San Juan, Puerto Rico
San Juan is the capital and most populous municipality in the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, an unincorporated territory of the United States. As of the 2010 census, it had a population of 395,326 making it the 46th-largest city under the jurisdiction of the United States, San Juan was founded by Spanish colonists in 1521, who called it Ciudad de Puerto Rico. Puerto Ricos capital is the second oldest European-established capital city in the Americas, after Santo Domingo, San Juan is Puerto Ricos most important seaport, and is the islands manufacturing, financial and tourism center. San Juan is a city of the San Juan-Caguas-Fajardo Combined Statistical Area. In 1508, Juan Ponce de León founded the settlement which he called Caparra. In 1521, the settlement was given its formal name. On the other hand, the name for the island became the name for the city only after the occupation of the island by the United States. San Juan, as a settlement of the Spanish Empire, was used by merchant, because of its prominence in the Caribbean, a network of fortifications was built to protect the transports of gold and silver from the New World to Europe.
Because of the cargoes, San Juan became a target of the foreign powers of the time. The city was witness to attacks from the English led by Sir Francis Drake in 1595 and by George Clifford, Earl of Cumberland, artillery from San Juans fort, El Morro, repelled Drake, Clifford managed to land troops and lay siege to the city. After a few months of English occupation, Clifford was forced to abandon the siege when his troops began to suffer from exhaustion, in 1625 the city was sacked by Dutch forces led by Captain Balduino Enrico, but El Morro withstood the assault and was not taken. The Dutch were counterattacked by Captain Juan de Amezquita and 50 members of the militia on land. The land battle left 60 Dutch soldiers dead and Enrico with a wound to his neck which he received from the hands of Amezquita. The Dutch ships at sea were boarded by Puerto Ricans who defeated those aboard, after a long battle, the Spanish soldiers and volunteers of the citys militia were able to defend the city from the attack and save the island from an invasion.
On October 21, Enrico set La Fortaleza and the city ablaze, captains Amezquita and Andre Botello decided to put a stop to the destruction and led 200 men in an attack against the enemys front and rear guard. They drove Enrico and his men from their trenches and into the ocean in their haste to reach their ships, the British attack in 1797, during the French Revolutionary Wars, led by Sir Ralph Abercromby. His army laid siege to the city but was forced to withdraw in defeat as the Puerto Rican defenses proved more resilient than those of Trinidad. The USS Yale captured a Spanish freighter, the Rita in San Juan Bay, on May 9, Yale fought a brief battle with an auxiliary cruiser of Spain, name unknown, resulting in a Spanish victory
Rollins College is a private, coeducational liberal arts college located in Winter Park, Florida along the shores of Lake Virginia. Rollins is a member of the SACS, NASM, ACS, FDE, AAM, AACSB International, Council for Accreditation of Counseling, Rollins College is Floridas oldest post-secondary institution, and has been independent and coeducational from conception. Lucy Cross, founder of the Daytona Institute in 1880, first placed the matter of establishing a college in Florida before the Congregational Churches in 1884, in 1885, the Church put her on the committee in charge of determining the location of the first college in Florida. Cross is known as the Mother of Rollins College, Rollins was incorporated and named in the Lyman Park building in nearby Sanford, Florida on 28 April 1885, opening for classes in Winter Park on November 4 of that year. It was established by New England Congregationalists who sought to bring their style of liberal education to the frontier St. Johns basin. A commemorative plaque listing the names of the founders was dedicated 1 March 1954 and is displayed in historic Downtown Sanford, Early benefactors of Rollins College included Chicago businessman Alonzo Rollins, for whom the college is named.
Rollins made substantial donations to enable the founding of the college, another early benefactor was Franklin Fairbanks of St. Johnsbury, Vermont. Fairbanks was President of the business, Fairbanks Scales, and was a founder of Winter Park, a donor to Rollins College. In March of 1936 during a visit to Central Florida, U. S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt was conferred a degree in literature at the Knowles Chapel on campus. In 1930, President Holt announced the gifts of Cornelius Pugsley and Mayflower Halls were dedicated in 1931. Mayflower Hall received its name from the Pilgrim ship, the Society of Friends at Chalfont St. Giles, gave Rollins a 16-inch section of beam from the ship, which, it had been discovered, had been salvaged to build a haybarn in England. The block of wood was placed above the fireplace in Mayflower Hall, the brothers of Tau Kappa Epsilon fraternity moved into Pugsley Hall in 1997 and have occupied it all but 1 academic year since. In the 1990s, there were rows of shrubbery on either side of the leading up to Pugsley Hall.
Today, there are palm trees showcasing the majesty of the building and welcoming students, Chase Hall was built in 1908. It was first used as a dormitory until 1966. From 1966 until 1999 it was used by the Sigma Phi Epsilon fraternity, the Lucy Cross Center for Women and Their Allies was established in 2010 at Rollins College in Chase Hall, Room 205. The Center is named after Lucy Cross, the Mother of Rollins College, Cross Hall is named after Lucy Cross, the Mother of Rollins College. It was built in 1936 and is used by the Lambda Chi Alpha fraternity
Rennae Stubbs is an Australian retired tennis player. She was an Australian Institute of Sport scholarship holder and she has won four Grand Slam doubles titles and two Grand Slam mixed doubles titles. She was ranked world No.1 in doubles for three weeks in 2000 and she represented Australia at four successive Summer Olympic Games, Atlanta 1996, Sydney 2000, Athens 2004, and Beijing 2008. Stubbs has recorded more doubles triumphs than any other Australian woman—60 from 1992 to the conclusion of the 2010 WTA Tour—enjoying success with different partners. In 2001, Stubbs won the season-ending WTA Championships with regular partner Lisa Raymond and she retired from Fed Cup play after the 2011 Fed Cup tie with Italy. Stubbs played on the WTA Tour for the rest of 2011 mostly with Casey Dellacqua and she finished her career winning the World Team Tennis Title for the 3rd time with the Washington Kastles, her 5th overall WTT Title. Stubbs transitioned from her playing days immediately into a television career as a commentator and host for TV Networks including, ESPN.
She worked as the lead female analyst at the 2012 London, in a 2006 newspaper interview Stubbs identified herself as a lesbian. Stubbs is the partner of Danielle Morse, International Artist, Rennae Stubbs at the Womens Tennis Association Rennae Stubbs at the International Tennis Federation Rennae Stubbs at the Fed Cup
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
US Open (tennis)
The United States Open Tennis Championships is a hardcourt tennis tournament. The tournament is the version of one of the oldest tennis championships in the world. The US Open is held annually, starting on the last Monday in August, the main tournament consists of five event championships and womens singles and womens doubles, and mixed doubles, with additional tournaments for senior and wheelchair players. Since 1978, the tournament has played on acrylic hard courts at the USTA Billie Jean King National Tennis Center in Flushing Meadows–Corona Park, Queens. The US Open is owned and organized by the United States Tennis Association, net proceeds from ticket sales and television deals are used to promote the development of tennis in the United States. The US Open is the only Grand Slam that employs tiebreakers in every set of a match, the first edition was won by Richard Sears, who went on to win seven consecutive singles titles. In the first years of the U. S. National Championship only men competed and this was followed by the introduction of the U. S.
Womens National Doubles Championship in 1899 and the U. S. The womens tournament used a system from 1888 through 1918. This view was opposed by another group of players which included eight former national singles champions, the contentious issue was brought to a vote at the annual USNLTA meeting on February 5,1915 and with 128 votes in favor and 119 against it was decided to relocate. From 1921 through 1923, the tournament was played at the Germantown Cricket Club in Philadelphia and it returned to Forest Hills in 1924 following the completion of the newly constructed 14,000 seat concrete Forest Hills Stadium. Though regarded unofficially by many as a major championship beforehand, the tournament was officially designated as one of the tournaments by the ILTF commencing in 1924. At the 1922 U. S. National Championships the draw for the first time included seeded players in order to avoid leading players drawing against each other in the early rounds. Open era The open era began in 1968 when all five events were merged into the US Open, the 1968 combined tournament was open to professionals for the first time.
That year,96 men and 63 women entered the event, from 1970 to 1974 the US Open used a best-of-nine point, sudden death tiebreaker before moving to the ITF best-of-twelve point system. In 1973 the US Open became the first Grand Slam tournament to award equal prize money to men and women with that years singles champions John Newcombe, another US Open innovation came in 1975 when floodlights enabled night play for the first time. In 1978 the tournament moved from the West Side Tennis Club, Forest Hills, Queens to the larger USTA National Tennis Center in Flushing Meadows, three miles to the north. In the process, the tournament switched the court surface from clay, jimmy Connors is the only individual to have won US Open singles titles on all three surfaces, while Chris Evert is the only woman to win on two surfaces. The US Open is the only Grand Slam tournament that has played every year since its inception
Fed Cup is the premier international team competition in womens tennis, launched in 1963 to celebrate the 50th Anniversary of the International Tennis Federation. The competition was known as the Federation Cup until 1995, the Fed Cup is the worlds largest annual womens international team sports competition, in terms of the number of nations that compete. The mens equivalent of the Fed Cup is the Davis Cup, Czech Republic and the United States are the only countries that have held both the Fed Cup and Davis Cup at the same time. Dating back to 1919, Hazel Hotchkiss Wightman came up with the idea for a team tennis competition. Although rejected, she went ahead and presented a trophy at the 1923 annual contest between the United States and Great Britain, named the Wightman Cup, nell Hopman, wife of the legendary Australian Davis Cup Captain Harry Hopman, took up Mrs. Wightmans original idea. 40 years after Wightmans idea of a womens Davis Cup, it become a reality, in 1963, the ITF launched the Federation Cup to celebrate its 35th anniversary.
Open to all nations the competition became a resounding success, the inaugural event attracted 16 countries. The competition was supported by the top players right from the start, held at the Queens Club, in London, the first contest was between Australia and the United States. Grand Slam champions Darlene Hard, Billie Jean King, Margaret Smith, the United States would emerged the champion nation in the opening year, however it was to be Australia in the early years, winning seven of the next eleven championships. Around 1980 the United States was able to some significant mark on the competition setting in future years a very high standard for others to compete against. The first Federation Cup had attracted 16 entry teams, despite no prize money, when sponsorship became available, the number of teams expanded dramatically, first by the Colgate Group in 1976, from 1981 to 1994 by the Japanese communications and computer giant NEC. The additional costs of each event could be offset with the host nations viewing their involvement as providing an opportunity to boost their national game.
Regional qualifying competitions emerged in time for the 1992 and, in 1995, the home-and-away format trialled by the Davis Cup, was adopted for the Fed Cup so that women, could play for their country in their own country. Three regional groups compete and there are promotions and demotions based on results, while many nations enter the Fed Cup each year, only 16 countries qualify for the elite World Group and World Group II each year. They reach World Group and World Group II as follows, World Group - the four nations that win their World Group first round tie remain in the World Group for the following year. First round losers contest the World Group Play-offs against the four winning nations from World Group II to determine relegation/promotion for the years competition. World Group II - the four nations that win their World Group II ties will compete in the World Group I Play-Offs to determine relegation/promotion for the following year, as described above. Similarly the four nations that lose their World Group II ties will face winning nations from Group I Zonal competitions, in the World Group II Play-offs, once in the World Group or World Group II, four nations will be seeded in each
Tennis at the Summer Olympics
After two appearances as a demonstration sport in 1968 and 1984, it returned as a full medal sport at the 1988 Summer Olympics and has been played at every edition of the Games since then. In 1896,1900,1904,1988, and 1992, in all other years, a playoff match for the bronze medal was staged. A player who wins an Olympic gold medal and all four Grand Slam events is said to have won a Golden Slam, the playing surface of the court varies between Olympic Games. It has been on court for every game since 1984 except for the 1992 Olympics. The changing playing surface gives certain players different advantages and disadvantages not seen in most other Olympic sports, = demonstration event List of Olympic venues in tennis Tennis at the Mediterranean Games Tennis at the Pan American Games List of Olympic medalists in tennis Olympic Tennis Event website
Samantha Jane Sam Stosur is an Australian professional tennis player. She is a former World No.1 in doubles, a ranking which she held for 61 weeks, and a former World No.4 in singles. Stosur won the 2011 US Open, defeating Serena Williams in the final, Stosur has won five other Grand Slam titles to date, the 2005 US Open and 2006 French Open in womens doubles, and the 2005 Australian Open,2008 and 2014 Wimbledon Championships in mixed doubles. She reached three additional semi-finals at the French Open in 2009,2012, and 2016, Stosur was born in Brisbane, the daughter of Tony and Diane, and has two brothers and Daniel. She is of Polish descent through her grandfather, when she was six, the family house and business on the Gold Coast was destroyed by a flood, and the family moved to Adelaide. There she started playing tennis, when she was given a racquet for Christmas at the age of eight. While her parents worked long hours at the cafe they had started, Stosur played at local courts with older brother Daniel and her family returned to the Gold Coast when Stosur was 11 years of age.
She attended Helensvale State High School on the Gold Coast and Gaven State School and she went away on her first overseas trip at the age of 13, competing in the World Youth Cup in Jakarta, Indonesia. At the age of 14, Stosur joined the Queensland Academy of Sport under Geoff Masters, in 2001, when she was 16, she joined the Australian Institute of Sport tennis program. Stosur first played tennis in 1999 on the ITF circuit. She debuted on the Womens Tennis Association tour in 2000, losing in the first qualifying round of the Australian Open, in 2001 she won four straight ITF titles. In 2002 she lost in the first round at the Gold Coast event, in 2003, Stosur won her first WTA singles matches, reaching the third round of the Australian Open. She lost in the round to no.7 seed. She qualified for a WTA event in Memphis, in 2004, Stosur reached the semifinals of the Gold Coast event, before falling to Ai Sugiyama. The next week, she reached the round of the WTA tournament in Hobart. She qualified for WTA events in Acapulco, Indian Wells, Stosur competed at the Athens Olympics, where she lost in the first round.
She continued to play WTA qualifying events, qualifying for the Japan Open, at the end of the 2004 season, Stosur reached the doubles final in Québec City, partnered with Els Callens from Belgium. In 2005 Stosur reached her first WTA tour final at her event in Gold Coast
Grand Slam (tennis)
The Grand Slam tournaments, called majors, are the four most important annual tennis events. They offer the most ranking points, prize money and media attention, the greatest strength and size of field, and greater number of best of sets for men. The Grand Slam itinerary consists of the Australian Open in mid January, the French Open in May and June, Wimbledon in June and July, each tournament is played over a period of two weeks. The Australian and United States tournaments are played on courts, the French on clay. Wimbledon is the oldest, founded in 1877, followed by the US in 1881, the French in 1891, however, of these four, only Wimbledon was a major before 1924/25, the time when all four became designated Grand Slam tournaments. In doubles, one team may accomplish a Grand Slam playing together or one player may achieve it with different partners, the term Grand Slam without qualification refers to winning the four majors in a single calendar year. Winning the gold medal at the Summer Olympic Games in addition to the four majors in a one year is known as a Golden Grand Slam or more commonly the Golden Slam.
Also, winning the Year-End Championship in the period is known as a Super Slam. Together, all four Majors in all three disciplines are called a set of Grand Slam titles. No male or female player has won all events in one calendar year. The term slam for winning all of the tricks in the whist family card games is attested early in the 17th century. Grand slam for all of the tricks, in contrast to small slam or little slam for all but one and this use was inherited by contract bridge, a modern development of whist defined in 1925 that became very popular in Britain and America by 1930. Grand slam has been used in golf since 1930, when Bobby Jones won the four major championships, before that time only three events, the World Hard Court Championships and the World Covered Court Championships were considered the premier international tennis events by the ILTF. Tony Wilding of New Zealand won all three of those majors in one year –1913. It has been possible to complete a Grand Slam in most years, phil Dent has pointed out that skipping Grand Slam tournaments—especially the Australian Open—was not unusual then, before counting Grand Slam titles became the norm.
Nevertheless, except for the 1969 and 1971 tournaments, many of the best players missed this championship until 1982, because of the remoteness, the inconvenient dates, the tournament was won by Arthur Ashe. The first definitive Grand Slam, of the current four majors, was accomplished when Don Budge won all four mens singles Majors in 1938, to date,17 players have completed a Grand Slam, though only six in the most prestigious singles titles. The four Junior disciplines and girls singles and doubles, Players are only eligible from age 13 to 18, with 18-year-olds likely to hold a physical advantage
University of South Florida
The University of South Florida, known as USF, is an American metropolitan public research university located in Tampa, United States. USF is an institution of the State University System of Florida. Founded in 1956, USF is the fourth-largest public university in the state of Florida, the USF system comprises three institutions, USF Tampa, USF St. Petersburg and USF Sarasota-Manatee. Each institution is accredited by the Commission on Colleges of the Southern Association of Colleges. The university is home to 14 colleges, offering more than 80 undergraduate majors and more than 130 graduate, specialist, in its 2011 ranking, the Intellectual Property Owners Association placed USF 10th among all universities worldwide in the number of US patents granted. The university has a budget of $1.5 billion. In a ranking compiled by the National Science Foundation, USF ranks 43rd in the United States for total research spending amongst all universities, public, USF ranks in the top 10 best public schools in the 2014 Best Colleges edition of U. S.
News & World Report. USF was named a leader in online education by Guide to Online Schools. USF was the first independent state university conceived, representative Samuel Gibbons was instrumental in the schools creation when he was a state representative and is considered by many to be the Father of USF. Though founded in 1956, the university was not officially named until the following year, the university was built off Fowler Avenue on the site of Henderson Air Field, a World War II airstrip. Before Henderson Field, the area was part of the 1920s 5, 000-acre temple orange grove, the largest citrus grove in the world at the time, in 1957, the Florida Cabinet approved the name University of South Florida. At the time, USF was the southernmost university in the university system. In 1962, the official USF mascot was unveiled as the Golden Brahman, in the late 1980s, the mascot evolved into the Bulls. The university grew under the leadership of John S. Allen, during this time, the university expanded rapidly, due in part to the first masters degree programs commencing in 1964.
Hani was known for his opposition to college sports in favor of an environment more academically-centered, in 1970, M. Cecil Mackey became the universitys second president. During his time at USF, Mackey opened the universitys medical school, School of Nursing, Mackey worked to strengthen the St. Petersburg campus, while opening new satellite campuses in Sarasota and Fort Myers. While serving as university president, Mackey continued to teach courses in a conference room across from his office. Mackey first coined a new descriptor for USF, a metropolitan university, the term is still used to describe USF today
The French Open, often referred to as Roland Garros, is a major tennis tournament held over two weeks between late May and early June at the Stade Roland Garros in Paris, France. Roland Garros is the only Grand Slam event held on clay, French spelling rules dictate that in the name of a place or event named after a person, the elements of the name are joined together with a hyphen. Therefore, the names of the stadium and the tournament are hyphenated as Roland-Garros, in 1891 the Championnat de France, which is commonly referred to in English as the French Championships, was begun. It was only open to players who were members of French clubs. The first winner was a Briton—H, the first womens singles tournament, with four entries, was held in 1897. The mixed doubles event was added in 1902 and the doubles in 1907. This French club members only tournament was played until 1924, using four different venues during that period, Île de Puteaux, in Puteaux, the Racing Club de France, played on clay.
For one year,1909, it was played at the Société Athlétique de la Villa Primrose in Bordeaux, Tennis Club de Paris, at Auteuil, played on clay. Another tournament, the World Hard Court Championships, is considered the precursor to the French Open as it was open to international competitors. Winners of this tournament included world no, 1s such as Tony Wilding from New Zealand and Bill Tilden from the US. In 1924 there was no World Hard Court Championships due to tennis being played at the Paris Olympic Games, in 1925, the French Championships became open to all amateurs internationally and was designated a major championship by the ILTF. It was held at the Stade Français in Saint-Cloud in 1925 and 1927, in 1926 the Racing Club de France hosted the event in Paris, site of the previous French club members only Championship, on clay. In 1928, the Roland Garros stadium was opened and the event has held there ever since. After the Mousquetaires or Philadelphia Four won the Davis Cup on American soil in 1927, the Stade de France had offered the tennis authorities three hectares of land with the condition that the new stadium must be named after the World War I pilot, Roland Garros.
The new Stade de Roland Garros, and its Center Court hosted that Davis Cup challenge, during World War II the tournament was held from 1941 through 1945 on the same grounds but these editions are not recognized by the French governing body, Fédération Française de Tennis. From 1946 through 1947, the French Championships were held after Wimbledon, in 1968, the French Championships became the first Grand Slam tournament to go open, allowing both amateurs and professionals to compete. Since 1981, new prizes have been presented, the Prix Orange, the Prix Citron, in another novelty, since 2006 the tournament has begun on a Sunday, featuring 12 singles matches played on the three main courts. Additionally, on the eve of the opening, the traditional Benny Berthet exhibition day takes place