Saint Nicholas of Myra known as Nicholas of Bari, was an early Christian bishop of the ancient Greek maritime city of Myra in Asia Minor during the time of the Roman Empire. He is revered by many Christians as a saint; because of the many miracles attributed to his intercession, he is known as Nicholas the Wonderworker. Saint Nicholas is the patron saint of sailors, archers, repentant thieves, brewers and students in various cities and countries around Europe, his reputation evolved among the faithful, as was common for early Christian saints, his legendary habit of secret gift-giving gave rise to the traditional model of Santa Claus through Sinterklaas. Little is known about the historical Saint Nicholas; the earliest accounts of his life were written centuries after his death and contain many legendary elaborations. He is said to have been born in the Greek seaport of Patara, Lycia in Asia Minor to wealthy Christian parents. In one of the earliest attested and most famous incidents from his life, he is said to have rescued three girls from being forced into prostitution by dropping a sack of gold coins through the window of their house each night for three nights so their father could pay a dowry for each of them.
Other early stories tell of him calming a storm at sea, saving three innocent soldiers from wrongful execution, chopping down a tree possessed by a demon. In his youth, he is said to have made a pilgrimage to the Palestine area. Shortly after his return, he became Bishop of Myra, he was cast into prison during the persecution of Diocletian, but was released after the accession of Constantine. An early list makes him an attendee at the First Council of Nicaea in 325, but he is never mentioned in any writings by people who were at the council. Late, unsubstantiated legends claim that he was temporarily defrocked and imprisoned during the Council for slapping the heretic Arius. Another famous late legend tells how he resurrected three children, murdered and pickled in brine by a butcher planning to sell them as pork during a famine. Fewer than 200 years after Nicholas's death, the St. Nicholas Church was built in Myra under the orders of Theodosius II over the site of the church, where he had served as bishop and Nicholas's remains were moved to a sarcophagus in that church.
In 1087, while the Greek Christian inhabitants of the region were subjugated by the newly arrived Muslim Seljuk Turks, soon after their church was declared to be in schism by the Catholic church, a group of merchants from the Italian city of Bari removed the major bones of Nicholas's skeleton from his sarcophagus in the church without authorization and brought them to their hometown, where they are now enshrined in the Basilica di San Nicola. The remaining bone fragments from the sarcophagus were removed by Venetian sailors and taken to Venice during the First Crusade, his relics in Bari are said to exude a miraculous watery substance known as "manna" or "myrrh", which some members of the faithful regard as possessing supernatural powers. Little at all is known about Saint Nicholas's historical life. Any writings Nicholas himself may have produced have been lost and he is not mentioned by any contemporary chroniclers; this is not surprising. Furthermore, all written records were kept on papyrus or parchment, which were less durable than modern paper, texts needed to be periodically recopied by hand onto new material in order to be preserved.
The earliest mentions of Saint Nicholas indicate that, by the sixth century, his cult was well-established. Less than two hundred years after Saint Nicholas's probable death, the Eastern Emperor Theodosius II ordered the building of the Church of Saint Nicholas in Myra, which thereby preserves an early mention of his name; the Byzantine historian Procopius mentions that the Emperor Justinian I renovated churches in Constantinople dedicated to Saint Nicholas and Saint Priscus, which may have been built as early as c. 490. Nicholas's name occurs as "Nicholas of Myra of Lycia" on the tenth line of a list of attendees at the Council of Nicaea recorded by the historian Theodoret in the Historiae Ecclesiasticae Tripartitae Epitome, written sometime between 510 and 515. A single, offhand mention of Nicholas of Myra occurs in the biography of another saint, Saint Nicholas of Sion, who took the name "Nicholas" to honor him; the Life of Saint Nicholas of Sion, written around 250 years after Nicholas of Myra's death mentions Nicholas of Sion visiting Nicholas's tomb to pay homage to him.
According to Jeremy Seal, the fact that Nicholas had a tomb that could be visited serves as the solitary definitive proof that he was a real historical figure. In his treatise De statu animarum post mortem, the theologian Eustratius of Constantinople cites Saint Nicholas of Myra's miracle of the three counts as evidence that souls may work independent from the body. Eustratius credits a lost Life of Saint Nicholas as his source. Nearly all the sources Eustratius references date from the late fourth century to early fifth century, indicating the Life of Saint Nicholas to which he refers was written during this time period, shortly after Nicholas's death; the earliest complete account of Nicholas's life that has survived to the present is a Life of Saint Nicholas, written in the early ninth century by Michael the Archimandrite, nearly 500 years after Nicholas's probable death. Despite its late date, Michael the Archimandrite's Life of Saint Nicholas is believed to rely on old
A souvenir, keepsake, or token of remembrance is an object a person acquires for the memories the owner associates with it. A souvenir can be any object that can be collected or purchased and transported home by the traveler as a memento of a visit. While there is no set minimum or maximum cost that one is required to adhere to when purchasing a souvenir, etiquette would suggest to keep it within a monetary amount that the receiver would not feel uncomfortable with when presented the souvenir; the object itself may be a symbol of experience. Without the owner's input, the symbolic meaning can not be articulated; the tourism industry designates tourism souvenirs as commemorative merchandise associated with a location including geographic information and produced in a manner that promotes souvenir collecting. Throughout the world, the souvenir trade is an important part of the tourism industry serving a dual role, first to help improve the local economy, second to allow visitors to take with them a memento of their visit to encourage an opportunity for a return visit, or to promote the locale to other tourists as a form of word-of-mouth marketing.
The most collected souvenirs by tourists are photographs as a medium to document specific events and places for future reference. Souvenirs as objects include mass-produced merchandise such as clothing: hats. Souvenirs include non-mass-produced items like folk art, local artisan handicrafts, objects that represent the traditions and culture of the area, non-commercial, natural objects like sand from a beach, anything else that a person attaches nostalgic value to and collects among his personal belongings. A more grisly form of souvenir in the First World War was displayed by a Pathan soldier to an English Territorial. After studying the Tommy's acquisitions, he produced a cord with the ears of enemy soldiers he claimed to have killed, he was keeping them to take back to India for his wife. Similar to souvenirs, memorabilia are objects treasured for historical interest. Examples include sporting events, historical events and entertainment; such items include: clothing. Memorabilia items are kept in protective covers or display cases to safeguard and preserve their condition.
In Japan, souvenirs are known as omiyage, are selected from meibutsu, or products associated with a particular region. Bringing back omiyage from trips to co-workers and families is a social obligation, can be considered a form of apology for the traveller's absence. Omiyage sales are big business at Japanese tourist sites. Unlike souvenirs, omiyage are special food products, packaged into several small portions to be distributed to all the members of a family or a workplace. Travelers may buy souvenirs as gifts for those. In the Philippines a similar tradition of bringing souvenirs as a gift to family members and coworkers is called pasalubong. Media related to Souvenirs at Wikimedia Commons
A gift economy, gift culture, or gift exchange is a mode of exchange where valuables are not traded or sold, but rather given without an explicit agreement for immediate or future rewards. This exchange contrasts with a barter economy or a market economy, where goods and services are exchanged for value received. Social norms and custom govern gift exchange. Gifts are not given in an explicit exchange of goods or services for some other commodity; the nature of gift economies forms the subject of a foundational debate in anthropology. Anthropological research into gift economies began with Bronisław Malinowski's description of the Kula ring in the Trobriand Islands during World War I; the Kula trade appeared to be gift-like since Trobrianders would travel great distances over dangerous seas to give what were considered valuable objects without any guarantee of a return. Malinowski's debate with the French anthropologist Marcel Mauss established the complexity of "gift exchange" and introduced a series of technical terms such as reciprocity, inalienable possessions, presentation to distinguish between the different forms of exchange.
According to anthropologists Maurice Bloch and Jonathan Parry, it is the unsettled relationship between market and non-market exchange that attracts the most attention. Gift economies are said, by some, to build communities, with the market serving as an acid on those relationships. Gift exchange is distinguished from other forms of exchange by a number of principles, such as the form of property rights governing the articles exchanged. Gift ideology in commercialized societies differs from the "prestations" typical of non-market societies. Gift economies must be differentiated from several related phenomena, such as common property regimes and the exchange of non-commodified labour. According to anthropologist Jonathan Parry, discussion on the nature of gifts, of a separate sphere of gift exchange that would constitute an economic system, has been plagued by the ethnocentric use of modern, market society-based conception of the gift applied as if it were a cross-cultural, pan-historical universal.
However, he claims that anthropologists, through analysis of a variety of cultural and historical forms of exchange, have established that no universal practice exists. His classic summation of the gift exchange debate highlighted that ideologies of the "pure gift" "are most to arise in differentiated societies with an advanced division of labour and a significant commercial sector" and need to be distinguished from non-market "prestations". According to Weiner, to speak of a "gift economy" in a non-market society is to ignore the distinctive features of their exchange relationships, as the early classic debate between Bronislaw Malinowski and Marcel Mauss demonstrated. Gift exchange is "embedded" in political, kin, or religious institutions, therefore does not constitute an "economic" system per se. Gift-giving is a form of transfer of property rights over particular objects; the nature of those property rights varies from society to society, from culture to culture, are not universal. The nature of gift-giving is thus altered by the type of property regime in place.
Property is not a thing. According to Chris Hann, property is a social relationship that governs the conduct of people with respect to the use and disposition of things. Anthropologists analyze these relationships in terms of a variety of actors' "bundle of rights" over objects. An example is the current debates around intellectual property rights. Hann and Strangelove both give the example of a purchased book, over which the author retains a "copyright". Although the book is a commodity and sold, it has not been "alienated" from its creator who maintains a hold over it. Weiner has argued that the ability to give while retaining a right to the gift/commodity is a critical feature of the gifting cultures described by Malinowski and Mauss, explains, for example, why some gifts such as Kula valuables return to their original owners after an incredible journey around the Trobriand islands; the gifts given in Kula exchange still remain, in the property of the giver. In the example used above, "copyright" is one of those bundled rights that regulate the use and disposition of a book.
Gift-giving in many societies is complicated because "private property" owned by an individual may be quite limited in scope. Productive resources, such as land, may be held by members of a corporate group, but only some members of that group may have "use rights"; when many people hold rights over the same objects gifting has different implications than the gifting of private property. Anthropologist Annette Weiner refers to these types of objects as "inalienable possessions" and to the process as "keeping while giving". Malinowski's study of the Kula ring became the subject of debate with the French anthropologist, Marcel Mauss, author of "The Gift". In Parry's view, Malinowski placed the emphasis on the exchange of goods between individuals, their non-altruistic motives for giving the gift: they expected a return of equal or greater value. Malinowski stated.
Eid al-Adha called the "Festival of Sacrifice", is the second of two Islamic holidays celebrated worldwide each year, considered the holier of the two. It honors the willingness of Ibrahim to sacrifice his son as an ct of obedience to God's command. But, before Abraham could sacrifice his son, God provided a lamb to sacrifice instead. In commemoration of this, an animal is sacrificed and divided into three parts: one part of the share is given to the poor and needy. In the Islamic lunar calendar, Eid al-Adha falls on the 10th day of Dhu al-Hijjah. In the international calendar, the dates vary from year to year drifting 11 days earlier each year. In languages other than Arabic, the name is simply translated into the local language, such as English Feast of the Sacrifice, German Opferfest, Dutch Offerfeest, Romanian Sărbătoarea Sacrificiului, Hungarian Áldozati ünnep. In Spanish it is known as Fiesta del Borrego, it is known as عید البقرة ʿĪd al-Baqarah in Egypt, Saudi Arabia and in the Middle East, as عید قربان Id-e Qorbān in Iran, Kurban Bayramı in Turkey, কোরবানীর ঈদ Korbanir Id in Bangladesh, as عید الكبير ʿĪd el-Kebīr in the Maghreb, as Tfaska Tamoqqart in Jerba Berber, as Iduladha, Hari Raya Aiduladha, Hari Raya Haji or Qurban in Singapore, Malaysia and the Philippines, as بکرا عید Bakrā Īd or بڑی عید Baṛī Īd in Pakistan and India, Bakara Eid in Trinidad and as Tabaski or Tobaski in Senegal and Odún Iléyá by Yorúbà People in Nigeria West Africa.
The following names are used as other names of Eid al-Adha: Īd al-Azhā / Īdul-Azhā / Iduladha is used in Urdu, Assamese, Bengali and Austronesian languages such as Malay and Indonesian. ʿĪd al-Kabīr /ʿĪd el-Kebīr meaning "Greater Eid" is used in Yemen and North Africa. Local language translations are used in Pashto, Kashmiri and Hindi, Bengali and Malayalam as well as Manding varieties in West Africa such as Bambara, Jula etc.. ʿĪd al-Baqarah meaning "Eid of Cows" is used in Saudi Arabia and the Middle East. Although the word baqarah properly means a cow, it is semantically extended to mean all livestock sheep or goats; this extension is used in Hindi and Urdu as a similar name "Bakra-Eid / Bakrid" meaning "Goat Eid" is used for the occasion. Qurbon Hayiti meaning "Eid of Sacrifice" is used in Uzbekistan. Lebaran Haji is used in the Philippines; the word عيد ʻīd means "festival," "celebration," "feast day," or "holiday." It comes from the triliteral root عين ʻayn واو wāw دال dāl, with associated root meanings of "to go back, to rescind, to accrue, to be accustomed, habits, to repeat, to be experienced.
Arthur Jeffery contests this etymology, believes the term to have been borrowed into Arabic from Syriac, or less Targumic Aramaic. The word ًأضحى'aḍḥan means "sacrificial animal." It comes from the triliteral root ضاد ḍād حاء ḥā' واو wāw, with associated meanings "daylight… to appear, to appear conspicuously… sacrificial animal, to sacrifice." No occurrence of this root with a meaning related to sacrifice occurs in the Qur'an. In modern Arabic, the verb ضحّى ḍaḥḥā means "to sacrifice," and a ضحيّة ḍaḥiyyah is a sacrificial offering; the first element in the Persian name عيدِ قربان Id-e Qorbān is identical to Arabic ʻīd, above. The second is from Arabic قربان qurbān, meaning "offering, sacrifice." Christians use the term to mean eucharistic host. In the Islamic Arabic tradition, it is held to derive from the root قاف qāf راء rā' باء bā', with associated meanings of "closeness, proximity… to moderate. Arthur Jeffery recognizes the same Semitic root, but believes the sense of the term to have entered Arabic through Aramaic.
Turkish Kurban Bayramı uses the same first element as the Persian قربان qorbān. Bayram means "holiday" in Turkish, with close cognates in other Turkish languages, its ultimate etymology is contested. One of the main trials of Abraham's life was to face the command of God to sacrifice his dearest possession, his son; the son is named in the Quran, whereas it is stated as Isaac in the Bible. Upon hearing this command, Abraham prepared to submit to the will of God. During this preparation, Shaitan tempted Abraham and his family by trying to dissuade them from carrying out God's commandment, Abraham drove Satan away by throwing pebbles at him. In commemoration of their rejection of Satan, stones are thrown at symbolic pillars during the Stoning of the Devil during Hajj rites; when Abraham attempted to cut his son's throat on mount Arafat, he was astonished to see that his son was unharmed and instead, he found an animal, slaughtered. Abraham had passed the test by his willingness to carry out God's command.
This story originates in the Tora, the first book of Moses. The Quran refers to the Akedah as follows: Abraham had shown that his love for God superseded all others: that he would lay
An engagement, betrothal, or fiancer is a promise to wed, the period of time between a marriage proposal and a marriage. During this period, a couple is said to be betrothed, affianced, engaged to be married, or engaged. Future brides and grooms may be called the betrothed, a wife-to-be or husband-to-be, fiancée or fiancé, respectively; the duration of the courtship varies vastly, is dependent on cultural norms or upon the agreement of the parties involved. Long engagements were once common in formal arranged marriages, it was not uncommon for parents betrothing children to arrange marriages many years before the engaged couple were old enough; this is still common in some countries. The origins of European engagement in marriage practice is found in the Jewish law, first exemplified by Abraham, outlined in the last Talmudic tractate of the Nashim order, where marriage consists of two separate acts, called erusin, the betrothal ceremony, nissu'in or chupah, the actual ceremony for the marriage.
Erusin changes the couple's interpersonal status, while nissu'in brings about the legal consequences of the change of status. This was adopted in Ancient Greece as the gamos and engeysis rituals, although unlike in Judaism the contract made in front of witness was only verbal; the giving of a ring was borrowed from Judaism by Roman marriage law, with the fiancé presenting it after swearing the oath of marriage intent, presenting of the gifts at the engagement party. Betrothal is a formal state of engagement to be married. In Jewish weddings during Talmudic times, the two ceremonies of betrothal and wedding took place up to a year apart. Since the Middle Ages the two ceremonies have taken place as a combined ceremony performed in public; the betrothal is now part of the Jewish wedding ceremony, accomplished when the groom gives the bride the ring or another object of at least nominal value. As mentioned above, betrothal in Judaism is separate from engagement. Typical steps of a match were the following: Negotiation of a match done by the couple's families with bride and groom having varying levels of input, from no input, to veto power, to a fuller voice in the selection of marriage partner.
This is not as practiced as it was although it is still common in culturally conservative communities in Israel, India and Persian Gulf countries, although most of these have a requirement that the bride be at least allowed veto power. Negotiation of bride price or dowry In most cultures evolved from Europe, bride prices or dowries have been reduced to the engagement ring accompanying the marriage contract, while in other cultures, such as those on the Arabian Peninsula, they are still part of negotiating a marriage contract. Blessing by the parents and clergy Exchange of Vows and Signing of Contracts Often one of these is omitted Celebration The exact duration of a betrothal varies according to culture and the participants’ needs and wishes. For adults, it may be anywhere from several hours to a period of several years. A year and a day are common in neo-pagan groups today. In the case of child marriage, betrothal might last from infancy until the age of marriage; the responsibilities and privileges of betrothal vary.
In most cultures, the betrothed couple is expected to spend much time together, learning about each other. In some historical cultures, the betrothal was a trial marriage, with marriage only being required in cases of conception of a child. All cultures are loosening restrictions against physical contact between partners in cultures that had strong prohibitions against it; the betrothal period was considered to be a preparatory time, in which the groom built a house, started a business or otherwise proved his readiness to enter adult society. In medieval Europe, in canon law, a betrothal could be formed by the exchange of vows in the future tense, but sexual intercourse consummated the vows, making a binding marriage rather than a betrothal. Although these betrothals could be concluded with only the vows spoken by the couple, they had legal implications: Richard III of England had his older brother's children declared illegitimate on the grounds their father had been betrothed to another woman when he married their mother.
A betrothal is considered to be a'semi-binding' contract. Normal reasons for invalidation of a betrothal include: Revelation of a prior commitment or marriage Evidence of infidelity Failure to conceive Failure of either party to meet the financial and property stipulations of the betrothal contractNormally, either party can break a betrothal, though some financial penalty applies. In some common law countries, including England and Wales and many US states, it was once possible for the spurned partner to sue the other for breach
Eid al-Fitr is an important religious holiday celebrated by Muslims worldwide that marks the end of Ramadan, the Islamic holy month of fasting. This religious Eid is the first and only day in the month of Shawwal during which Muslims are not permitted to fast; the holiday celebrates the conclusion of the 29 or 30 days of dawn-to-sunset fasting during the entire month of Ramadan. The day of Eid, falls on the first day of the month of Shawwal; the date for the start of any lunar Hijri month varies based on when the new moon is sighted by local religious authorities, so the exact day of celebration varies by locality. Eid al-Fitr has a particular salat consisting of two rakats and offered in an open field or large hall, it may be performed only in congregation and has an additional extra six Takbirs, three of them in the beginning of the first raka'ah and three of them just before rukūʿ in the second raka'ah in the Hanafi school of Sunni Islam. Other Sunni schools have twelve Takbirs, seven in the first, five at the beginning of the second raka'ah.
According to Shia Islam, it has 6 Takbirs in the first Rakat at the end of qira'a, before rukūʿ, 5 in the second. This Eid al-Fitr salat is, depending on which juristic opinion is followed, farḍ فرض, mustaḥabb مستحب or mandūb مندوب. Muslims believe that they are commanded by God, as mentioned in the Quran, to continue their fast until the last day of Ramadan and pay the Zakat al-Fitr before offering the Eid prayers. Eid al-Fitr was originated by the Islamic prophet Muhammad, it is observed on the first day of the Islamic month of Shawwal at the end of the month of Ramadan, during which Muslims undergo a period of fasting. According to certain traditions, these festivals were initiated in Medina after the migration of Muhammad from Mecca. Anas reports: When the Prophet arrived in Madinah, he found people celebrating two specific days in which they used to entertain themselves with recreation and merriment, he asked them about the nature of these festivities at which they replied that these days were occasions of fun and recreation.
At this, the Prophet remarked that the Almighty has fixed two days instead of these for you which are better than these: Eid al-Fitr and Eid al-Adha Traditionally, it is the day of the first sighting of the crescent moon shortly after sunset. If the moon is not observed after the 29th day of the previous lunar month it is the following day. Eid al-Fitr is celebrated for two or three days, it is forbidden to fast on the Day of Eid. A specific prayer is nominated for this day; as an obligatory act of charity, money is paid to the poor and the needy before performing the ‘Eid prayer.. As another rituals, Muslims praise God in a loud voice while going to the Eid prayer: Allāhu Akbar, Allāhu Akbar, Allāhu Akbar. Lā ilāha illà l-Lāh wal-Lāhu akbar, Allahu akbar walil-Lāhi l-ḥamd. Recitation ceases once the Imam commences activities; the Eid prayer is performed in congregation in open areas like fields, community centres, etc. or at mosques. No call to prayer is given for this Eid prayer, it consists of only two units of prayer with an additional six Takbirs.
The Eid prayer is followed by the sermon and a supplication asking for Allah's forgiveness, mercy and blessings for all living beings across the world. The sermon instructs Muslims as to the performance of rituals of Eid, such as the zakat. Listening to the sermon at Eid is not required and is optional, a Sunnah i.e. while the sermon is being delivered. After the prayers, Muslims visit their relatives and acquaintances or hold large communal celebrations in homes, community centres or rented halls. Eid gifts, known as Eidi, are given at eid to children and immediate relatives. Eid al-Fitr prayer or Eid al-Fitr Namaz is performed on the occasion of Eid; the Prayer of Eid al-Fitr is performed in two different ways by Shia Islam. There are two Rak'ah performed in the Eid al-Fitr prayer; the prayer of Eid al-Fitr starts by doing "Niyyat" for the prayer and Takbeer is said by the Imam and all the followers. The next is to recite "Takbeer-e-Tehreema" in first Rakaat; the congregation says Allahu Akbar seven times, every time raising hands to the ears and dropping them except the last time when hands are folded.
The Imam reads the Surah-e-Fatiha and other Surah. The congregation performs Ruku and Sujud as in other prayers; this completes the first Rak’ah. The congregation rises up from the first Rak'ah and folds hands for the second Rak’ah. In the next step the Imam says five takbirat, followed by the congregation, every time raising the hands to the ears and dropping them except the last time when the hands are folded. Again the Imam reads another Surah followed by the Ruku and Sujud; this completes the Eid prayer. After the prayer there is a khutbah. Shia perform two Rak’ah in the Eid al-Fitr prayer. Prayer starts with the Niyyat followed by the five "Takbeers". During every "Takbeer" of the first Rak’ah, a special Dua is recited; the Imam recites Sūrat al-Fātiḥah and Surat Al-'A`lá and the congregation performs Ruku and Sujud as in other prayers. In the second Rak’ah again the same above steps are
The Christ Child known as Divine Infant, Baby Jesus, Infant Jesus, Child Jesus, the Holy Child, Santo Niño, refers to Jesus Christ from his nativity to age 12. The four Canonical Gospels accepted by most Christians today lack any narration of the years between Jesus' infancy and the Finding in the Temple when he was 12. Liturgical feasts relating to Christ's infancy and the Christ Child include: The Feast of the Nativity of Jesus Christ; these are nativity scenes showing the birth of Jesus, with his mother Mary, her husband Joseph. Depictions as a baby with the Virgin Mary, known as Madonna and Child, are iconographical types in Eastern and Western traditions. Other scenes from his time as a baby, of his circumcision, presentation at the temple, the adoration of the Magi, the flight into Egypt, are common. Scenes showing his developing years are not unknown. Saint Joseph, Anthony of Padua, Saint Christopher are depicted holding the Christ Child; the Christian mystics Saint Teresa of Avila, Saint Therese of Lisieux, along with the devotees of Divino Niño such as Mother Angelica and Father Giovanni Rizzo claim to have had apparitions of Jesus as a toddler.
The Christ Child was a popular subject in European wood sculpture beginning in the 1300s. The popularity of the Christ child was well known in Spain under the title Montanesino after the santero sculptor Juan Martínez Montañés who began the trend; these icons of the Christ Child was posed in the contrapposto style in which the positioning of the knees reflected in the opposite direction, similar to ancient depictions of the Roman Emperor. The images were quite popular among nobility, while some images were used to colonize kingdoms such of Spain and Portugal. Colonial images of the Christ child began to wear vestments, a pious practice developed by the santero culture in colonial years, carrying the depiction of holding the globus cruciger, a bird symbolizing a soul or the Holy Spirit or various paraphernalia related to its locality or region; the symbolism of the Child Jesus in art reached its apex during the Renaissance: the Holy Family was a central theme in the works of Leonardo da Vinci and many other masters.
Tàladh Chrìosda is a Scottish carol from Scotland. The Catholic priest Father Ranald Rankin, wrote the lyrics for Midnight Mass around the year 1855, he wrote 29 verses in Scottish Gaelic, but the popular English translation is limited to five. The melody, Cumha Mhic Arois, is from the Hebrides and was a sung as a protective charm for the fisherman away at sea; the rhythm mirrors the rhythm of the surf. It is sung in the Hebrides at Midnight Mass on Christmas Eve. In some apocryphal texts, the Infancy Gospels grew up with legendary accounts of the intervening period, these are sometimes depicted; these stories were intended to show Jesus as having extraordinary gifts of power and knowledge from the youngest age. One common pious tale has the young Jesus animating sparrows out of clay belonging to his playmates; when admonished for doing so on the Sabbath, he causes the birds to fly away. Several significant images of Jesus Christ as a child have received Canonical Coronations from the Pope, namely the Infant Jesus of Prague, the Santo Niño de Cebú in the Philippines, the Santo Bambino of Aracoeli in Rome.
In the seventeenth century veneration of the Christ Child under the title the "Little King of Beaune" was promoted by French Carmelites. In the late nineteenth century devotion to the Holy Child of Remedy developed in Madrid; the Christ Child Society was founded in 1885 in Washington, D. C. by Mary Virginia Merrick, as a small relief organization to aid local underprivileged children. Additional chapters were started in other cities. Taladh Criosta