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Gigabyte

The gigabyte is a multiple of the unit byte for digital information. The prefix giga means 109 in the International System of Units. Therefore, one gigabyte is one billion bytes; the unit symbol for the gigabyte is GB. This definition is used in all contexts of science, engineering and many areas of computing, including hard drive, solid state drive, tape capacities, as well as data transmission speeds. However, the term is used in some fields of computer science and information technology to denote 1073741824 bytes for sizes of RAM; the use of gigabyte may thus be ambiguous. Hard disk capacities as described and marketed by drive manufacturers using the standard metric definition of the gigabyte, but when a 400 GB drive's capacity is displayed by, for example, Microsoft Windows, it is reported as 372 GB, using a binary interpretation. To address this ambiguity, the International System of Quantities standardizes the binary prefixes which denote a series of integer powers of 1024. With these prefixes, a memory module, labeled as having the size "1GB" has one gibibyte of storage capacity.

Using the ISQ definitions, the "372 GB" reported for the hard drive is 372 GiB. The term gigabyte is used to mean either 10003 bytes or 10243 bytes; the latter binary usage originated as compromise technical jargon for byte multiples that needed to be expressed in a power of 2, but lacked a convenient name. As 1024 is 1000 corresponding to SI multiples, it was used for binary multiples as well. In 1998 the International Electrotechnical Commission published standards for binary prefixes, requiring that the gigabyte denote 10003 bytes and gibibyte denote 10243 bytes. By the end of 2007, the IEC Standard had been adopted by the IEEE, EU, NIST, in 2009 it was incorporated in the International System of Quantities; the term gigabyte continues to be used with the following two different meanings: 1 GB = 1000000000 bytes Based on powers of 10, this definition uses the prefix giga- as defined in the International System of Units. This is the recommended definition by the International Electrotechnical Commission.

This definition is used in networking contexts and most storage media hard drives, flash-based storage, DVDs, is consistent with the other uses of the SI prefix in computing, such as CPU clock speeds or measures of performance. The file manager of Mac OS X version 10.6 and versions are a notable example of this usage in software, which report files sizes in decimal units. 1 GiB = 1073741824 bytes. The binary definition uses powers of the base 2, as does the architectural principle of binary computers; this usage is promulgated by some operating systems, such as Microsoft Windows in reference to computer memory. This definition is synonymous with the unambiguous unit gibibyte. Since the first disk drive, the IBM 350, disk drive manufacturers expressed hard drive capacities using decimal prefixes. With the advent of gigabyte-range drive capacities, manufacturers based most consumer hard drive capacities in certain size classes expressed in decimal gigabytes, such as "500 GB"; the exact capacity of a given drive model is slightly larger than the class designation.

All manufacturers of hard disk drives and flash-memory disk devices continue to define one gigabyte as 1000000000bytes, displayed on the packaging. Some operating systems such as OS X express hard drive capacity or file size using decimal multipliers, while others such as Microsoft Windows report size using binary multipliers; this discrepancy causes confusion, as a disk with an advertised capacity of, for example, 400 GB might be reported by the operating system as 372 GB, meaning 372 GiB. The JEDEC memory standards use IEEE 100 nomenclature; the difference between units based on decimal and binary prefixes increases as a semi-logarithmic function—for example, the decimal kilobyte value is nearly 98% of the kibibyte, a megabyte is under 96% of a mebibyte, a gigabyte is just over 93% of a gibibyte value. This means that a 300 GB hard disk might be indicated variously as 300 GB, 279 GB or 279 GiB, depending on the operating system; as storage sizes increase and larger units are used, these differences become more pronounced.

Some legal challenges have been waged over this confusion. The most recent lawsuits arising from alleged consumer confusion over the binary and decimal definitions used for "gigabyte" have ended in favor of the manufacturers, with courts holding that the legal definition of gigabyte or GB is 1 GB = 1,000,000,000 bytes rather than the binary definition for commercial transactions; the courts held that "the U. S. Congress has deemed the decimal definition of gigabyte to be the'preferred' one for the purposes of'U. S. trade and commerce'.... The California Legislature has adopted the decimal system for all'transactions in this state.'”Earlier lawsuits had ended in settlement with no court ruling on the question, such as a lawsuit against drive manufacturer Western Digital. Western Digital settled the challenge and added explicit disclaimers to products that the usable capacity may differ from the advertised capacity. Seagate was sued on similar grounds and settled; because of their physical design, the capacity of modern computer random access memory devices, such as DIMM modules, is always a multiple of a power of 1024.

It is thus convenient to use prefixes denoting powers of 1024, known as binary prefixes, in describing them. For exampl

Quex Park

Quex Park itself is 250 acres of parkland and gardens plus a further 1500 acres of farmed land, with Quex House and other buildings situated just south-east from Birchington-on-Sea in Kent, England. It houses the Powell-Cotton Museum, the Waterloo tower, a secular bell tower. There has been a house on the Quex site since the early 15th century, gained its Quex name from the ownership of the rich wool merchant Quekes family in the 16th century; the house was purchased in 1777 by John Powell. His successive heirs were his nephews Arthur Annesley Roberts who in accordance with the bequest adopted the surname and arms of Powell, John Powell Roberts, of Holland House, who in 1814 adopted the surname and arms of Powell; the latter demolished the existing mansion, replaced it with a regency building. He died childless. In the 19th century, the Powell-Cotton family amalgamated two farms to form Quex Park, began a programme of tree planting and landscaping to create the current park land. During the First World War, Quex House became an Auxiliary Military Hospital run by the Birchington Voluntary Aid Detachment.

In 1923, the Memorial Ground was donated to the village by Mr H. A. Erlebach for sport and recreational use. Erlebach owned the village's now defunct Woodfood House School and purchased land from the Quex House estate for the school, he gave the southern part of the land to the people of Birchington and dedicated it in memory of his three sons, killed in the First World War. The land is now owned by Thanet District Council, it was the base of fictional criminal activities in Dennis Wheatley's 1938 thriller Contraband. In 1896, Major Percy Horace Gordon Powell-Cotton, F. Z. S. F. R. G. S. A Major in the Northumberland Fusiliers, founded the Powell-Cotton Museum at Quex Park to display his collection of mammals and artefacts acquired on his expeditions to Africa and Asia; the animals were mounted by the noted taxidermist Rowland Ward. His expeditions were conducted for scientific research, would sometimes take 18 months; the Powell-Cotton Museum is an Accredited museum housing three galleries of stuffed animal displays, depicting more than 500 African and Asian animals set against their natural habitats.

Further galleries display a collection of African artefacts, European firearms and Asian cutting weapons and Chinese porcelain, significant archaeological finds from Thanet and East Kent. The total number of artefacts has not been counted, although the ethnography items alone total 18,000; the Powell-Cotton Museum has won numerous awards including the prestigious "UK's most inspiring museum in 2014" - Museum and Heritage Awards May 2014. A number of rooms in Quex House, decorated with oriental and English period furniture, are open to visitors, guided tours are provided; the house' gardens and park holds visitor attractions, leisure activities, retail food and drink outlets. Quex House, the Gun Tower and Waterloo Tower are Grade II listed buildings; the Waterloo Tower was used as a film location for the BBC 1970's science fiction series Blake's 7 in the episode "Bounty" as Sarkoff's residence. Media related to Quex House and Park at Wikimedia Commons Powell-Cotton Museum at Quex Park

Willis Henry Bocock

Willis Henry Bocock was a prominent administrator and professor of Classics at the University of Georgia. One of the highlights of his career was his appointment as the first Dean of the newly formed University of Georgia Graduate School in 1910. Much of the present success of graduate programs at the University of Georgia can be traced to his visionary leadership. Throughout his career, Bocock maintained a reputation for excellence in leadership. Bocock was, as were many members of a Virginian, he was born in the son of a prominent Presbyterian clergyman. He attended school at the Kemper School in Boonville, Missouri. Bocock entered Hampden-Sydney College in 1881, he graduated in 1884 with the degrees of Bachelor of Bachelor of Letters. After his graduation from Hampden-Sydney he spent a year at the University of Virginia and obtained diplomas in Latin and Greek. Bocock was a recipient of the now extinct Master of Arts degree from Hampden-Sydney. Bocock spent the year, he was offered the position of professor of Greek at Hampden-Sydney in 1886, a position which he gleefully accepted.

Hampden-Sydney president J. D. Eggleston wrote of Bocock: “I doubt whether Hampden-Sydney has had a more brilliant teacher than W. H. Bocock, he was elected full professor when he was twenty-one.” Bocock attended the University of Berlin in the period 1892-93 and traveled throughout Europe. He was offered the chair of Professor of Ancient Languages at the University of Georgia in 1889. In 1894 separate professorships of Greek and Latin were created. Bocock assumed the professorship of Greek and William Davis Hooper, another Hampden-Sydney graduate, assumed that of Latin. With the formation of the University of Georgia Graduate School in 1910, Bocock’s appointment as dean, he assumed demanding administrative duties as well as maintaining excellence in teaching. Bocock’s career illustrates the problem with the lack of publications by nineteenth and early twentieth century faculty. Bocock was a talented and assiduous researcher, what he did not have is free time to compile his research. Thomas Walter Reed comments about this problem: "... that the inability of the University of Georgia and other Southern institutions to provide enough members of their faculties to make it possible for some members to have time in which to prepare and publish articles and books of great value, has resulted in a loss to American literature of many valuable contributions."

This is true of Bocock, although he made regular contributions to journals such as: Studies in Philology, Classical Review, American Journal of Philology, he was never able to publish any extended work. Bocock developed an interest in international relations as a result of World War I, he was named Lecturer on International Relations by the University of Georgia Board of Trustees in 1931 and was a popular and prolific speaker on this subject. Bocock served as Dean of the Graduate School for eighteen years. In his tenure enrollment rose from twenty-four graduate students in 1913 to over two hundred in 1928, he stepped down in 1928, at the age of sixty-three, because he felt it was time for a younger man to assume the leadership role. He was succeeded by Roswell Powell Stephens of the Mathematics Department. Bocock continued teaching and at his retirement in 1945, had served the University of Georgia for fifty-six years, he was noted as an systematic scholar. It was this outlook that he brought to the systematization of graduate education at the University of Georgia.

Bocock and R. L. McWhorter taught, in 1910, a major graduate course in Greek which consisted of literary selections and exercises in grammar and spoken Greek and poetry; the course description points out a problem with early graduate education at the University of Georgia, common with many other institutions: “studied from sources so far as the library resources of the University permit.” Bocock taught, by himself, “An Introduction to New Testament Greek.” These classes were in his duties as Dean. The New Testament Greek class was not offered after 1913 and after 1923, Bocock taught the major Greek class by himself. Bocock decried the declining interest by students in Greek, symptomatic of this is the fact that the 1931-32 Graduate Bulletin notes: “For courses in Greek Literature, consult the professor.”207 After 1931, the Greek Literature class would be transformed into “Introduction of European Literature” which had a prerequisite of three years of college-level Latin. Greek literature was no longer studied in the original language but was now “Greek Literature in Translations.”

In a memorial to Bocock in 1948, Robert Preston Brooks wrote: "Mr. Bocock was an altogether charming companion. Few men were so perennially delightful; the depth and variety of his knowledge of literature and modern, of world history and contemporary affairs was impressive. No one was bored in his presence." Bocock continued to serve the Graduate School after leaving the deanship. He served as advisor to the Graduate Council into the 1940s, he retired from the University of Georgia in 1945. Bocock married Bessie Perry Friend of Petersburg, Virginia in 1885; the Bococks had two children: Natalie Friend Bocock. Bocock died October 1947 in Richmond, Virginia. Boney, Frederick N. A Pictorial History of the University of Georgia. Athens, Georgia: University of Georgia Press, 2000. Brinkley, John L. On This Hill: a Narrative of Hampden-Sydney College, 1774-1994. Hampden-Sydney, Virginia: H