Billy Jack is a 1971 action/drama independent film, the second of four films centering on a character of the same name which began with the movie The Born Losers, played by Tom Laughlin, who directed and co-wrote the script. Filming began in Prescott, Arizona, in the fall of 1969, but the movie was not completed until 1971. American International Pictures pulled out. 20th Century-Fox came forward and filming resumed but when that studio refused to distribute the film, Warner Bros. stepped forward. Still, the film lacked distribution, so Laughlin booked it into theaters himself in 1971; the film grossed $10 million in its initial run, but added close to $50 million in its re-release, with distribution supervised by Laughlin. Billy Jack is a "half-breed" American Navajo Indian, a Green Beret Vietnam War veteran, a hapkido master. Jack defends the hippie-themed Freedom School and students from townspeople who do not understand or like the counterculture students; the school is organized by its director Jean Roberts.
A group of children of various races from the school go to town for ice cream and are refused service and abused and humiliated by Bernard Posner, the son of the county's corrupt political boss, his gang. This prompts a violent outburst by Billy. Jean is raped by Bernard, who murders an Indian student. Billy confronts Bernard, whom he catches in bed with a 13-year-old girl, sustains a gunshot wound before killing him with a hand strike to the throat. After a climactic shootout with the police and pleading with Jean, Billy Jack surrenders to the authorities in exchange for a decade-long guarantee that the school will be allowed to continue to run with Jean as its head; as Billy is driven away in handcuffs, a large crowd of supporters raise their fists as a show of defiance and support. Billy Jack holds a "Fresh" rating of 60% at Rotten Tomatoes based on 15 reviews, with an average grade of 5.4 out of 10. In his Movie and Video Guide, film critic Leonard Maltin gave the film 1.5 stars out of 4, writing: "Seen today, its politics are questionable, its'message' of peace looks ridiculous, considering the amount of violence in the film."
Roger Ebert gave the film 2.5 stars out of 4 and saw the message of the film as self-contradictory, writing: "I'm somewhat disturbed by the central theme of the movie.'Billy Jack' seems to be saying the same thing as'Born Losers,' that a gun is better than a constitution in the enforcement of justice." Howard Thompson of The New York Times agreed, calling the film "well-aimed but misguided" as he wrote, "For a picture that preaches pacifism,'Billy Jack' seems fascinated by its violence, of which it is full." His review added that "some of the non-professional delivery of lines in the script by Mr. Frank and Teresa Christina is awful." Variety opined that "the action drags" and at nearly two hours' running length, "The message is rammed down the spectators' throats and is sorely in need of considerable editing to tell a straightforward story." Gene Siskel gave the film 3.5 stars out of 4, calling it "a film that tries to say too many things in too many ways within an adequate story line, but it has such freshness, original humor and compassion that one is moved to genuine emotion."
Kevin Thomas of the Los Angeles Times liked the film, praising its "searing tension that sustains it through careening unevenness to a smash finish. Crude and sensational yet urgent and pertinent, this provocative Warners release is in its unique, awkward way one of the year's important pictures." Gary Arnold of The Washington Post panned the film as "horrendously self-righteous and devious," explaining, "Every social issue is dramatized in terms of absolute, apolitical good and evil. The good guys... are next to angelic, while the bad guys are, according to the needs of the moment, utter buffoons or utter devils. Anyone with the slightest trace of skepticism or sophistication would tend to reject the movie out of hand and with good reason, since this kind of simplification is and deceitful." David Wilson of The Monthly Film Bulletin wrote, "If in the end Billy Jack is as much a sell-out as any glossier version of commercialised iconoclasm, there is enough innocent sincerity in the film to demonstrate that Tom Laughlin at least has the courage of his convictions if those convictions are scarcely thought out."Delores Taylor received a Golden Globe nomination as Most Promising Newcoming Actress.
Tom Laughlin won the grand prize for the film at the 1971 Taormina International Film Festival in Italy. The film is recognized by American Film Institute in these lists: 2003: AFI's 100 Years...100 Heroes & Villains: Billy Jack – Nominated Hero The film score was composed and conducted by Mundell Lowe and the soundtrack album was released on the Warner Bros. label. The Allmusic review states "a strange and striking combination of styles that somehow is effective... a listenable disc whose flaws only add to the warmth". The film's theme song, a re-recording of "One Tin Soldier" by Jinx Dawson with session musicians providing the backing, credited to the band Coven, became a Top 40 hit in 1971. All compositions by Mundell Lowe, except as indicated. "One Tin Soldier" – 3:18 "Hello Billy Jack" – 0:45 "Old and the New" – 1:00 "Johnnie" – 2:35 "Look, Look to the Mountain" – 1:40 "When Will Billy Love Me" – 3:24 "Freedom Over Me" – 0:35 "All Forked Tongue Talk Alike" – 2:54 "Challenge" – 2:20 "Rainbow Made of Children" (Baker
Sally Margaret Field is an American actress and director. She is the recipient of various accolades, including two Academy Awards, three Primetime Emmy Awards, two Golden Globe Awards, a Screen Actors Guild Award and has been nominated for a Tony Award and two BAFTA Awards. Field began her professional career on television, starring in eponymous roles on the short-lived sitcoms Gidget, The Flying Nun, The Girl with Something Extra. In 1976, her career saw a turning point when she garnered critical acclaim of her portrayal of a woman suffering from multiple personality disorder in the television miniseries Sybil, for which she received the Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Lead Actress in a Limited Series or Movie. Although her film debut was as an extra in Moon Pilot, her film career escalated during the 1970s with starring roles in successful films including Stay Hungry and the Bandit, The End, Hooper, her career further expanded during the 1980s, twice receiving the Academy Award for Best Actress for Norma Rae and Places in the Heart, continued to appear in a wide range of acclaimed and successful films including Smokey and the Bandit II, Absence of Malice, Kiss Me Goodbye, Murphy's Romance, Steel Magnolias, Mrs. Doubtfire, Forrest Gump.
In the 2000s, she returned to television with a recurring role on the NBC medical drama ER, for which she won the Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Guest Actress in a Drama Series in 2001 and the following year made her stage debut with Edward Albee's The Goat, or Who Is Sylvia?. From 2006 to 2011, she portrayed the protagonist Nora Walker on the ABC television drama Brothers & Sisters, for which she received the Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Lead Actress in a Drama Series in 2007. In 2010s, her film career saw a resurgence, she starred as Mary Todd Lincoln in Lincoln, for which she received a nomination for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress and portrayed Aunt May in The Amazing Spider-Man and its 2014 sequel, with the former becoming her highest grossing release. In 2015, she portrayed the titular character in Hello, My Name Is Doris, for which she was nominated for the Critics' Choice Movie Award for Best Actress in a Comedy. In 2017, she returned to stage after an absence of 15 years with the revival of Tennessee Williams' The Glass Menagerie for which she received a nomination for the Tony Award for Best Actress in a Play.
As a director, Field is known for the television film The Christmas Tree, an episode of the 1998 HBO miniseries From the Earth to the Moon, the feature film Beautiful. In 2014, she was presented with a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. Sally Field was born in California, to Margaret Field and Richard Dryden Field, her father was an army officer. Following her parents' 1950 divorce, her mother married stuntman Jock Mahoney. Field alleged in her 2018 memoir. Through her maternal grandmother's genealogical line, Field is a descendant of Mayflower passenger and colonial governor William Bradford, her tenth great-grandfather; as a teen, Field attended Portola Middle School and Birmingham High School in Van Nuys, where she was a cheerleader. Her classmates included financier Michael Milken, actress Cindy Williams, talent agent Michael Ovitz. Field got her start on television as the boy-crazy surfer girl in the sitcom Gidget; the show was canceled after a single season. Wanting to find a new starring vehicle for Field, ABC next produced The Flying Nun with Field cast as Sister Bertrille for three seasons, from 1967 to 1970.
In an interview included on the Season One DVD release, Field said that she enjoyed Gidget, but hated The Flying Nun because she was not treated with respect by the show's directors. Field was typecast, finding respectable roles difficult to come by. In 1971, Field starred in the ABC TV movie Maybe I'll Come Home in the Spring, playing a discouraged teen runaway who returns home with a bearded, drug-abusing hippie, she made several guest television appearances through the mid 1970s, including a role on the western Alias Smith and Jones, a popular TV series starring Gidget co-star Pete Duel. She appeared in the episode "Whisper" on the TV thriller Night Gallery. In 1973, Field was cast in a starring role opposite John Davidson in the short-lived series The Girl with Something Extra from 1973 to 1974. Following the series' cancellation, Field studied at the Actors Studio with the acting teacher Lee Strasberg. Strasberg became a mentor to the actress, helping her to move past her television image of the girl next door.
It was during this time period that Field divorced her first husband in 1975. Soon after studying with Strasberg, Field landed the title role in the 1976 TV film Sybil, based on the book by Flora Rheta Schreiber, her dramatic portrayal of a young woman afflicted with multiple personality disorder earned her a best dramatic actress Emmy Award in 1977 and enabled her to break through the typecasting of her sitcom work. In 1977, she co-starred with Burt Reynolds, Jackie Gleason, Jerry Reed in the year's #2 highest-grossing film and the Bandit. In 1979, Field played the eponymous union organizer in Norma Rae, a successful film that established her as a dramatic actress. Vincent Canby, reviewing the film for The New York Times, wrote: "Norma Rae is a concerned contemporary drama, illuminated by some good performances and one, Miss Field's, that is
Thomas Robert Laughlin Jr. known as Tom Laughlin, was an American actor, screenwriter, author and activist. Laughlin was best known for his series of Billy Jack films, he was married to actress Delores Taylor from 1954 until his death. Taylor acted in all four Billy Jack films, his unique promotion of The Trial of Billy Jack was a major influence on the way. In the early 1960s, Laughlin put his film career on hiatus to start a Montessori preschool in Santa Monica, California. In his years, he sought the office of President of the United States in 1992, 2004, 2008, he was involved in psychology and domestic abuse counseling, writing several books on Jungian psychology and developing theories on the causes of cancer. Laughlin was born in Milwaukee, the son of Margaret and Thomas Laughlin, he attended Washington High School, where he was involved in an athletics controversy that made headlines throughout the city, caused by Laughlin being forced to attend another school for a brief period, making him ineligible to play football at his former school on his return.
Laughlin attended the University of Wisconsin, before transferring to Marquette University. He played halfback at Marquette. Laughlin decided to become an actor after seeing a production of A Streetcar Named Desire. According to a 1956 newspaper interview, he became involved in the drama program at Marquette after being encouraged by a university professor, Father John J. Walsh. While a student he formed a stock group and directed and starred in a production of Arthur Miller's All My Sons, he transferred to the University of South Dakota, where he majored in radio acting and producing. He met his future wife Delores Taylor in South Dakota. Laughlin wrote the original screenplay for the film Billy Jack in 1954, after witnessing the treatment of Native Americans in his wife's hometown, South Dakota; the two wed on October 15, 1954. He began his screen-acting career in the 1955 television series Climax!. From there he went on to appear in several feature films including: These Wilder Years, Lafayette Escadrille and Sympathy and South Pacific.
He appeared in several episodes of various television series throughout the late 1950s. In 1958, Mr. Laughlin appeared in a small but memorable role in South Pacific, the movie version of the James Michener book and Rodgers and Hammerstein musical as a Navy pilot, Lt. Buzz Adams. In 1959, he was cast as young Tom Fowler in the episode "The Fight Back" of the NBC western series, Riverboat. In the story line, Fowler has made himself the boss of Hampton, a corrupt river town near Vicksburg, Mississippi, he blocks farmers from shipping their crops to market. In a dispute over a wedding held on the river vessel, the Enterprise, a lynch mob led by Fowler comes after Captain Grey Holden. Appearing in this episode are John Ireland as Chris Slade and Karl Swenson as Ansel Torgin. In 1959, Laughlin appeared in the film Gidget as "Lover Boy". However, he failed to earn a living in the early years, having told People magazine in 1975, "We were living on $5 a week and eating Spam. I stole Christmas cards from a church so I could write home saying how well we were, but I couldn't afford the stamps."Laughlin's first starring role was in Robert Altman's 1957 film The Delinquents, in which he played Scotty White, a teenager who gets mixed up with a gang when he is told he can no longer see his girlfriend.
Despite the film's low budget, it became a cult film, with Alfred Hitchcock among its fans. However and Altman did not get along well, having differing views on acting; the film was a romantic drama set on the campus of UCLA. Laughlin shot the film on the campus in six days working with a $20,000 budget. Laughlin wrote and starred in The Young Sinner. Filmed in 1960, shot in Milwaukee over a period of 14 days, it is the story of a star high school athlete who falls deeper and deeper into trouble after being caught in bed with his girlfriend; the film was intended to be the first of a trilogy entitled. It premiered in 1963 under the original title Among the Thorns, changed to The Young Sinner upon its 1965 re-release. In 1960, Laughlin planned to make a film, Poison in Our Land, based on the true story of a Texas couple affected by atomic radiation, but the project was never realized. In 1959, Laughlin and his wife founded a Montessori preschool in California. By 1961, Laughlin had left the film business to devote all of his time to the school, which by 1964 had become the largest school of its kind in the United States.
It was profiled by Time magazine in July of that year. However, by 1965, the school had gone bankrupt. One of his students was son of Laughlin's friend, Marlon Brando. In 1965, Laughlin told the Milwaukee Sentinel that he planned to make a film on the life of a noted Catholic priest, Father William DuBay. However, the picture did not get past the planning stages. Two years in 1967, he wrote and starred in the motorcycle-gang exploitation film The Born Losers; this was the first picture. It was a box-office hit. After The Born Losers, Laughlin was set to begin a film project with backing from such figures as Marlon Brando, Jack Lemmon, Candice Bergen, director Robert W
Gidget Gets Married
Gidget Gets Married is a 1972 American made-for television comedy film produced by Screen Gems for ABC. It was written by John McGreevey and directed by E. W. starred Monie Ellis as Gidget. Now that Jeff has completed his military service and landed a lucrative job as an engineer, he and Gidget marry and move to Glossop, where his new job is. Gidget finds that Jeff's company exerts far too much control over their lives, deciding where they will live and choosing their friends for them. Gidget's rebellion against this lands Jeff in hot water, their marriage is sorely tested. Gidget Gidget Goes Hawaiian Gidget Goes to Rome Gidget Gidget's Summer Reunion List of television films produced for American Broadcasting Company Gidget Gets Married on IMDb Two video clips, both trailers for Gidget Gets Married
Princeton University is a private Ivy League research university in Princeton, New Jersey. Founded in 1746 in Elizabeth as the College of New Jersey, Princeton is the fourth-oldest institution of higher education in the United States and one of the nine colonial colleges chartered before the American Revolution; the institution moved to Newark in 1747 to the current site nine years and renamed itself Princeton University in 1896. Princeton provides undergraduate and graduate instruction in the humanities, social sciences, natural sciences, engineering, it offers professional degrees through the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, the School of Engineering and Applied Science, the School of Architecture and the Bendheim Center for Finance. The university has ties with the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton Theological Seminary and the Westminster Choir College of Rider University. Princeton has the largest endowment per student in the United States. From 2001 to 2018, Princeton University was ranked either first or second among national universities by U.
S. News & World Report, holding the top spot for 16 of those 18 years; as of October 2018, 65 Nobel laureates, 15 Fields Medalists and 13 Turing Award laureates have been affiliated with Princeton University as alumni, faculty members or researchers. In addition, Princeton has been associated with 21 National Medal of Science winners, 5 Abel Prize winners, 5 National Humanities Medal recipients, 209 Rhodes Scholars, 139 Gates Cambridge Scholars and 126 Marshall Scholars. Two U. S. Presidents, twelve U. S. Supreme Court Justices and numerous living billionaires and foreign heads of state are all counted among Princeton's alumni body. Princeton has graduated many prominent members of the U. S. Congress and the U. S. Cabinet, including eight Secretaries of State, three Secretaries of Defense and three of the past five Chairs of the Federal Reserve. New Light Presbyterians founded the College of New Jersey in 1746; the college was the religious capital of Scottish Presbyterian America. In 1754, trustees of the College of New Jersey suggested that, in recognition of Governor Jonathan Belcher's interest, Princeton should be named as Belcher College.
Belcher replied: "What a name that would be!" In 1756, the college moved to New Jersey. Its home in Princeton was Nassau Hall, named for the royal House of Orange-Nassau of William III of England. Following the untimely deaths of Princeton's first five presidents, John Witherspoon became president in 1768 and remained in that office until his death in 1794. During his presidency, Witherspoon shifted the college's focus from training ministers to preparing a new generation for secular leadership in the new American nation. To this end, he solicited investment in the college. Witherspoon's presidency constituted a long period of stability for the college, interrupted by the American Revolution and the Battle of Princeton, during which British soldiers occupied Nassau Hall. In 1812, the eighth president of the College of New Jersey, Ashbel Green, helped establish the Princeton Theological Seminary next door; the plan to extend the theological curriculum met with "enthusiastic approval on the part of the authorities at the College of New Jersey".
Today, Princeton University and Princeton Theological Seminary maintain separate institutions with ties that include services such as cross-registration and mutual library access. Before the construction of Stanhope Hall in 1803, Nassau Hall was the college's sole building; the cornerstone of the building was laid on September 17, 1754. During the summer of 1783, the Continental Congress met in Nassau Hall, making Princeton the country's capital for four months. Over the centuries and through two redesigns following major fires, Nassau Hall's role shifted from an all-purpose building, comprising office, dormitory and classroom space; the class of 1879 donated twin lion sculptures that flanked the entrance until 1911, when that same class replaced them with tigers. Nassau Hall's bell rang after the hall's construction; the bell was recast and melted again in the fire of 1855. James McCosh took office as the college's president in 1868 and lifted the institution out of a low period, brought about by the American Civil War.
During his two decades of service, he overhauled the curriculum, oversaw an expansion of inquiry into the sciences, supervised the addition of a number of buildings in the High Victorian Gothic style to the campus. McCosh Hall is named in his honor. In 1879, the first thesis for a Doctor of Philosophy Ph. D. was submitted by James F. Williamson, Class of 1877. In 1896, the college changed its name from the College of New Jersey to Princeton University to honor the town in which it resides. During this year, the college underwent large expansion and became a university. In 1900, the Graduate School was established. In 1902, Woodrow Wilson, graduate of the Class of 1879, was elected the 13th president of the university. Under Wilson, Princeton introduced the preceptorial system in 1905, a then-unique concept in the US that augmented the standard lecture method of teaching with a more personal form in which small groups of students, or precepts, could interact with a single instructor, or preceptor, in their field of interest.
In 1906, the reservoir Lake Carnegie was created by Andrew Carnegie. A collection of historical photographs of the build
Gidget is a 1959 Columbia Pictures CinemaScope feature film. It stars Sandra Dee, Cliff Robertson, James Darren in a story about a teenager's initiation into the California surf culture and her romance with a young surfer; the film—directed by Paul Wendkos—was the first of many screen appearances by the character Gidget, created by Hollywood writer Frederick Kohner. The screenplay was written by Gabrielle Upton, a nom de plume of Gillian Houghton, head writer of the soap opera The Secret Storm; this would be Upton's sole contribution to the Gidget canon. The story was based on the Little Girl with Big Ideas; the film, which received one award nomination, not only inspired various sequel films, a television series, television films, but is considered the beginning of the entire "beach party film" genre. Gidget is credited by numerous sources as the single biggest factor in the mainstreaming of surfing culture in the United States. Frances Lawrence is about to turn 17 and is on her summer break between her junior and senior years of high school.
She resists the pressure to go "manhunting" with her girlfriends and laments the days when the girls had fun together without boys. Frances rejects her parents wishing to fix her up on a date with the son of a friend of the family, Jeffrey Matthews. On a jaunt to the beach with her well developed girlfriends, flat-chested tomboy Frances meets surfer Moondoggie, she becomes infatuated with him, but he shows no romantic interest, however Frances is more attracted to surfing than man hunting. At home, Francie importunes her parents for $25 for a used surfboard. Russ and Dorothy Lawrence grant their daughter's request as an early birthday present and the excited youngster returns to the beach to surf; the gang dubs their female associate "Gidget", a portmanteau word based on'girl' and'midget'. She associates with an all-male surfer gang led by The Kahuna. Kahuna is a Korean War Air Force veteran twice the age of Frances, fed up with all the rules he had to live by when he flew combat missions and dropped out of normal society.
He travels the hemisphere surfing with his pet bird. Moondoggie admires Kahuna and wants to emulate him by joining Kahuna in working his way on a freighter to go surfing in Peru at summer's end instead of going off to university as his self-made father planned. Kahuna and Gidget enjoy each other's company with Gidget questioning how he can survive an aimless and lonely existence without a job, she questions whether if Kahuna knew what he knew now would he still make the same lifestyle choice after leaving the Air Force. Kahuna reflects on Gidget's words after the death of his only friend, the pet bird. Hoping to make Moondoggie jealous, Gidget hires one of the other surfers in the gang to be her date to a luau party on the beach, her plan backfires when the surfer she hired pawns the job off on none other than Moondoggie, unaware that he was the one Gidget wanted to make jealous. Gidget lies and tells Moondoggie that it is Kahuna that she wants to make jealous, they have a romantic evening at the luau.
Moondoggie says something that upsets Gidget and, as she flees the luau, she runs into Kahuna and agrees to take him to a nearby beach house. Alone with Kahuna, Gidget tries to make Kahuna take her virginity. Amused, Kahuna attempts to call Gidget's bluff by pretending to take her up on her offer but finds himself falling under her spell. Realizing what he was about to do and angry at the situation he's been put in, Kahuna throws her out of the beach house just as Moondoggie arrives. Gidget escapes out the back of the beach house as Moondoggie confronts Kahuna; the cops are called to break up the fight between Kahuna and Moondoggie and, after leaving the beach house, they find Gidget stranded with a flat tire and without her driver's license. They take her in to the police station. Gidget's father, having heard about the incident decides to take over control of her social life, orders her not to see the surfer gang again, she falls into a depression, to which mother shows her a tapestry from her grandmother reading "A Real Woman brings out the best in a Man".
In the end, Mr. Lawrence arranges a date for Gidget with Jeffrey Matthews that Frances grudgingly accepts. To her surprise, Matthews turns out to be Moondoggie; the two return to the beach to find Kahuna tearing down his beach shack and find out that he's taken a job as an airline pilot. Moondoggie and Gidget realize how they feel about each other and, as an act of romantic devotion, Moondoggie asks Gidget to wear his class pin. Kahuna cheerfully warns Moondoggie. Sandra Dee as Francie Lawrence aka Gidget James Darren as Jeffrey Matthews aka Moondoggie Cliff Robertson as Burt Vail aka The Big Kahuna Arthur O'Connell as Russell Lawrence The Four Preps as Band at Beach Mary LaRoche as Mrs. Dorothy Lawrence Joby Baker as Stinky Tom Laughlin as Lover Boy Sue George as Betty Louise aka B. L. Robert Ellis as Hot Shot Jo Morrow as Mary Lou Yvonne Craig as Nan Patti Kane as Patti Doug McClure as Waikiki Burt Metcalfe as Lord ByronThe studio wanted Elvis Presley to play the role of Moondoggie, but he was in the United States Army at the time.
Malibu surfers Miki Dora and Mickey Munoz appear in the surfing scenes. Fred Karger composed "Gidget" with lyrics by Patti Washington, "The Next Best Thing to Love" with lyrics by Stanley Styne. James Darren sang both numbers on-screen while The Four Preps sang "Gidget" over the opening cr
Hanna-Barbera Productions, Inc. was an American animation studio, founded in 1957 by Tom and Jerry creators and former Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer animation directors William Hanna and Joseph Barbera, in partnership with film director George Sidney. The studio was a prominent force and a leader in American television animation for over three decades in the mid-20th century as it created a wide variety of popular animated characters and produced a succession of cartoon series, including The Flintstones, The Yogi Bear Show, The Jetsons, Wacky Races, Scooby-Doo, Where Are You! and Smurfs. Hanna and Barbera's cartoons won them seven Academy Awards, eight Emmy Awards, a Governors Award and a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. With their studio now established as a successful company, the two men and original investor Sidney sold it to Taft Broadcasting on December 29, 1966. Taft would run it for the next quarter-century. By the mid-1980s, when the profitability of Saturday-morning cartoons was eclipsed by weekday afternoon syndication, Hanna-Barbera's fortunes had declined.
Turner Broadcasting System purchased the studio from Taft in late 1991 and used much of its back catalog as programming for its new channel, Cartoon Network. After Turner purchased the company and Barbera continued to serve as creative consultants and mentors; the studio became a subsidiary of Warner Bros. Animation in 1996 following Turner Broadcasting's merger with Time Warner, was absorbed into Warner Bros. Animation in 2001; as of 2019, Warner Bros. now distributes subsequent Hanna-Barbera cartoons, as well as now owning the rights to its back catalogue. William Hanna, a native of Melrose, New Mexico and Joseph Barbera, born of Italian heritage in New York City, first met at the Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer studio in 1939, while working at its animation division and thus began a partnership that would last for six decades, their first cartoon together, the Oscar-nominated Puss Gets the Boot, featuring a cat named Jasper and an unnamed mouse, was released to theaters in 1940 and served as the pilot for the long-running short subject theatrical series Tom and Jerry.
Hanna and Barbera served as directors of the shorts for over 20 years, with Hanna supervising the animation and Barbera in charge of the stories and pre-production. Hanna did the screams, yelps and yells of Tom. In addition being nominated for twelve Oscars, seven of the cartoons won seven Academy Awards for Best Short Subject between 1943 and 1953, awarded to producer Fred Quimby, not involved in the creative development of the shorts; the pair served as animation directors for the hybrid animated/live-action musical sequences in MGM's feature films Anchors Aweigh, Dangerous When Wet and Invitation to the Dance and wrote and directed a handful of one-shot cartoons for MGM: Gallopin' Gals, Officer Pooch, War Dogs and Good Will to Men, a 1955 remake of the 1939 MGM cartoon Peace on Earth. With Quimby's retirement in 1955, Hanna and Barbera became the producers in charge of the MGM animation studio's output, supervising the last seven shorts of Tex Avery's Droopy series and directing and producing a short-lived Tom and Jerry spin-off series and Tyke, which ran for two entries.
In addition to their work on the cartoons, the two men moonlighted on outside projects, including the original title sequences and commercials for the CBS sitcom I Love Lucy. With the rise of television, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer decided in early 1957 to close its cartoon studio, as it felt it had acquired a reasonable backlog of shorts for re-release. While contemplating their future and Barbera began producing animated television commercials and during their last year at Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, they had developed a concept for a new animated TV program about a dog and cat duo in various misadventures. After they failed to convince the studio to back their venture, live-action director George Sidney, who had worked with Hanna and Barbera on several of his theatrical features for MGM, offered to serve as their business partner and convinced Screen Gems, a television production subsidiary of Columbia Pictures, to make a deal with the producers. A coin toss would determine. Harry Cohn and head of Columbia Pictures, took an 18% ownership in Hanna and Barbera's new company, H-B Enterprises, provided working capital.
Screen Gems became the new studio's distributor and its licensing agent, handling merchandizing of the characters from the animated programs. The duo's cartoon firm opened for business in rented offices on the lot of Kling Studios on July 7, 1957, two months after the Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer animation studio closed down. Sidney and several Screen Gems alumni became members of the studio's board of directors and much of the former MGM animation staff — including animators Carlo Vinci, Kenneth Muse, Lewis Marshall, Michael Lah and Ed Barge and layout artists Ed Benedict and Richard Bickenbach — became the new production staff for the H-B studio. Conductor and composer Hoyt Curtin was in charge of providing the music while many voice actors came on board, such as Daws Butler, Don Messick, Julie Bennett, Mel Blanc, Howard Morris, John Stephenson, Hal Smith and Doug Young. H-B Enterprises was the first major animation studio to produce cartoons for television. Animated programming was rebroadcasts of theatrical cartoons.
Its first animated TV original The Ruff and Reddy Show, premiered on NBC in December 1957. The