The Gila River is a 649-mile -long tributary of the Colorado River flowing through New Mexico and Arizona in the United States. The river drains an arid watershed of nearly 60,000 square miles that lies within the U. S. but extends into northern Sonora, Mexico. Indigenous peoples have lived along the river for at least 2,000 years, establishing complex agricultural societies before European exploration of the region began in the 16th century. However, European Americans did not permanently settle the Gila River watershed until the mid-19th century. During the 20th century, human development of the Gila River watershed necessitated the construction of large diversion and flood control structures on the river and its tributaries, the Gila now contributes only a small fraction of its historic flow to the Colorado; the historic natural discharge of the river is around 1,900 cubic feet per second, is now only 247 cubic feet per second. These engineering projects have transformed much of the river valley and its surrounds from arid desert to irrigated land, supply water to the more than five million people in the Phoenix and Tucson metropolitan areas, who live in the watershed.
The Gila River has its source in western New Mexico, in Sierra County on the western slopes of Continental Divide in the Black Range. It flows southwest through the Gila National Forest and the Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument westward into Arizona, past the town of Safford. After flowing along the southern slope of the Gila Mountains in Graham County through a series of canyons, the Gila is impounded by Coolidge Dam in San Carlos Lake south of Peridot, it emerges from the mountains into the valley southeast of Phoenix, where it crosses the Gila River Indian Reservation as an intermittent stream due to large irrigation diversions. Well west of Phoenix, the river bends southward along the Gila Bend Mountains it swings westward again near the town of Gila Bend, it flows southwestward between the Gila Mountains to the south and the Languna and Muggins ranges to the north in Yuma County, it empties into the Colorado at Yuma, Arizona. The Gila is joined by many tributaries, beginning with the East and West Forks of the river, which combine to form the main stem near Gila Hot Springs in New Mexico.
Above Safford, it is joined by the intermittent San Simon River. Further downstream, it is joined by the San Carlos River from the north in San Carlos Lake. At Winkelman, Arizona, it picks up the San Pedro River and is joined by the Santa Cruz River south of Casa Grande; the Salt River, its main tributary, joins in the Phoenix metropolitan area, further west the Gila receives its last two major tributaries, the Agua Fria and Hassayampa Rivers, from the north. Although the Gila River flows within the United States, the headwaters of two tributaries – the San Pedro and Santa Cruz Rivers – extend into Mexico. About 1,630 sq mi, or 2.8% of the Gila's 58,200-square-mile watershed, is in Mexico. A further 3,300 sq mi or 5.7% lies within New Mexico, while the remaining majority, 53,270 sq mi or 91.5%, is in Arizona. A band of Pima, the Keli Akimel O'odham, have lived on the banks of the Gila River since before the arrival of Spanish explorers. Popular theory says that the word "Gila" was derived from a Spanish contraction of Hah-quah-sa-eel, a Yuma word meaning "running water, salty".
Their traditional way of life was and is centered at the river, considered holy. Traditionally, sand from the banks of the river is used as an exfoliant. Indigenous peoples such as the Hohokam were responsible for creating large, complex civilizations along the Middle Gila River and Salt River between 600 and 1450 AD; these native civilizations depended on irrigated agriculture, for which they constructed over 200 miles of canals. The upper Gila was inhabited by the Mogollon culture over most of the same time period, in settlements like those at Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument in the period; the first European to see the Gila River was Spanish explorer and missionary Juan de la Asunción. Asunción reached the Gila in 1538 after traveling northwards along one of its tributaries, either the San Pedro or Santa Cruz. In 1540, Hernando de Alarcón sailed up the Gila Rivers. During the Mexican–American War, General Stephen Watts Kearny marched 100 cavalrymen from the 1st U. S. Dragoons along the Gila River in November 1846.
This detachment was guided by Kit Carson. The Mormon Battalion followed Kearny's troops, building a wagon trail following the river from December 1846 to January 1847. After the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo in 1848, the Gila River served as a part of the border between the United States and Mexico until the 1853 Gadsden Purchase soon extended American territory well south of the Gila; the confluence of the Gila with the Colorado River was used as a reference point for the southern border of California. Beginning in 1871 Mormon settlers populated the Gila River valley around present-day Phoenix, using the Gila and San Pedro Rivers for irrigation and establishing at least six major settlements. In 1944, 25 German prisoners of war pulled off the largest and most spectacular escape from an American compound during the war, digging a 178-foot tunnel out of the Navy’s Papago Park Prisoner of
The Generalitat de Catalunya, or Government of Catalonia, is the institutional system by which Catalonia politically organizes its self-government. It is formed by the Parliament of Catalonia, the Presidency of the Generalitat de Catalunya, the Executive Council of Catalonia Its origins are in the 13th century when permanent councils were created to rule administration of the Courts of the different territories and Kingdoms that formed the Crown of Aragon which gave birth to the General Council of the Principality of Catalonia, the General Council of the Kingdom of Aragon and the General Council of the Kingdom of Valencia, its headquarters are in the city of Barcelona. The Generalitat of Catalonia finds its origins in the Catalan Courts, as during the reign of James I the Conqueror they reunited and were convoked by the king, as representatives of the social statements of the time. Under the reign of Peter the Great, the Catalan Courts gained institutional status, after the king obliged himself to celebrate an annual "General Court".
The Catalan Courts exercised as Council and had legislative functions through its three branches: the ecclesiastical, the military and the popular. This union of powers was named "Lo General de Cathalunya" Is in 1289 when the first step into becoming an institution happens during the Courts celebrated in the castle of Montsó. A commission was designed as "Diputació del General", as to temporarily collect the "services" or tributes that the "branches" granted the king on his demand; this tax was popularly known as "Drets Generals" or "generalitats", finding its counterpart in the French "Généralités", which were founded as taxing districts. Catalonia's political past as a territorially differentiated community with its own representative and separated institutions, with respect to the sovereign power of the combined Catalan counties, the Crown of Aragon, the Monarchy of Spain and of the Spanish constitutional state, can be divided into four stages, separated by three great ruptures in the legal/public order.
The Pau i Treva de Déu was a social movement born in the eleventh century promoted by the Church, united with the peasantry as the response to the violence perpetrated by feudal nobles. The hometowns delimited a space protected of feudal violence. However, to ensure a coexistence climate, it was necessary to go further, establishing an authority that prohibited the practice of any type of violent act anywhere in the territory; this was the objective of the assemblies of Peace and Truce of God, the first of which, in the Catalan counties, took place in Toluges, in 1027, under the presidency of Abbot Oliba, on behalf of Bishop Berenguer d'Elna, absent from the diocese because he was on a pilgrimage. The origin of the Catalan Courts can be considered from the Peace of Truce of God; the Generalitat of Catalonia stems from the medieval institution which ruled, in the name of the King of the Crown of Aragon, some aspects of the administration of the Principality of Catalonia. The Catalan Courts were the main institution of the Principality during its existence as a political entity and approved the Catalan constitutions.
The first constitutions were that of the Courts of 1283. The medieval precedent of the Generalitat, the Diputació del General de Catalunya was a permanent council of deputies established by the Courts in order to recapt the new "tax of the General" in 1359, gained an important political power during the next centuries, assuming tasks of prosecutor, it was chosen by the legislators in 1931 because they felt it was appropriate for invoking as a legitimising base for contemporary self-government. Catalan institutions which depended on the Generalitat were abolished in what is known in Catalonia as Northern Catalonia, one year after the signature of the Treaty of the Pyrenees in the 17th century, which transferred the territory from Spanish to French sovereignty. By the early 18th century, as the "Nueva Planta Decrees" were passed in Spain after the Catalan defeat in the War of the Spanish Succession, the institution was abolished in the Spanish territory as well; the Generalitat was restored in the Catalonia under Spanish administration in 1931 during the events of the proclamation of the Second Spanish Republic when Francesc Macià, leader of the Republican Left of Catalonia, declared the Catalan Republic on 14 April but reached an agreement with the Spanish ministers, in which the Catalan Republic was renamed Generalitat of Catalonia and given its modern political and representative function as the autonomous government of Catalonia within the Spanish Republic.
The restored Generalitat was ruled by a statute of autonomy approved by the Spanish Cortes and included a parliament, a presidency, a government and a court of appeal. It was presided by Lluís Companys. After the right wing coalition won the Spanish elections in 1934, the leftist leaders of the Generalitat of Catalonia rebelled in October of that year against the Spanish authorities, it was temporarily
Mohammad Mostafaei is an Iranian human rights lawyer specializing in death penalty cases those with juvenile defendants and other human rights cases. In 2010, he moved to Norway, having left Iran due to alleged persecution by authorities for his defense of Sakineh Mohammadi Ashtiani. Mostafaei remembered his childhood as difficult due to his family's poverty and his father's extreme mood swings. At the age of 14, he attended a public hanging of "a young man" and was profoundly disturbed by the sight, an incident he credited with his decision to study law. Mostafaei is married to Fereshteh Halimi, they have two daughters. Mostafaei states that he appealed forty death sentences of juvenile defendants during his work in Iran, of which eighteen were overturned. Four of his clients were executed in 2008 and 2009. Mostafaei became known for his work on human rights cases specially on death penalty and stoning cases in Iran and defense of Sakineh Mohammadi Ashtiani, a woman condemned to death by stoning for adultery.
He wrote a series of blog posts on her case, attracting international protest. The stoning sentence was commuted in July 2010 in the face of world pressure. During the case, Mostafaei's wife, father-in-law, brother-in-law were imprisoned in what Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty described as "an apparent attempt to pressure him to back down." Mostafaei illegally crossed the border into Turkey and sought asylum in Norway. The Norwegian government granted the asylum, Foreign Minister Jonas Gahr Store calling Mostafaei "a courageous man who raises cases -- difficult cases -- which the authorities don't like". A Mostafaei stated that though the case had forced him to leave Iran, he felt he had made the right choice: "I had a nice house, a good job, nice office, a good car. Iran was my home but it was not important." He continued to work on human rights issues in Norway, describing himself as "maybe 10 times more " than he had been in Iran. In 2011, Norwegian PEN awarded Mostafaei its Ossietsky prize, an "annual prize for outstanding achievements in the field of free expression".
In 2012 Mohammad Mostafaei, established Universal Tolerance Organization in Norway. Media related to Mohammad Mostafaei at Wikimedia Commons One Iranian lawyer's fight to save juveniles from execution—an animated film by The Guardian Crimes against Children in Iran