful king. Saul plots David's death, but David flees into the wilderness, where he becomes a champion of the Hebrews. David joins the Philistines but continues secretly to champion his own people, until Saul and Jonathan are killed in battle at Mount Gilboa. At this point, David offers a majestic eulogy, where he praises the bravery and magnificence of both his friend Jonathan and King Saul; the elders of Judah anoint David as king, but in the north Saul's son Ish-bosheth, or Ishbaal, rules over the northern tribes. After a long war, Ishbaal is murdered by Rechab and Baanah, two of his captains who hope for a reward from David. David is anointed King of all Israel. David brings the Ark there. David wishes to build a temple, but Nathan tells him that one of his sons will be the one to build the temple. David defeats the enemies of Israel, slaughtering Philistines, Edomites and Arameans. David commits adultery with Bathsheba; when her husband, Uriah the Hittite returns from battle, David encourages him to go home and see his wife but Uriah declines in case David might need him.
David thus deliberately sends Uriah on a suicide mission. Nathan tells David. For the remainder of his reign there are problems. Amnon rapes his half-sister Tamar. Absalom kills Amnon, rebels against his father, David flees from Jerusalem. Absalom is killed following the Battle of the Wood of Ephraim, David is restored as king, he returns to his palace. Only two contenders for the succession remain, son of David and Haggith, Solomon, son of David and Bathsheba; the Second Book of Samuel concludes with four chapters (chap
Book of Judges
The Book of Judges is the seventh book of the Hebrew Bible and the Christian Old Testament. In the narrative of the Hebrew Bible, it covers the time between the conquest described in the Book of Joshua and the establishment of a kingdom in the Books of Samuel, during which Biblical judges served as temporary leaders; the stories follow a consistent pattern: the people are unfaithful to Yahweh and he therefore delivers them into the hands of their enemies. Scholars consider many of the stories in Judges to be the oldest in the Deuteronomistic history, with their major redaction dated to the 8th century BCE and with materials such as the Song of Deborah dating from much earlier. Judges can be divided into three major sections: a double prologue, a main body, a double epilogue; the book opens with the Israelites in the land that God has promised to them, but worshiping "foreign gods" instead of Yahweh, the God of Israel, with the Canaanites still present everywhere. Chapters 1:1–2:5 are thus a confession of failure, while chapters 2:6–3:6 are a major summary and reflection from the Deuteronomists.
The opening thus sets out the pattern which the stories in the main text will follow: Israel "does evil in the eyes of Yahweh", the people are given into the hands of their enemies and cry out to Yahweh, Yahweh raises up a leader, the "spirit of Yahweh" comes upon the leader, the leader manages to defeat the enemy, peace is regained. Once peace is regained, Israel does right and receives Yahweh's blessings for a time, but relapses into doing evil and repeats the pattern set forth above. Judges opens with a reference to Joshua's death; the Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges suggests that "the death of Joshua may be regarded as marking the division between the period of conquest and the period of occupation", the latter being the focus of the Book of Judges. The Israelites meet, most at the sanctuary at Gilgal or at Shechem and ask the Lord who should be first to secure the land they are to occupy; the main text gives accounts of six major judges and their struggles against the oppressive kings of surrounding nations, as well as the story of Abimelech, an Israelite leader who oppresses his own people.
The cyclical pattern set out in the prologue is apparent at the beginning, but as the stories progress it begins to disintegrate, mirroring the disintegration of the world of the Israelites. Although some scholars consider the stories not to be presented in chronological order, the judges in the order in which they appear in the text are: Othniel vs. Chushan-Rishathaim, King of Aram. Ehud vs. Eglon of Moab Deborah the prophetess, accompanied by Barak the army leader, vs. Jabin of Hazor and Sisera, his captain Gideon vs. Midian and the "children of the East" Abimelech vs. all the Israelites who oppose him Jephthah vs. the Ammonites Samson vs. the PhilistinesThere are brief glosses on six minor judges: Shamgar and Jair, Ibzan and Abdon. Some scholars have inferred that the minor judges were actual adjudicators, whereas the major judges were leaders and did not make legal judgements; the only major judge described as making legal judgments is Deborah. By the end of Judges, the Israelites are in a worse condition than they were at the beginning, with Yahweh's treasures used to make idolatrous images, the Levites corrupted, the tribe of Dan conquering a remote village instead of the Canaanite cities, the tribes of Israel making war on the tribe of Benjamin, their own kinsmen.
The book concludes with two appendices, stories which do not feature a specific judge: Micah's Idol, how the tribe of Dan conquers its territory in the north Battle of Gibeah, a war between Benjamin and the other tribes. Despite their appearance at the end of the book, certain characters and idioms present in the epilogue show that the events therein depict a point in time early in the period of the judges. Judges contains a chronology of its events, it is overtly schematic and, according to biblical scholar Jeremy Hughes, shows signs of having been introduced at a period. It is unclear; the basic source for Judges was a collection of loosely connected stories about tribal heroes who saved the people in battle. This original "book of saviours" made up of the stories of Ehud and parts of Gideon, had been enlarged and transformed into "wars of Yahweh" before being given a comprehensive Deuteronomistic revision. In the 20th century, the first part of the prologue and the two parts of the epilogue were seen as miscellaneous collections of fragments tacked onto the main text, the second part of the prologue as an introduction composed expressly for the book.
More this view has been challenged, there is an increasing willingness to see Judges as the work of a single individual, working by sel
According to the Book of Judges, Deborah was a prophetess of the God of the Israelites, the fourth Judge of pre-monarchic Israel and the only female judge mentioned in the Bible, the wife of Lapidoth. Deborah told Barak that God commanded him to lead an attack against the forces of Jabin king of Canaan and his military commander Sisera. Judges chapter 5 gives the same story in poetic form; this passage called The Song of Deborah, may date to as early as the twelfth century BC, is the earliest sample of Hebrew poetry. In the Book of Judges, it is stated that Deborah was a prophet, a judge of Israel and the wife of Lapidoth, she rendered her judgments beneath a date palm tree between Ramah in Benjamin and Bethel in the land of Ephraim. The people of Israel had been oppressed by Jabin, the king of Canaan, whose capital was Hazor, for twenty years. Stirred by the wretched condition of Israel she sends a message to Barak, the son of Abinoam, at Kedesh of Naphtali, tells him that the Lord God had commanded him to muster ten thousand troops of Naphtali and Zebulun and concentrate them upon Mount Tabor, the mountain at the northern angle of the great plain of Esdraelon.
At the same time she states that the Lord God of Israel will draw Sisera, commander of Jabin's army, to the River Kishon. Barak declines to go without the prophet. Deborah declares that the glory of the victory will therefore belong to a woman; as soon as the news of the rebellion reaches Sisera he collects nine hundred chariots of iron and a host of people. Deborah said, according to Judges 4:14: "Go! This is the day. Has not the Lord gone ahead of you?" So Barak went down Mount Tabor, with ten thousand men following him. As Deborah prophesied, a battle is fought, Sisera is defeated, he himself escapes on foot, while his army is pursued as far as Harosheth of the Gentiles and destroyed. Sisera comes to the tent of Jael, he asks for a drink. The Biblical account of Deborah ends with the statement that after the battle, there was peace in the land for 40 years; the Song of Deborah is found in Judges 5:2–31 and is a victory hymn, sung by Deborah and Barak, about the defeat of Canaanite adversaries by some of the tribes of Israel.
Biblical scholars have identified the Song as one of the oldest parts of the Bible, dating somewhere in the 12th century BC, based on its grammar and context. However, some scholars have argued that the song's language and content indicate that it was written no earlier than the 7th century BC; the song itself differs from the events described in Judges 4. The song mentions six participating tribes as opposed to the two tribes in Judges 4:6 and does not mention the role of Jabin. Though it is not uncommon to read a victory hymn in the Hebrew Bible, the Song of Deborah stands out as unique in that it is a hymn that celebrates a military victory helped by two women: Deborah and Jael. Michael Coogan writes that Jael being a woman "is a further sign that Yahweh is responsible for the victory: the mighty Canaanite general Sisera will be'sold' by the Lord'into the hand of a woman'". Traditional Jewish chronology places Deborah's 40 years of judging Israel from 1107 BC until her death in 1067 BC; the Dictionary of World Biography: The Ancient World claims that she might have lived in the period between 1200 BC to 1124 BC.
Based on archaeological findings, different biblical scholars have argued that Deborah's war with Sisera best fits the context of either the second half of the 12th century BC or the second half of the 11th century BC. Battle of Mount Tabor The Deborah number Handel's Deborah Book of Judges article, Jewish Encyclopedia Debbora, Catholic Encyclopedia Biblical Hebrew Poetry - Reconstructing the Original Oral and Visual Experience Song of Deborah Reconstructed
Baal, properly Baʿal, was a title and honorific meaning "owner," "lord" in the Northwest Semitic languages spoken in the Levant during antiquity. From its use among people, it came to be applied to gods. Scholars associated the theonym with solar cults and with a variety of unrelated patron deities, but inscriptions have shown that the name Baʿal was associated with the storm and fertility god Hadad and his local manifestations; the Hebrew Bible and curated over a span of centuries, includes generic use of the term in reference to various Levantine deities, pointed application towards Hadad, decried as a false god. That use was taken over into Christianity and Islam, sometimes under the opprobrious form Beelzebub in demonology; the spelling of the English term "Baal" derives from the Greek Báal, which appears in the New Testament and Septuagint, from its Latinized form Baal, which appears in the Vulgate. These forms in turn derive from the vowel-less Northwest Semitic form BʿL; the word's biblical senses as a Phoenician deity and false gods were extended during the Protestant Reformation to denote any idols, icons of the saints, or the Catholic Church generally.
In such contexts, it follows the anglicized pronunciation and omits any mark between its two As. In close transliteration of the Semitic name, the ayin is represented, as Baʿal. In the Northwest Semitic languages—Ugaritic, Hebrew and Aramaic—the word baʿal signified "owner" and, by extension, "lord", a "master", or "husband". Cognates include the Akkadian Bēlu, Amharic bal, Arabic baʿl. Báʿal and baʿl still serve as the words for "husband" in modern Arabic respectively, they appear in some contexts concerning the ownership of things or possession of traits. The feminine form is baʿalah, meaning "mistress" in the sense of a female owner or lady of the house and still serving as a rare word for "wife". Suggestions in early modern scholarship included comparison with the Celtic god Belenus. Like EN in Sumerian, the Akkadian bēlu and Northwest Semitic baʿal was used as a title of various deities in the Mesopotamian and Semitic pantheons. Only a definitive article, genitive or epithet, or context could establish which particular god was meant.
Baʿal was used as a proper name by the third millennium BCE, when he appears in a list of deities at Abu Salabikh. Most modern scholarship asserts that this Baʿal—usually distinguished as "The Lord" —was identical with the storm and fertility god Hadad. Scholars propose that, as the cult of Hadad increased in importance, his true name came to be seen as too holy for any but the high priest to speak aloud and the alias "Lord" was used instead, as "Bel" was used for Marduk among the Babylonians and "Adonai" for Yahweh among the Israelites. A minority propose that Baʿal was a native Canaanite deity whose cult was identified with or absorbed aspects of Adad's. Regardless of their original relationship, by the 1st millennium BCE, the two were distinct: Hadad was worshipped by the Aramaeans and Baʿal by the Phoenicians and other Canaanites; the Phoenician Baʿal is identified with either El or Dagan. Baʿal is well-attested in surviving inscriptions and was popular in theophoric names throughout the Levant but he is mentioned along with other gods, "his own field of action being defined".
Nonetheless, Ugaritic records show him as a weather god, with particular power over lightning, wind and fertility. The dry summers of the area were explained as Baʿal's time in the underworld and his return in autumn was said to cause the storms which revived the land. Thus, the worship of Baʿal in Canaan—where he supplanted El as the leader of the gods and patron of kingship—was connected to the regions' dependence on rainfall for its agriculture, unlike Egypt and Mesopotamia, which focused on irrigation from their major rivers. Anxiety about the availability of water for crops and trees increased the importance of his cult, which focused attention on his role as a rain god, he was called upon during battle, showing that he was thought to intervene in the world of man, unlike the more aloof El. The Lebanese city of Baalbeck was named after Baal; the Baʿal of Ugarit was the epithet of Hadad but as the time passed, the epithet became the god's name while Hadad became the epithet. Baʿal was said to be the son of Dagan, but appears as one of the sons of El in Ugaritic sources.
Both Baʿal and El were associated with the bull in Ugaritic texts, as it symbolized both strength and fertility. The virgin goddess ʿAnat was his sister and sometimes credited with a child through him, he held special enmity against snakes, both on their own and as representatives of Yammu, the Canaanite sea god and river god. He fought the Tannin, the "Twisted Serpent", "Litan the Fugitive Serpent", the "Mighty One with Seven Heads". Baʿal's conflict with Yammu is now regarded as the prototype of the vision recorded in the 7th chapter of the biblical Book of Daniel; as vanquisher of the sea, Baʿal was regarded by the Canaanites and Phoenicians as the patron of sailors and sea-going merchants. As vanquisher of Mot, the Canaanite death god, he was known as Baʿal Rāpiʾuma and regarded as the leader of the Rephaim, the ancestral spirits those of ruling dynasties. From Canaan, worship of Baʿal spread to Egypt by the Middle Kingdom and throughout the Mediterranean following the waves of Phoenician colonization in the early 1st mill